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Fotheringay Castle. An ancient castle in Northamptonshire, England, belonging to the house of York, and made memorable by the confinement of Mary, Queen of Scots, who ended her life here in 1587.

Fouarre, Hue du. See Straw Stbeet.

Fount of Salvation. A celebrated picture in the Museum of Madrid, representing the Almighty with the Immaculate Lamb at his feet, "whom be made an offering for the sins of the world. Below, this offering is seen in the form of a stream of water, in which the sacramental waferB are floating, flowing into a little flowergarden, where six angels are celebrating the glory of God on different instruments." The meaning of the stream of water is indicated by an inscription in Latin which refers to the .passage in the Song of Solomon (iv. 15), — "A fountain of gardens, a well of living waters." There are many other symbolic representations connected with the picture, which has been attributed to one of the two brothers van Eyck, the distinguished Flemish painters. Dr. Waagen holds that it is the production of the elder, Hubert van Eyck (13G6-1426); but, it is asserted, the weight of critical judgment is against this opinion. It is also called "The Triumph of the Church."

Fountain Court. A well-known court in the Middle Temple, one of the four Inns of Court in London.

Coming through the Fountain Court, he [Turn Pinch] was Just to glance duwn the steps leading Into Garden Court, and to look once all round him. and If Kuth had come to meet him; there he would see her, not sauntering, you understand (on account of the clerks), hut coming briskly up with the best little laugh on her face Unit ever played In opposition to the fountain, and beat it all to nothing.


It looks nut upon a garden about the size of Fountain Court. Thackeray.

Fountain of Arethusa. Anciently a famous fountain in Syracuse, Sicily. Cicero speaks of it as "a

fountain of fresh water, which bears the name of Arethusa, of incredible magnitude, and full ol fish: this would lie wholly overflowed and covered by the waves, were it not separated from the sea by a strongly-built barrier of stone." Homer's fountain of Arethusa is traditionally identified with a never-failing reservoir on the south-east part of the island of Ithaca.

Far, far and wide along the Italtan shores.

That holy Joy extends: Sardinian mothers pay their vows fulfilled: And hymns are heard beside thv banks, O Fountain Arethuse! 'Soutkejf.

Fountain of Castalia. A fountain in Greece, falling from Parnassus down the slope where Delphi stood into the river Pleistus. A small chapel has been erected over the spring. According to Murray's Handbook, during the earthquake of 1870 a fragment of rock falling from the cliff above completely crushed the basin, and covered with rubbish and buried from sight even the water.

*S- "It still flows on, while the Temple of Apollo, and the Council Rail of the Amphlctyons, tho Treasurehouse of Crcesus, and the three tbouaand atatues which crowded the build, ings anil streets of Delphi, even In the time of Pliny, have all vanished as though they bad never been."

C. WordneortK.

Fountain of Egeria. A name given to a vaulted chamber of brickwork in the valley of the Almo, about a mile from Rome. It derives its fame from the lielief that it is the site of the grove and sacred fountain where Numa held his nightly meetings with the nymph Egeria. Modern discoveries have, however, determined that the nymphsBum which has so long been regarded as the Grotto of Egeria is not the place which Numa visited, and has

f>laced the true fountain and valey within the present walls of the city, near where the Via Appia crosses the Almo (Maranna), not far from the aucieut Porta Capena.

joy "About a mile from the Porta Ban Sebastiano is a pretty pastoral valley, or gorge, as quiet and secluded as if in the heart of the Apennines. On one side is a wooded hill, crowned with ili. ruins of a temple of Bacchus; and on the other, at some distance, a gentle elevation on which there Is a graceful structure which some call a temple, and some a tomb. This is the valley of Egeria,— the spot where Numa met his shadowy counsellor. We must draw near tb it in the spirit of faith, and let no clouds of doubt darken its tranquil beauty. . . . The fountain, so called, is a vaulted grotto scooped out of the bill-side, lined and floored with brick, with three niches on either side, and a larger one at the extremity containing a mutilated statue. At this extremity the water flows through a slender orifice, and Is received into a ■mall shell-like basin, from which, falling upon the floor, it glides down Into the valley, and, swelled by tributes from the moist soil, forms a rivulet, takes the name of the AJmo, and finally mingles with the Tiber. . . . The legefld of Numa is one of the most genuine flowers of poetry that ever started from the hard rock of the .Roman mind." Ilillard.

The mosses of thy fountain still are sprin-
With thine Elyslan water-drops; the
Of thy cave-guarded spring, with years
un wrinkled.
Reflects the meek-eyed genius of the
place. Byron.

Here didst thou dwell, in this enchanted
Egeria! thy all-heavenly bosom beating
For the far footsteps of thy mortal lover.

A goddess, who there deigned to meet
A mortal from Rome's regal seat.
And. o'er the gushing of her fount.
Mysterious truths divine to earthly ear re-
count. William Sotbeby.

The wonders of the outer world, the Tagus with the mighty fleets of England riding on its bosom,. . . the sweet Lake of Leman. the deli of Egeria, with its summer-birds and rustling lizards, the shapele** ruins of Rome, ... all were mere accessories, the background to one dark and melancholy figure, Macauiay.

Fountain of Life. A remarkable picture by Hans Holbein the Younger (1494-1543). In the palace of the King of Portugal at Lisbon.

Fountain of the Virgin. A picturesque fountain at Jerusalem, issuing from a cave some 30 feet

in depth, and associated with many legends of the Virgin. It is an intermittent spring, and by some it has been identified with the pool of Bethesda.

Fountain of Trevi. See Foxtaxa m Trevi.

Fountain of Vaucluse. A celebrated fountain in the department of the same name in Southern France.

W "The glen seems as If struck into the mountain's depths by one blow of the euchanter's wand; und just at the end, where the rod might have rested in Its downward sweep, is the fathomless well whose overbrimming fulness gives birth to the Sorgues. It was the most absolute solitude. The rocks towered above to the height of 600 feet, and the gray walls of the wild glen below shut out nil appearance of life. ... I never vlsted a place to which the fancy clung more suddenly nnd fondly." Bayard Toy (or.

It would be the labor of a week to find In all the vast muss of Mr. Southey's poetry, a single passage indicating any sympathy with those feelings which have consecrated the shades of Vaucttue.


Fountain Tavern. A former house of entertainment in the Straud, London.

Fountains Abbey. The venerable remains of this abbey, said to be the most perfect monastery in England, are situated about three miles from Rinon. It was founded in 1204, and became one of the wealthiest monastic institutions in the kingdom. It originally covered ten acres, of which the ruins now occupy about two.

S3* "Travellers who can visit but one monastic relic in England should perhaps select this; for no other surpasses its combination of completeness, size, beauty of position, and architectural Interest. In all Britain there is probably now no religious or benevolent Institution, except the national hos. filtal at Greenwich, that could compare n extent and grandeur with this abbey as it wus during the days of Its glory.' J. F. IlunneweU.

Abbev! forever smiling pensively.
How like a thing of Nature doxt thou rise,
Amid her loveliest works! as if the skies.
Clouded witli grief, were arched thy roof

to be.
And the tall trees were copied nil from

thee. £beuu€r EUwtt.

Fountains of Moses. [Arab. Ayoon Moosa, or, more commonly, Ain Moosa.] These "Wells" in Egypt are a collection of springs, forming an oasis. Tbey are reached from the town of Suez. There is a tradition that here Moses and Miriam and the children of Israel sang their song of triumph.

And, like the Coptic monks by Mouia's
We dream of wonders past,
Vague as the tales the wandering Arab
Each drowsier than the last Whittier.

Four Elements. Celebrated pictures by Francesco Albani (1578. 1GG0). In the Borghese palace at Home, and also at Turin, Italy.

Four Evangelists. A celebrated picture by Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640). In the Grosvenor Gallery, London.

0S- "As a striking instance of this mistaken style of treatment [too rigid adherence to nature], we may turn to the famous group of the Four Evangelists by Rubens, grand, colossal, standing, or rather moving figures, each with his emblem, if emblems they can be called, which are almost aa full of reality as nature itself."

Mrs. Jameson.

Four-in-Hand Club. The most prosperous days of this London club were in the time of George the Fourth (1820-18:!0). The noted Lord Onslow was a member,— ridiculed in the following epigram:—

What can Tommv Onslow do?
Ho can drive a coach and two.
Can Tommy Onslow do no more?
He can drive a coach and four.

«- " The vehicles of the Club which were formerly used are described as of a hybrid class, quite as elegant aa pri. vate carriages, and lighter than even the malls. They were"horsed with the finest animals that money could secure. . . . The master generally drove the team, often a nobleman of high rank, who commonly copied the dress of a mail coachman. The company usually rode outside; but two footmen in rich liveries were Indispensable on the back seat, nor was It at all uncommon to see aome splendidly attired female on the box. A rule of the Club was, that all member* should turn out three times a

week; and the start was made at mid. day, from the neighborhood of Picodllly, through which they passed to the Windsor-road, —the attendants of each carriage playing on their silver bugles. From 12 to 20 of these handaome vehicles often left London to. gether." Timhi.

Four Marys. An admired and celebrated picture by Annibale Caracci (1500-1G09). At Castle Howard, England.

«T "On comparing this with Raphael's conception, we find more of common nature, quite as much pathon, but in the forms less of that pure poetic grace which softens at once and heightens the tragic effect."

Mrs. Jameson.

Four Philosophers. A celebrated portrait-picture by Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), in the Pitti Palace, Florence, Italy.

Four Quarters of the 'World. A picture by Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), in the gallery of Vienna, and considered one of his most admirable works.

Four Seasons. 1. A well-known picture by Francesco Alhani (1578MX)). In the Palazzo Borghese, Rome.

*3* "The Seasons, by Francesco Albani, were beyond all others my favorite pieces."

Hans Christian Andersen.

2. A picture by Antoine Francois Callet (1741-1823). In the Louvre, Paris.

Four Sibyls. A series of wellknown pictures by Raphael Sanzio (1483-1520), representing the Sibyls, with angels holding tablets. They were painted for the Chigi Chapel in the church of S. Maria della Pace, Rome.

*y- "These are among the most perfect specimens of Raphael's maturcr pencil, combining equal grandeur and grace. An Interesting comparison may be Instituted between this work and the Sibyls of Michael Angelo. In each we find the peculiar excellence of the two great masters; for while Michael Angelo's figures are sublime, profound, and entirely new, the fresco of the Pace bears the impress of Raphael's more serene and sympathetic graee-" Sanitate,

43^ "Solemn, tranquil, elevated like antique goddesses above human action, they are truly superhuman creations: theirs Is not a diffused or transitory being, but one ever existing immutably in an eternal present.'*

Taine, Trans.

Four Temperaments. The name sometimes given to pictures of the four apostles, John and Peter, Paul and Mark, by Albert Diirer (1471-1528). In the Pinakothek, at Munich, Bavaria.

Fourth Street. 1. The fashionable promenade of Cincinnati, 0. 2. The fashionable promenade of St. Louis, Mo.

Fox, The. An Arctic exploring ship which sailed for the Northern seas, under the command of Capt. M'Clintock, in the expedition fitted out by Lady Franklin in 1857 to discover traces of her husband, Sir John Franklin, the lost navigator.

Francesca da Rimini. A celebrated picture from Dante by Ary Scheffer (1795-1858), widely known through reproductions.

Francesco, San. See San FranCesco.

Franchimont. A ruined castle near Liege in Belgium, associated with legendary traditions.

The towers of Franchimont,
Which, like an eagle's nest in air,
Uang o'er the stream and hamlet fair.


Francis, St. See St. Francis.

Francois I., Maison de. See MaiSon Dk Francois I.

Franconia Notch. A picturesque and beautiful valley, or pass, in the Franconia Mountains (White Mountain range), New Hampshire. Near the head of this Notch is the famous Profile, or Old Man of the Mountain. See Notch, The, and also Profile, The.

45- " The narrow district thus enclosed contains more objects of interest to the mass of travellers than any other region of equal extent within the compass of the usual White-Mountain tour. In the way of rock-sculpture and waterfalls it is a huge mass of curiosities." Starr King.

Frankenberg. A ruined ivy-covered castle near Aix-la-Chapelle, Rhenish Prussia, in which, according to tradition, Fastrada, the wife of Charlemagne, died and was buried.

Franklin, The. A noted Boston

Srivateer during the war of the Evolution. In May, 1776, she was grounded on Point Shirley, and attacked by 13 British manof-war boats, but finally escaped.

Franzenburg. A modern castle, built in imitation of a mediaeval fortress, containing a museum of antiquities, situated in the park of the Palace of Laxenburg, near Vienna, Austria.

Frari, Santa Maria Glorlosa dei. A noted church of the thirteenth century in Venice, Italy.

43"" The internal effect of the church is much finer than its west front would lead one to expect. . . . The nave and aisles measure about 230 feet by 104, and the transept 160 feet by 48,. — magnificent dimensions, undoubtedly. The columns are simple, cylindrical, and very lofty." Street.

43" " It always causes a sensation to walk from the blazing sun and laboring life into these solemn enclosures. Here are tbe tombs of the doges resting from their rule. They seem pondering still as they lie carved in stately marble death, contemplating tbe past with their calm brows and their hooked noses. The great church is piled arch upon arch, tomb upon tomb; some of these monuments hang in tbe nave high over the beads of the people as they kneel, above the city and its cries and its circling life, and tbe steps of tbe easy-going Venetians." Mies Thackeray.

Frascati. A house in Paris at the corner of the Rue de Rivoli. The boulevard was called by this name until gaming was forbidden in 1837. It was the most aristocratic gambling-house of the time in Paris. Women were admitted to it.

49*" About half-past ten I went with a couple of friends to the great gambling-house which passes under the name of Frascati. It was the first time in my life I was ever In a large establishment of this sort, or, indeed, at any, except Buch as are Been at waterliur-places: and I shall probably never Bee another; for it in one of the good deeds of Louis Philippe's government, that, after having abolished lotteries, it has now ordered all public garaiughouses to be closed from Jan. 1,1838, — that is, in two days. TbiB evening we found the rooms full, but not crowded." George Ticknor. JKB- "As we drove from the court, my companion, pulling the cordon, ordered to Frascati'e. Tola, you know, of course, is the fashionable place of ruin; and here the heroes of all novels, und the rakes of all comedies, mar or make their fortunes. An evening dress and the look of a gentleman are the only required passport. Four large rooms, plainly but handsomely furnished, opened into each other, three of which were devoted to play and crowded with players." N. P. Willis.

Fraucnkirche, Die. [The Church of Our Lady.] A noted church in Dresden, Saxony. Its stone dome withstood the, heaviest bombs during the war with Frederick the Great.

Frederick, Fort. See Fokt FredErick.

Frederick the Great. An equestrian statue in bronze, modelled by Christian Ranch (1777-1857), and upon which he was employed 10 years. It was erected in the Unter den Linden, Berlin, in 1851. The statue is 17 feet in height upon a pedestal of 25 feet in height, and upon the four sides of this pedestal are 31 portraitfigures of the size of life. This statue is regarded as one of the finest monuments in Europe.

Freemasons' Tavern. A noted tavern in London, used among other purposes for public meetings.

What Act of Parliament, debate at St. Stephen's, on tho hustings or elsewhere, was It that brought this Shakespeare Into being? Us dining at Freemason? Tavern, opening sub«crlntlon-llsts, selling of snares, and Infinite other jangling, and true or false endeavoring I Carlyle.

Freiburg Minster. One of the noblest Gothic churches in Germany. It is a grand and gloomy pile, dating from the eleventh century, with a tower of beautiful fretwork, rising to the height of 393 feet.

French Academy. See ACADEiins


Freshwater Cave. A romantic and curious cavern on the Isle of Wight, much frequented by tourists.

Friar Bacon's Brazen Head. The most famous of all brazen beads was that of Roger Bacon, a monk of the thirteenth century. According to the legend, Bacon was occupied for seven years in constructing such a head; and he expected to be told by it how he could make a wall of brass around the whole island of Great Britain. The head was warranted to speak within a month after it was finished, but no particular time was named for its doing so. Bacon's man was therefore set to watch, with orders to call his master if I ha head should speak. At the end of half an hour after the man was left alone with the head, he heard it say, "Time is;" at the expiration of another half-hour, "Time was:" and at the end of a third half-hour, " Time's past," when it fell down with a loud crash, and was shivered to pieces; but the stupid servant neglected to awake his master, thinking that he would be very angry to be disturbed for such trifles; and so the wall of brass has never been built.

jjry In the Middle Ages there was a pretty wide-spread belief in the existence of a talking brazen head, the Invention of which was variously ascribed to persons living at different times and in different countries. William of Malmesbury, an old monkish historian, says that Gerbert, a famous French ecclesiastic, made such a head, which would speak when spoken to, and would give oracular answers to whatever questions were propounded to it. Ho relates, moreover, that Gerbert inquired of it whether he would ever be pope, and that the head told him he would. The prediction happened to prove true; for Gerbert afterwards became pope, under the name of Silvester the Second. In another instance, however, the oracle made a most unfortu* nate blunder; for It foretold that Silvester should not die until he had sung mass in Jerusalem, whereas he actually

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