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Family of Darius before Alexander. A picture by Paul Veronese (15:i0-1588),and his grandest work. Formerly in the Pisani Palace, Venice, "but purchased by the British Government in 1857, and now in the National Gallery, London.
Famine. See Seven Yeahs Of Famine.
Faneuil Hall. A public edifice in Boston, Mass., famous as the place where the stirring speeches of the Bevolutionary orators were made, which incited the people to resist British oppression and secure their independence. The building was erected in 1742 by Peter Faneuil, a Huguenot merchant. It was destroyed by tire in 1761, but rebuilt three years later. During the siege of Boston in 1775-76, it was converted into a theatre. It has a capacious hall, containing portraits of eminent Americans.
They like to go to the theatre and bo made to weep; to Faneuil Hall, and be taught bv Oils, Webster, or Kossuth, or I'hillips.'what great hearts they have, wliat tears, what possible enlargements to their narrow horizons. Emerson.
Athens and the Acropolis. Rome and the Capitol, are not more associated ideas than are boston and Faneuil Hall.
a. S. Hillard.
The resistance tn the Stamp Act was of the same kind as the resistance to the shipmonev; and in our Revolutionary war there'were aa eloquent defences of our principles and course heard In the British Parliament as echoed In Fanueil Hall,
Mrs. 11. B. Stowe.
Let the sounds of traffic die:
Shut the mill-gate. — leave the stall,— Fling the axe and hammer by,—
Throng to Faneuil Hall. Whttlier.
Forgets she how the Bay State, In an»wer
to the call Of her old House of Burgesses, Bpoke out
from Faneuil Hall t Whitlur.
Farmyard, The. A celebrated picture bv Paul Potter (16'J5-1654), the Dutch painter. It was formerly in the gallery at Cassel, Germany, but is now in that of St. Petersburg, Bussia.
Farnese Bull. [Ital! Toro Farnese ] A celebrated work of ancient sculpture, representing the punishment of Dirce. Now in the
MuseoBorbonicoat Naples, Italy. It is deserilwd by Pliny as one of the most remarkable monuments of antiquity. It was found in the Baths of Caracal la at Borne, in the sixteenth century, and was placed by Michael Angelo in the inner court of the Farnese Palace, whence its name. In 1786 it was removed to Naples. It is supposed to be the work of the brothers Apollonius and Tattriscus, who probably lived in the first century after Christ.
tUT "The celebrated group of the Farnese Bull is a noble work, in which the intellectual conception of the artist is not at all overlaid by the weight und bulk of the material." Hillard.
Farnese Cup. See Tazza Far
Farnese Flora. See Flora.
Farnese Hercules. A celebrated ancient statue representing Hercules resting upon his club. At the foot of the club is inscribed the name of the Greek sculptor. Glycon. This statue was found atltome in the Baths of Caracalla, in 1540, and subsequently removed to Naples, Italy, where it is nowdenosited in the Museum. The right hand is modern. By some this statue is supposed to be a copy of the Hercules of Lysippus. See Hf.rcules.
IXff* *' The indication of nerves and muscles, or their absolute suppression, Is what distinguishes a Hercules who is destined to light monsters and brigands, and still be far from the end of his labors, from the Hercules who is purified of the grosser corporeal parts, and admitted to the felicity of the immortal gods. It is thus that we recognize the man In the Farnese Hercules, and the
fod in the Hercules of the Belvedere, t may even be said that this last approaches nearer to the sublime period hi art. than the Apollo itself."
The tenor is a spasmodic buffoon, a sort of ugly Farnese Hercules, wearing one of those cilil ihhi-claspli.g casques which la only met with amongst classic rubbish.
Farnese Mercury. An ancient statue, now in the British Museum, Loudon. Purchased in 1865.
Farnese Palace. [Ital. Palazzo Farnese.] A magnificent Roman palace of immense size, begun by Paul III., one of the Farnese family. Michael Angelo was one of its architects. The materials were taken from the Coliseum and other ruins of ancient Rome. The great hall or gallery is painted in fresco by Caracci and his scholars. The palace fell by descent to the Bourbon kings of Naples, and within the last few years the exiled court have made it their place of residence. The Farnese gallery of sculpture was formerly celebrated; but the best pieces have been removed, and are now at Naples, Italy.
&g- "The Palazzo Farnese, one of the finest palaces In Home, is a shameless receiver of stolen goods. . . . The great hnll, or gnllery, Is painted in fresco by Annibate and Agostino Caracci, and their scholars. . . . About half of Lempriere's Classical Dictionary is painted on the walls and celling of the hall."
!&• "Of all these fossils, the grandest, noblest, most imposing and rigidly magnificent, Is, in my opinion, the Farnese Palace. Alone, in the middle of a dark square, rises the enormous palace, lofty and massive, tike a fortress capable of giving and receiving the heaviest ordnance. It belongs to the grand era. It is indeed akin to the torsos of Michael Angelo. You feel in it the inspiration of the great pagan epoch."
Farnesina. A beautiful villa in Rome, built in 1506 for Agostino Chigi, a great banker and patron of art. It contains some of the most beautiful frescos of Raphael. Chigi was famed for his display of princely magnificence and luxury. He gave here — the building is said to have been built expressly for the purpose — most extravagant entertainments. On the occasion of a sumptuous banquet to Leo X. and the cardinals, three fish served upon the table are said to have cost 250 crowns, and the gold and silver plate to have been thrown into the Tiber as soon as used.
9&-" The Palazzo Farnesina, the splendid monumeut of the taste and
magnificence of Agostino Chigi, it a pilgrim-shrine in art, because it contains the finest expression of Kaph&d's ?genius, when manifesting Itself in pure. y secular forms.* HUlard.
4s»y ** Peruzzi's most beautiful building is the Farnesina. Vasuri says justly that it seems not formed by masonry, but born out of tbe ground, so complete does It stand therein iu charming solitariness. At the present day It is forsaken, its open hails are walled up, tbe paintings on the outer wails arc faded or fallen away with the monar. But by degrees, as we become absorbed In the paintings, the feeling of transitorincsB vanishes." Grimm, Tram.
Note. — The Farnesina has been recently restored to an elegant and habitable condition. See Galatea.
Farringdon Market. A market in London, erected in place of Fleet Market, opened iu 1829. See Fleet Market.
Fast Castle. This ancient fortress in Scotland is the original of "Wolf's Crag," in Scott's novel of the " Bride of Lammermoor."
Fasti Consulares. Famous tablets containing a list of all the consuls and public officers of Rome to the time of Augustus. They are still legible, though much mutilated. In the Hall of the Conservators, Rome.
Fata Morgana. A singular atmospheric phenomenon, quite similar to the mirage, which, under certain conditions of the elements, is observed in the Straits of Messina, between the coasts of Calabria and Sicily, and which is sometimes, though rarely, seen upon other coasts. It consists of multiplied images in the air of the hills, groves, buildings, people, and other objects on the surrounding coasts. These images are inverted, and the whole forms a sort of moving spectacle. It is popularly thought to bo the work of the fairy of the same name.
**" " On Calabria's side lay Reggio, which a few weeks previously had suffered terribly from an earthquake. Now every thing lay in a warm, smiling sunlight; yet the smile of tbe coast here has In It something like witchcraft. My thoughts were on the mil* lions whose hearts have beat with the fear of death and longing for life under these coasts, the millions who have sailed here, from the time Ulysses sailed past the cavern of Polyphemus, until now that our arrowy steamer glided over the watery mirror, where Fata Morgana shows her airy palace; but no colonnades of rays, no fantastic cupola and Gothic towers, arose on the blue waters. Yet the coast itself was a Fata Morgana for the eye and thought." Hans Christian Andersen.
But what must he thought of the female dramatist, who, for eighteen long months, can exhibit the beautifullost Fatamorgana to a flush cardinal, wide awake, witu fifty years on his head; and so lap him in her scenic illusion that he never doubts but it is all firm earth, and the
fiasteboanl coulisse-trees are producing lesperldes apples? Carlyle.
Fates. See Three Fates.
Faubourg St. Antoine. A quarter of Paris inhabited by the workingclasses, and famous in the Revolution ot 1789 as the source and headquarters of the insurrectionary elements in the city. It has been since the time of the Fronde the seat of disturbances. From 1830 to 1851 many riots and bloody fights gave a disagreeable character to this quarter, but since 1854 a change has taken place in this respect. Here and in the vicinity are some of the chief manufactories of the city.
Faubourg St. Germain. A fashionable quarter of Paris in which the ancient nobility resided. Many of the houses of the old noblesse arc still standing.
flEaf'St. Germain Is full of these
?rincely, aristocratic mansions, mournully beautiful, desolately grand."
Kvcrvbody knows something of a handsome and verv elegant young baron of Hie Faubourg St. Germain, who, with small fortune, very great taste, and Rreater credit contrived to get on very swimminglv as an adorable roue and vaurien till he was hard upon twenty-flve.
N. P. Willis.
The microscopic Faubourg St. Oermain of the little place thought of raising the quarantine f-ir Monsieur Madeleine, tho probable relative of a bishop.
Victor Hugo, Trans.
The strong men usually give some allowance, even to the petulances of fashion, for that affinity they find In It. Napoleon, child of the revolution, destroyer of the
eld noblesse, never ceased to court the Faubourg St. Oermain, doubtless with the Moling that fashion la a homago to men ot his stamp Emerson.
Faun, The [of Praxiteles]. A celebrated ancient statue. Now in the Capitol, Rome.
&i}- "It is the marble Image of a yoiing man, leaning his right arm upon the trunk or stump of a tree. . . . It is impossible to gaze long at this stone image without conceiving a kindly Bentiment towards It, as if its substance were warm to the touch, and imbued with actual life." Hawthorne.
The shepherd asleep on a sheltered bank under the rocks. Is already a Faun of Praxiteles, and might be a Theseus or a l'crseus. Bayard Taylor.
Faun. See Barberini Faun, DanCing Faun, Drunken Faun, RonDinini Faun, Sleeping Faun, etc.
Favorite, The. An armor-plated ship of the British navy, launched July 5, 1801.
Fawkes's Cellar. See Guy
Feast of Roses. A picture by Albert Diirer (1471-1528). In the monastery Strahoff at Prague, Austria.
Feast of the Gods. A large fresco in the Farnesina, Rome, representing the gods as deciding the dispute between Venus and Cupid, designed by Raphael (14831520), but chiefly executed by his pupil Giulio Romano.
Feast of the Gods. A noted picture begun by Giovanni Bellini (1420-1510), but completed by Titian (1477-1570), now in the collection of the Duko of Northumberland at Alnwick Castle, England. There is a copy, thought to be by Poussin, in the Scotch Academy.
Feast of the King of the Beans. A picture by Gabriel Metsu (b. 1030), a Dutch f/enre-painter. In the Gallery of Munich, Bavaria.
Feast of the Levite. A picture of great size bv Paul Veronese (1530-1588). It "was formerly in the refectory of SS. Giovanni e Paolo, now in the Accademia delle Belle Arti, Venice, Italy.
Fecundidad, La. [Offering to the Goddess of Fecundity.] An admired picture by Titian (14771570). In the gallery at Madrid, Spain.
Federal Hill. An eminence south of the centre of the city of Baltimore, Md. It was a place of much interest during the civil war, having been seized and occupied by Gen. Butler, and heavily fortified to protect the city, and to overawe internal sedition.
Feldmasser, Die. [The Land Surveyors.] See Geometricians, The.
Felix, The. An Arctic exploring ship which sailed to the northern seas under Sir John Ross in 1850.
Fellows Marbles. A collection of sculptures in the British Museum, London, brought from the ancient city of Xanthus.
Felsenmeer. [Sea of Rocks.] 1. A remarkable accumulation of syenltic rocks in the Odenwald, not far from Darmstadt, Germany.
2. A natural curiosity in the form of an immense mass of detached rocks, near Heinar, in Westphalia.
Fenehureh Street. A street in London, which derives its name from a fen, or bog, caused by the overflow of a small stream which ran into the Thames.
Fernay. This chateau, four and one-half miles north of Geneva, was built by Voltaire, and became his residence. He also erected a church, and founded the little village about it, by promoting manufactures.
Tills and several subsequent appeals of tno tame sort ore unions the host points in the conduct of the Philosopher of Fer""V- Spalding.
Fernihurst. A Scottish fortress of the fifteenth centurv, near Jedburgh.
Ferrara Castle. A noted mediaeval fortress in Ferrara, Italy, once
the residence of the dukes of Ferrara. It is considered one of the finest relics of feudal times.
Ferriter's Castle. An ancient ruined stronghold, situated in a wild spot, almost on the verge of the Atlantic, in the county of Kerry, Ireland.
Ferroniere, La Bolle. See Belle Febboniere.
Festival of "Venus In the Isle of Cytherea. A picture by Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1G40). "Now in the Imperial Gallery at Vienna, Austria.
Feuillant Club. A political association in Paris established during the Revolution. It was originally called the Club of 1789. It derived its name from the convent of the Feuillants in which its meetings were held.
Feuillants [Eglise deal. A fine church in Bordeaux, France. It contains the tomb of Montaigne.
Field Lane. A street in London which has now mostly disappeared. It was inhabited by a wretched, criminal class.
*S- " In it« filthy shops are exposed for sale huge bunches of second-hand Bilk handkerchiefs of all sizes and pat terns; for here reside the traders who purchase them from the pickpockets. Hundreds of these handkerchiefs hang dangling from pegs outside the windows, or flaunting from the door-posts; and the shelves within are piled with them. Confined as the limits of Field Lane arc, it has it* barber, its coffee. «hop, its beer-shop, and its fried-flsh warehouse. It is a commercial colony of itself, the emporium of petty lar. ecny." IHckent.
Field of Blood. A tract in Italy, now occupied by the village of Canne, and still called "Campo di Sangue," Field of Blood. It is the site of the ancient battlefield of Canu.-e, where Hannibal gained a great victory over the Romans, B.C. 21G.
Field of Blood. See Aceldama.
Field of Flodden. See Flodden Field.
Field of Forty Footsteps. A region in Bloornsbury, London, formerly noted as a resort for low characters, and famous as the scene of a legendary conflict between two brothers, whose footsteps remained impressed in the soil, and over which no grass would grow. Upon this legend Jane and Anna Maria Porter based one of their popular romances.
stw " The steps are of the size of a large human foot, about three inches deep. We counted only scventy-six, but were not exact in counting. The place where one or both of the brothers is supposed to have fallen Is still bare of grass." Soulhey.
June 16. 1800. Went Into the fields at the back of Montague House, and there saw. for the first time, the forty footsteps; lhe budding materials are there ready to covrr them from the sight of man. I counted more than forty, out they might be the footprints of lhe workmen.
Joseph Aloser, Commonplace Boot.
Field of March. See Champ Db
Mass. Field of Mars. See Campcs Mar
Field of Peterloo. The popular name of St. Peter's Field, near Manchester, England, where, Aug. 16, 1819, a riot occurred. The name was derisively imitated from Waterloo.
Hridites of Lodl. retreats of Moscow, Waterloos, Peterloo*. ten-pound franchises, tar-barrels, and guillotines.
Field of Bikos. [Hung. Rdkot Mezo.] A celebrated plain in the immediate neighborhood of Pesth, Hungary, in which the Diet, or great national assembly, of the Hungarians, was formerly held in the open air.
Field of the Cloth of Gold. A telebrafed plain near the town of Ardres in Northern France. It is known by this name in consequence of the meeting on this spot in 1520 between Henry VIII. <if England and Francis I. of France with their retinues, and the cloth of gold with which the tents of the two sovereigns were covered.
I supposed you must have served as a
Seoman of the guard since Bluff King icnry'stlme, and expected to hear something from you about the Field of the Cloth of Gold. Scott.
They [Petrarch's finer poems'] differ from them [ his interior ones] as a Mav-day
firocession of chimney-sweepers diners rom the Field of the Cloth of Gold.
Fifth Avenue. A famous street in the city of New York, beginning at Washington Square and extending to Central Park. It is lined with costly edifices, the homes of wealthy citizens, and is the most splendid street of residences in America, and one of the finest in the world.
JO- " Fifth Avenue is the Belgravo Square, the Park Lane, and the Pall Mall of New York. It is certainly a very fine street. The houses in it are magnificent, not having that aristocratic look which some of our detached London residences en,(oy, but an air of comfortable luxury and commercial wealth which is not excelled by the best houses of any other town that I know."
Fifth-Avenue Theatre. In New York. A small but elegant place of amusement.
Fighting Gladiator. A wellknown Greek statue in the Louvre, Paris.
jay- "There is a left arm again, though; no, — that 1b from the 'Fighting Gladiator,* — the 'Jeune llcros combatant* of the Louvre; there is the broad ring of the shield. . . . [The separate casts of the 'Gladiator's' arm look immense; but in its place lhe limb looks light, almost slender,—such ia the perfection of that miraculous marble. I never felt as if I touched the life of the old Greeks until I looked on that statue]." Holmes.
Welcome, O Fighting Gladiator, and Recumbent Cleopatra, and I>ying Warrior, whose classic outlines (reproduced In the calcined mineral of Lutetla) crown my , louded shelves! Holmes.
Fighting Temeraire. A picture by Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775-1851), the English landscape painter, and regarded one of his best works. In the National Gallery, London.
Fijah. A noted fountain in the vicinity of Damascus, one of the largest and most remarkable in Syria.