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O- " The blocks forming this [Gate of Lions] arc enormous In size, quadrangular, and horizontal. They are 15 firt high and 9 feet broad; and the opening is BUrmounted by a huge lintel, of which the three dimensions are 15 feet long, 6 feet broad, and 3 feet thick. A bas-relief, 7 feet high, and 10 feet broad at the base, forms a sort of triangular pediment at the gate, within which are sculptured two lions standing on tticir hind-feet, resting their fore-paws upon a pillar placed between them so as to face each other. Their heads, which have been broken, formerly reached the height of the capital of the pillar. This pillar Increases gradually in diameter from base to summit; and its capital is supported upon four disks, which are supposed to represent the billets of wood meant to maintain the sacred fire. The Gate of Lions formed the chief entrance to the Acropolis." Lffevre, Train.

Gate of the Sun. See Puerta

Del Sol. Gates, Iron. See Iron Gates. Gates of Calais. A well-known

picture by William Hogarth (1697


Gates of Paradise. See Bronze Gates, etc.

Generalife. A beautiful Moorish palace, surrounded with fountains and gardens, in Granada, Spain.

Genevieve, St. See Pantheon (2).

Genius of the Vatican. A celebrated half-figure in Parian marble, bearing this name, in the Vatican, Rome. It is supposed to be the Cupid of Praxiteles. It was found on the Via Labicana, outside of the Porta Maggiore.

We'll take, say, that most perfect of antiques. They call the Genius of the Vatican, Which seems too beauteous to endure Itself In this mixed world, and fasten It for once t'pon the torso of the Drunken Faun (who might limp surely, if he did not

dance) Instead of Buonarroti's mask: what then? Mrs. Browning.

Geometricians, The. A celebrated allegorical picture by Giorgio liarbarelli, called Giorgione (14(71511). the exact signification of which has been a matter of dispute. In the Belvedere Gallery,

Vienna. [Called also sometimes The Astrologers, or The Philosophers.]

4£sy- "I have myself no doubt that this beautiful picture represents the 'Three wise men of the East,' watching on the Chaldean hills the appear, auco of the miraculous star, ana that the light breaking in the far horizon, called in the German description the rising sun, is Intended to express the rising of the Star of Jacob."

Jfrs. Jameson.

Geometry. A picture by Caravaggio (1569-1609). representing a ragged girl playing with a pair of compasses. In the Spada palace, Rome.

George d'Amboiae. A famous bell which formerly hung in the tower of the Cathedral of Rouen. It was taken down and melted in the time of the Revolution.

George, Fort. See Fort George.

George Square. A fine park and pleasure-ground in Glasgow, Scotland, surrounded by the fiuest buildings in the city.

George's. 1. An old London Club. It was accustomed to meet on St. George's Day, April 23.

2. A coffee-house in the Strand, London, famous and much frequented in this and the last century.

A certain young fellow at George't. whenever he had occasion to ask his friend for a guinea, used to preclude his request as If he wanted '200. and talked so familiarly of large sums, that none could ever thtnk be wanted a small one. o'vldsmith.

George, St. See St. George.

George's, St. See St. George's.

Georgia Augusta. The name given to the University of Gottingen, Germany, from its founder, George II. of England, who established it in 1737.

Germain des Pr6a, St. See St. Germain Des Pres.

Germain V Auxerrois, St. See St. Germain L,'Auxerrois.

Germanicus. An ancient statue called by this name, but representing a Roman orator, and supposed to be the work of the Greek sculptor Cleomenes. It is in tbo Louvre, Paris.

Gervais, St. See St. Gervais.

Gethsemane. A small square enclosure of about 200 feet, surrounded by a high wall, a little way out of Jerusalem, below St. Stephen's Gate, and near the foot of the Mount of Olives. It is traditionally identified with the scene of the closing events in the life of Jesus as recorded in Matt. xxvi. 30-5(5, Mark xiv. 26-62, Luke xxii. 39-53, and John xviii. 1-14. There is no intrinsic improbability in the monastic traditions concerning it. It is now a desolate spot, containing a few very old and shattered olive-trees, the trunks of which are supported by stones, though some of the branches are flourishing. The garden belongs to the Latin Christians, and the Greek Church has fixed upon another locality as the true site of Gethsemane.

Gettysburg, Battle of. See BatTle Of Gettysburg.

Gezeereh, Palace of. A modern palace at Cairo, Egypt, so called from the ground which it occupies having been formerly an island (gezeereh) between branches of the Nile.

Gherardesca, Villa. See Villa Ghbrabdesca.

Ghetto. [Jews' Quarter.] An enclosure in Rome formerly set apart for the residence of the Jews. They have, until recently, been confined to this crowded and dirty section since the time of Pope Paul IV., who first compelled them to live within the walls of the Ghetto, and forbade their appearance outside of that quarter, unless the men were distinguished from the Christians by a yellow hat, and the women by a veil of the same color. The Jews suffered much persecution, and were governed by many arbitrary regulations while confined to this crowded region; but now the, limits of the Ghetto are removed, and the oppressive regu

lations revoked. The name Ghetto is derived by some from the Hebrew word cliat, meaning'' broken " or " destroyed." The present population of the Ghetto is estimated at 3,800.

i*S-"The Ghetto, from its appearance, its filthy and narrow streets, would seem to be the very hot-bed of disease. Here we should expect to find all the plagues and pestilences which have desolated the earth In former ages preserved as in a morbid museum. But the reverse is the fact. It Is in some respects the healthiest part of the city." I/illard.

I went to the Ghetto, where the Jews dwell, as In a suburb by themselves, being invited by A Jew of my acquaintance. Being invlroned by walls, they are locked

up ever>' night. In this placeremains yet

ftart of a stately fabric, which my Jew old me had been a palace of theirs for

the ambassador of their nation, when their country was subject to the Romans. John Evelyn. 1644. 'TIs called the Ghetto: and the pious townsman Shuns it, unless his piety lie deep Enough to teach him not to turn aside From any form of human brotherhood: Hard by the muddy Tiber's idle Mow, Beyond the shadow of the Vatican, Yet within sound, almost, of choirs that

chant Morning and evening to a Christian organ. Its prison-like and ragged houses rise.


Ghirlandina, La. [The Garland.] A noted tower in Modena, Italy, forming the campanile, or helltower, of the cathedral. It derives its name from the encircling sculptures which adorn it. See Secchia Kapita.

Giant's Castle. A famous structure on the summit of a mountain near Cassel, Germany. On the top of the castle is a pyramid !»j feet high, supporting a statue of Hercules (a copy of the Farnese) 31 feet in height. This castle includes a system of water-works connected with the grounds of Wilhelmshohe, which is, perhaps, unequalled. The fountain supplied by these water-works rises in a column 12 inches in diameter to the height of I'M feet.

Giant's Causeway. A celebrated mass of basaltic columns, of all forms from triangular to octagonal, on the northern coast of Ireland, extending into the sea.

>W" I was somewhat disappointed at first, having supposed the causeway to be of great height; but I found the Giant's Loom, which is the highest part of it, to be about 50 feet from the water. The singular appearance of the columns, and the many strange forms which they assume, render it, nevertheless, an object of the greatest interest."

Bayard Taylor.

Giant's Colonnade. An interesting natural curiosity, not far from Fingal's Cave in Scotland, being a cluster of columns placed upon a row of curved pillars, and forming a little island about 30 feet high.

Giant's Column. A massive block of granite in the Odenwald, Germany, 32 feet long, and 3 or 4 feet in diameter. It still bears the mark of the chisel.

KS~" When or by whom it was made, remains a mystery. Borne have supposed It was intended to be erected for the worship of the sun by the wild Teutonic tribes who inhabited this forest; it is more probably the work of the Romans. A project was once started to erect it as a monument on the battle-Held of Lelpsic, but it was found too difficult to carry into execution." Bayard Taylor.

Giants, Destruction of the. See Destruction Of The Giants.

Giant's Organ. The name given, from its very striking resemblance to that instrument, to a magnificent colonnade of basaltic pillars in the Giant's Causeway, Ireland. See Giant's Causeway.

Giant's Staircase. [Ital. Scala del Gir/anti.] 1. A celebrated staircase in the Doge's Palace at Venice, so called after two statues of the Greek gods, Mars and Neptune, which are of immense size.

«- " Touching the Glnnt's Stairs in the court of the palace, the inexorable dates would not permit me to rest in the delusion that the head of Marin Fa. lier hnd once bloodily stained them as it rolled to the ground,—at the end of Lord Byron's tragedy."

W. D. Uowells.

As doce. clad in the ducal robes and cap.

Thou shalt be led hence to the Giants' Staircase,

Where thou and all our princes are invested;

And there, the docal crown being Bret

resumed Upon Ihes-nutwbereltwas first assumed, Thy head shall be struck on". Byron.

He [Xicolo Tron] might have been present, with a countenance of pity, when Foscarl, with feeble and tottering steps, descended the Giant's Staircase, ana fainted at the sound of the bell which announced the election of a successor.


A poet on thy Giant Stair to-day
Lingers beside each wondrous balconv,
His tribute of a fruitless tear to pav.

Grafton Platen, trans.

2. A singular freak of nature near Cork, Ireland. Fifteen or 10 huge knobs of rock rise one above another up the face of a very steep ascent, with nearly the regularity of a flight of steps. Giant's Tower. An ancient circular building of Cyclopean architecture at Gozo, one of the Maltese islands. Human bones have been found in and about it. "Its history is lost in the mist of antiquity."

Giaour, The. A picture by Ary Scheffer (1795-1858).

Gibbon's Tennis-Court Theatre. A former theatre of London, in Gibbon's Court, Clare Market. Pepys, in 1660, wrote, " It is the finest play-house, I believe, that ever was in England."

Gibraltar. See Rock Of GibralTau, and Sortie From GibralTar.

Giebichenatein. A ruined castle near Halle, Germany, once a state prison of the German Emperors.

Giesabach, The. A noted waterfall near Brienz in Switzerland.

Giles's St. See St. Giles's.

Giltspur Street Compter. A London prison, or City House of Correction, built in 1791, closed in 1854, and since removed. About 6,000 persons were yearly imprisoned there.

Ginger-Cake Rook. A natural curiosity in Burke County, N.C It is an inverted stone pyramid about 30 feet in height, seeming just ready to fall, but in reality perfectly secure.

Giorgio, San. See San Giorgio.

Giorno, II. See Day and St. JeRome.

Giotto's Campanile. The (amous and admired bell-tower of the cathedral, or Duomo, of Florence, Italy. It was erected by Giotto (127&-133t>), about the middle of the fourteenth century.

tg- "The characteristics of Power and Beauty occur more or less In different buildings, some in one and some in another. But all together, and all In their highest possible relative degrees, they exist, as far as I know, only in one building of the world, the Campanile of Giotto. . . . Not within the walls of Florence, but among the far-away fields of her lilies, was the child trained who was to raise that bead-stone of Beauty above her towers of watch and war." Buskin.

The mountains from without
Listen in silence for the word said next,
(What wont will men say?) here where

Giotto planted
His campanile. Ilk* an unpcrplexcd
Question to Heaven, concerning the things

To a creat people.who. being greatly vexed
In act. In aspiration keep undaunted!

Mr*. Browning.

In the old Tuscan town stands Giotto'*

The Illy of Florence blossom.ng Instone, —
A virion, a deliuht, and a desire,—
Thebuilder's perfect andcentennialflowcr,
That In the ntyht of ages bloomed alone,
But wanting still the glory of the spire.

But behold
The graceful tower of Giotto there.
And Duomo's cross of freshened fold.

W. S. Landor.

That fnll [Niagara] Is more graceful than Giotto's tower, more noble than the Apollo. Anthony Trollope.

Giotto's Chapel. See ArenA Chapel.

Giovanni, San. See San GiovanNi, Baptistery Of San GiovanNi, and Porta San Giovanni.

Giralda, La. The tower of the Cathedral of Seville, Spain, so called from its vane qve r/irn (which turns round). It is an old Moorish minaret, built in 1196, and held in great veneration.

£ay "This Is ft more massive tower than is, as I believe, to be found anywhere else ft» the work of a Moslem architect. . . . K contrasts pleasingly

with the contemporary campanile at Venice, which, though very nearly of the same dimensions. Is lean and bald compared with this tower at Seville. 80,Indeed,arc most of the Italian towers of the same age. All these towers seem to have been erected for_ very analogous purposes; for the Giralda can never have been meant as the minaret of a mosque, to be used for the call to prayer: nor can we admit the distinction sometimes ascribed to it by those who surmise that it may have been merely meant for an observatory. Most probably It was a pillar of victory, or a tower symbolical of dominion and power, like many others. Indeed, the tradition is, that it was built by King Yousouf to celebrate hU famous victory of Atarcos, gained in the year 1129, in which its construction was commenced. As such, it is superior to most of those constructed in the Middle Ages."


Girandola. Celebrated fireworks formerly exhibited from the Castle of San Angelo, Rome, at Easter and at the Festival of St. Peter. This magnificent display, considered the grandest exhibition of fireworks in the world, and only surpassed by the illumination of St. Peter's, is now made upon the Monte Pincio.

MXkT "The show began with a tre. mendous discharge of cannon; and then, for twenty minutes or half an hour, the whole castle was one luces, sant sheet of fire, and labyrinth of blazing wheels of every color, size, and speed; while rockets streamed into the sky, not by ones or twoB or scores, but hundreds at a time. The concluding burst —the Girandola —was like the blowing up into the air of the whole massive castle without smoke or dust." Dickens.

0t»y- "We did not, however, drive to the Trlnita de Monti till after the exhibition of the Girandola, or great fireworks from the Castle of St. Angelo, which commenced by a tremendous explosion, which represented the raging eruption of a volcano. This was followed by an Incessant and complicated display of every device that Imagination could figure, one chang.'d into another, and the beauty of the first effaced by that of the last. Hundreds of immense wheels turned round with a velocity that almost seemed as if demons were whirling them, letting fall thousands of hissing dragons and sc-orpions and fiery snakes, whose long convolutions, darting forward as far as the eye could reach in every direction, at length vanished into air. Fountains and JeU of lire threw up their blazing cascades into the sky. The whole vault of heaven shone with the vivid fires." Eaton.

Girard College. A grand and imposing building in Philadelphia, Penn. It is constructed of white marble in the Corinthian style of architecture. Adjoining the main building are other marble buildings used as dormitories, refectories, etc. The college was founded by Stephen Girard (17501831), a Philadelphia merchant, who left $2,000,000 and 45 acres lor "the endowment of a college for poor white male children without fathers and between six and ten years of age." The course of instruction continues eight years. By the terms of the will, clergymen of every denomination are forbidden to enter the college grounds.

Girondists in Prison. An admired picture by Paul Delaroche (17<J71850), the celebrated French historical painter.

Giudecca, La. A broad canal in Venice which separates the principal island from the rest of the city^ The island is also itself known by this name. See also Canal Ok Tub Giudecca.

&B~ " The islands near Venice are all small, except the Giudecca (which is properly a part of the city), the Lido, and Murano. The Giudecca. from being anciently the bounds in which certain factious nobles were confined, was later laid out in pleasure-gardens and built up with summer palaces. The gardens still remain to some extent, but they are now chiefly turned to practical account in raising vegetables and fruits for the Venetian market; and the palaces have been converted into warehouses and factories."

W. D. ITowtUn.

Giulio Romano. A portrait of himself by the painter (14<121540). In the collection of auto

§raph portraits in the Ufflzi, lorence, Italy. Giustiniani Palace. [Ital. Palazzo Giuitiniani.] A noted palace in Genoa, Italy.

Glaces, Galerio des. See Galerie

Dks Glaces. Glacier de Boisson. A well-known

Alpine glacier in the vicinity of

Chamouni, Savoy.

Gladiator. See Bqrohese GladiaTor, Dying Gladiator, WocxdEd Gladiator.

Gladiators, The. A picture bv Jean Leon Gc'rome (b. 1827), the French painter.

Glamis Castle. The seat of the Earl of Strathmore, near the town of the same name in Scotland, considered one of the finest existing specimens of the old Scottish baronial castles. It is especially interesting from its associations with Shakespeare's plav of "Macbeth," the "Thane o*f Glamis." The scene of Duncan's murder is pointed out in a room of the castle.

«- " It i3 still an inhabited dwelling; though, much to the regret of anUquarians and lovers of the picturesque, the characteristic outworks and defences of the feudal ages which surrounded it have been levelled, and velvet lawns and gravel-walks carried to the very door. Scott, who passed a night there in 1793, while it was yet in its pristine condition, comments on the change mournfully, as undoubtedly a true lover of the post would. . . . Scott says in his 'Demonology,' that he never came anywhere near *to being overcome with a superstitious feeling, except twice in his life, and one was on the night when he slept in Glamis Castle. . . . Scarcely ever a man had so much relish for the supernatural, and so little faith in It. One must confess, however, that the most sceptical might have been overcome at Glamis Castle; for its appearance, by all accounts, is weird and strange, and ghostly enough to start the dullest imagination." Jfrs. H. B. Slow.

Glasgow Cathedral. An ancient church, dating from the twelfth century, and considered the finest Gothic church in Scotland.

Vf" " A brave kirk, — a' solid, weeljoinled mason-wark, that will stand as lang as the world, keep hands and gunpowther aff it." Scott.

Glastonbury Abbey. A famous ruined monastery in the town of that name in England, formerly

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