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On every accession to the throne a new seal is struck; and the old one is cut into four pieces, and deposited in the Tower of London."
Nay, more; I can say and will say, that, us a Peer of Parliament, as a Speaker of this right honorable House, as Keeper of the Great Seal, as Guardian of his Matestv'i conscience, as Lord High Chancellor'of England,— nay, even in that character alone, m which the noble Duke would think tt an affront to be considered, but which character none can deny me,— as a Man, — 1 am, at this moment, as respectable— I beg leave to add, I urn as much respected — as the proudest peer 1 now look down upon. Lord Thurlow.
Great Square. See Place MeheMet Ali and Plaza Mayor.
Great Stone Face. See Profile, The.
Great Tom. 1. A famous bell in the tower of Christ Church College, Oxford, England. It was cast in 1681, weighs 17,000 pounds, and is seven feet in diameter at the mouth. The original bell belonged to Osney Abbey, and was inscribed, "In Thomse laude resono Bim Bom sine fraude."
One hundred and one times the mighty sound,
Such as when Vulcan forged the wargod's shield.
Startled the Lemnlan shepherd In his Held,
Hath Christ-church giant bell swung out around.
And the night songster's voice melodious drowned. J. B. Sorton.
2. A famous bell, formerly in Westminster Palace, London, afterwards given or sold by William III. to dean and chapter of St. Paul's, and then broken and recast. See Bio Ben.
*S" •• There was formerly a ■ Great Tom of Westminster,' which was sold for St. Paul's Cathedral ill 1698; but, as though he determined never to give out a sound of his voice away from his own place, as be was being conveyed by Temple Bar —the boundary of Westminster and London — he rolled off the carriage and was broken. In 1708 he waa recast by Philip Wightman." L. Jewitt.
3. [of Lincoln.] The celebrated bell of this name was cast, with additional material, from a still older bell, in 1610. This "Tom" was the predecessor of
the present bell, which was cast in 1834, weighs 5 tons 8 cwt., and is 6 feet 10J inches in diameter at the mouth.
4. A celebrated bell in the tower of St. Peter's Cathedral, in Exeter, England. This bell weighs 12,500 pounds.
Great Tun of Heidelberg. See Tun Of Heidelbeko.
Great Wall of China. A famous structure traversing the northern boundary of the Chinese empire, carried over hills, valleys, and rivers. Its length is over 1,200 miles, its height 20 feet, its thickness 25 feet at the base, and 15 feet at the top. At intervals of 100 feet are towers. For a good part of its length, the wall is now but a heap of rubbish. This great structure was built about 200 B.C. as a defence against the Tartars.
There standeth a building which ages have tried: It 1b not a dwelling, it Is not a fane. A hundred days round it the rider may ride. And ride, if to compass its measure, in vain; And years told in hundreds against it have striven. By time never sapped, and by storm never bowed. Still sublimely it stands in the rainbow of heaven, Reaching now to the ocean and now to the cloud. Not constructed a boast to vainglory to yield, It serves as defender, to save and to shield; And nowhere its like on the earth is surveyed: And yet by the labors of man it was mode! Schiller, Tram.
Mr. Hue, I think it is, who tells us some very good stories about the way in whfch two Chinese gentlemen contrive to keep up a long talk without saying a word which has any meaning in it. Something like this Is occasionally heard on this Ktde of the Great Wall. Holmes.
Great Western. One of the early steam-propelled vessels of the British merchant-marine. She left Bristol April 7, 1838, and reached New York in 15 days.
Greater and the Lesser Passion. See Passion, etc.
Grecian, The. A former coffeehouse of London, in Devereux Court, Str*iid, so called after the "Grecian " (one Constantine) by whom it was kept. The Grecian figures in "The TatlerM and "Spectator," and was resorted to by Goldsmith, Foote, and by Fellows of the Royal Society. It was closed in 1843.
The coffee-house was the Londoner's house; and those who wished to And a gentleman, commonly asked, not whether he lived In Fleet Street or Chancery Lane, but whether he frequented "the Grecian " or " the Rainbow.' Macaulay.
Grecian Theatre. A theatre near the garden of the Eagle Tavern, City Road, London, devoted to the molo-drama, farce, and ballet.
Greek Cross, Hall of the. See Sala A Crock Greca.
Greek Slave. A celebrated statue by Hiram Powers (1805-1873). It was finished in 1873, and several copies came from the artist's studio. One is now in the gallery of the Duke of Cleveland, England, another in the Corcoran Gallery, Washington, a third in the possession of Earl Dudley, and others elsewhere.
They say Ideal Beauty cannot enter
meant her (That passionless perfection which he
lent her. Shadowed, not darkened, where the sill
expands) To so confront man's crimes indifferent
With man's Ideal sense. Tierce to the
centre, Art'B fiery finger! — and break up ere
long The serfdom of this world I Appeal, fair
stone. From (iod's pure heights of beauty, against
man's wrong! Catch up In thy divine face, not alone East griefs but west, and strike and
sliame the strong. By thunders of white silence overthrown. Mrs. Browning.
I mean no disrespect to Gibson or Powers; . . . but I think the world would be all tbo richer If their Venuses, their Greek Slave*, their Eves, were burnt Into quicklime, leaving us only tins statue [tinVenus do Medici] as our Image of the beautiful. Hawthorne.
Green, The. A central square in the city of New Haven, Conn., generally known by this name.
It was laid out in 1G38 by John Davenport of London, the founder of the city and colony.
Green Gallery. [Ger. Dcut grime Gewolbe.] A collection of jewels and costly articles in the palace of the elector of Saxony, at Dresden, Germany. This collection is unsurpassed in Europe.
Green Grotto. A celebrated cavern in the isle of Capri, near Naples.
USB*" Under these amazing crags, over a smooth, sunny sea, we sped along towards a point where the boatman said we should find the Green Grotto. It lies inside a short projecting cape of the perpendicular shore, and our approach to it was denoted by a streak of emerald fire flashing along the shaded water at the base of the rocks. A few more strokes on the oars carried us under an arch twenty feet high, which opened into a rocky cave beyond. The water being shallow, the white bottom shone like silver; and the pure green hue of the waves, filled and flooded with the splendor of the sun, was thrown upon the Interior facings of the rocks, making the cavern gleam like transparent gloss. It was a marvellous surprise. . . . The brightness of the day increased the illusion, and made the incredible beauty of the cavern all the more startling, because devoid of gloom and mystery. It was an idyl of the sea, born of the god-lore of Greece." Bayard Taylor.
*3TM The so-called Green Grotto has the beauty of moss-agate in its liquid floor; . . . and where there is no other charm to notice, endless beauty may be found In the play of sunlight upon roofs of limestone . . . mossed over, hung with fern, and catching tones of blue or green from the still deeps beneath." J. A. SymomU.
Green Park. An area of 60 acres in London, situated between Piccadilly and St. James's Park, Constitution Hill, and the houses of Arlington Street and St. James's Place. It was formerly called Little St. James's Park. "Stafford House, Bridgewater House, and Spencer House are upon the east side of the park.
Greenmount. A cemetery near Baltimore, Md., established in 1838. The grounds are laid out with much taste and skill, and contain many fine monuments.
Oreenway Court. A decayed mansion near Berryville, Va., once the residence of Lord Fairfax.
Greenwich Hospital. An asylum for old and disabled seamen on the Thames, a few miles below London. It was opened in 1705.
49~ Macaulay says In his sketch of the death of Mary II., "The affection with which her husband cherished her memory was attested by a monument the most superb that was ever erected to any sovereign. No scheme had been so much her own, none had been so near her heart, as that of converting the palace at Greenwich into a retreat for seamen. It bud occurred to her when she had found it difficult to provide good shelter and good attendance for tbe thousands of brave men who had come back to England wounded after the battle of La Hogue. While she lived, scarcely any step was taken towards the accomplishing of her favorite design. But It should seem, that, as soon as her husband bad lost her, he began to reproach himself for having neglected her wishes. No time was lost. A plan was furnished by Wren; and soon an edifice, surpassing that asylum which the magnificent Lewis had provided for his soldiers, roBe on the margin of the Thames. . . . Few of those who now gaze on the noblest of European hospitals, arc aware that it is a memorial of tbe virtues of the good Queen Mary, of the love and sorrow of WUllam, and of tbe great victory of La Hogue."
Greenwich Park. A royal demesne at Greenwich, near London, much resorted to by the inhabitants of the metropolis. It was enclosed as a park by Duke Humphrey of Gloucester in the reign of Henry VI.
Greenwood. A beautiful cemetery three miles from Fulton Ferry, Brooklyn, N.Y., containing 242 acres of land, and ornamented with winding paths, forests, and lakes.
Gregorio, San. See San Gbeoo
Greif enstein. A picturesque mediaeval stronghold, now in ruins, near Rudolstadt in Germany.
Grenan, Temple of. See Temple
Gresham College. This institution in London stood on Bishopsgate Street, and was so called after Sir Thomas Gresham, in whose honor it was established. The Royal Society originated here in 1645. After 1710 the college fell into decay, and in 1768 the building was sold. A handsome stone structure, Basinghall Street, was opened in 1843 for the Gresham Lectures.
Greta Hall. The former residence of the poet Southey, situated on a slight eminence near the tow u of Keswick, in what is called the Lake District of England.
Gretna Green. A little village in Scotland much resorted to formerly by runaway couples from England. Marriages were here celebrated with very little ceremony, but of late they have been prohibited by Act of Parliament.
Once In my life I married a wife.
And whore do you think I found her?
And 1 took up a stick to pound her.
And 1 jumped over n timber;
And she showed me her linger.
Greve, Place de. See Place De L'hotkl De Ville.
Grey Abbey. A picturesque ruined monastery in the county of Down, Ireland.
Grey Friars. This important monastery in London was established by the early Franciscans who came to England in the time of Henry III. It was a favorite place of interment for royal perBonages. Nothing but a few arches now remains of the monastery, upon the site of which was founded Christ's Hospital.
How often have I seen the casual passer through theclolstersstandstlll,entranced with admiration . . . to hear thee [Coleridge] untold. In thy deep and sweet intonations, the mysteries of Jamhllcus or Plotlnus, . . . while the walls of the uld Grey Friars re-echoed to the accents of the inspired charity boy I Clutriet Lamb.
Grey Mare's TaiL A cataract issuing from the Loch Skene in Scotland. It is one of the loftiest cascades in the country.
Where deep, deep down, and far within, Toll! with the rocks the roaring linn; Then issuing forth one foaming wave, ■ And wheeling round the Giant's Grave White as the snowy charger's tail. Drives down the pass of Moflatdale.
Asy" A rather narrow stream, whitened in plunges over rough rocks, pours, in one broad broken sheet, over a pre* cipitous crag of jagged, eccentrically stratified, gray rock. . . . The entire height of the fall Is about 350 feet. It is part of a capital example of peculiarly bcottish scenery." J. F. Hunnewell.
GriUo, Torre del. See Torre Del Gkillo.
Grimani Breviary. A celebrated illuminated service-book, containing beautiful miniatures. In the library of the Ducal Palace, Venice.
Grimani Palace. [It.il. Palazzo Grimani.'] A noble palace in Venice, Italy, fronting on the Grand Canal. It was built in the sixteenth century, and is now used as the post-office. It was formerly decorated with frescos of^Tintoretto which have disappeared.
47- "San Michell's masterpiece is the design of the Qrimani Palace. The proportions of the whole facade are good, and its dimensions give it n dig. nity which renders it one of the most striking facades on the Grand Canal; while the judgment displayed in the design elevates it into being one of the best buildings of the age In which it waB erected." Ferausson.
Grimes's Dike. See Graham's Dike.
Grimsel. See Hospice Op The
Griper, The. An Arctic exploring ship which sailed from England under Commander Lyon in 1824.
Griswold, Port. See Foht GrisWold.
Grizzly Giant. A famous tree in Mariposa County, Cal., the largest of a remarkable grove of trees of the Sequoia gigantea species. This tree is 107 feet in circumference, and in one place is 34 feet in diameter. It reaches a
height of 200 feet before throwing out a branch, and the first branch is eight feet in diameter.
Grocers' Hall. A building in London belonging to the Company of Grocers, one of the great city guilds. The original hall was built in 1427, but was seriously damaged by the great fire of Nibo. It was restored in 1068-69, but in 1681 was again in ruins. The present building was erected in 1802, and repaired in 1827.
Gros Bourdon. The largest bell in America, hung in one of the towers of the church of Notre Dame at Montreal, Canada. Its weight is nearly fifteen tons.
Grosse Garten. [The Great Garden.] A fine public park in the neighborhood of Dresden, Germany. It is five miles in circumference.
Grosvenor Gallery. SeeGROSYBNok House.
Grosvenor House. The citv residence of the Marquis of Westminster, London. Formerly, as Gloucester House, it was inhabited by the Duke of Gloucester, brother of George III. It contains a fine collection of paintings,— the celebrated Grosvenor Gallery, — including some'of the best works of Claude and Rubens.
Grosvenor Square. An area of six acres in London, built 172317%, and so called from Sir Richard Grosvenor (d. 1732). One of the most aristocratic quarters in London.
They [certain writers] conceived of liberty as monks conceive of love, at cockney* conceive of the happiness and innocence of rural life, as novel-reading sempstresses conceive of Almack's ana Qrowenor Square, accomplished marquesses and handsome colonels of the Guards. Mucaulay.
Let Stmt, Carlisle. Matilda, and the rest Of Grub Street, and of Orosvenor-plaet
Hie best. Scrawl on, 'till death release us from the
strain. Or Common Sense assert her rights ncaln. Byron.
Grotta Azzura. See Blue Grotto.
Grotta del Cane. [Grotto of the Dog.] A celebrated but small cave at the base of a rocky hill on the southern bank of the Lake Agnano near Naples. The cavern is constantly emitting from its sides and floor quantities of vapor mingled with carbonic-acid gas. The latter, being the heavier, accumulates at the bottom, leaving the upper part of the cave free from gaB. The cave derives its name from the common experiment of subjecting a dog to the effects of the gas, and afterwards restoring him by exposure to the air.
We tried the old experiment of a dog In the Grotto del Cane, or Charon's Cave; It Is not above three or (bar paceB deepe. and about tbe height of a man. norvery broad. Whatever having life enters It presently expires. . . . This experiment has been tried on men, as on that poor creature whom Peter of Toledo caus'd to go in; likewise on some Turkish slaves, two eoldlers, and other foolc-hardy persons, who all perished, and could never be recovered by the water of the take, as are doggs; fur which many learned reasons have been offered, as Simon Majolus in his booke of the Canicular days has mentioned.
John Evelyn, 1644.
Grotta della Sibylla. See Sibyl's Cave.
Grotta di Posillpo. [Grotto of Posilipo.] An excavation in the vol
. came soil near Naples, at the extremity of the street called the Chiaja. The earliest mention of it was in the time of Nero. It was enlarged In the fifteenth century by Alfonso I. In the centre of the tunnel is a recess, forming the chapel of the Virgin, before which a lamp is always burning. Near the top of the east entrance to the grotto is the Roman columbarium, or sepulchre, known as the tomb of Virgil. See Vikoil's Tomb.
4W" Above the grotto are the remains of a columbarium, which, time out of mind, has enjoyed the honor of being called the tomb of Virgil. Nor is it by any means impossible that it is •o, though it must be admitted that the weight of evidence is against the claim. But there is quite enough of interest clinging round it from the fact that a long line of poets and scholars! beginning with Petrarch and Boccaccio, bave
visited the spot more in the spirit of faith than of scepticism. There is nothing at all remarkable in the structure itself, which is of brick, shattered by time, and overgrown with myrtle, wild vines, and grass. Whether Virgil were really buried here or not, it is certainly a Bpot which a poet might well choose for his last repose."
Ah! precious every drape of myrtle
bloom And leaf of laurel crowning YirgiVttombl
Through the steep Is hewn Porilipo'i most marvellous ffrot; And to the prince of Koman bards, whose
sleep Is in this singular and lonely spot. Doth a wild rumor give a wizard's name. Linking a tunnelled road to Alarn's lame! W. Gibtm
Grotto de la Vierge. [Grotto of the Virgin.] A noted place of pil
E'image in the present century at ourdes.France. Its celebrity began in 1858 through the declarations of a girl who affirmed that the Holy Virgin had appeared to her. In the following year over 200,000 persons visited the spot. In the cavern is a spring which is believed to possess miraculous properties of healing. Grotto of Adelsberg. A celebrated grotto, or cave, in the limestone rock near Adelsberg in Styria, Southern Austria. It is one of the most interesting and extensive in the world, and is hung with the most beautiful stalactites.
Grotto of Antiparos. A celebrated stalactitic cavern on the island of Oliaros (Antiparo), in the iEgean Sea.
Grotto of Egeria. See Fountain Of Egeria.
Grotto of Granville. A natural curiosity in Southern France, near Le Bugue. It is a cavern extending a mile in a straight line, and, with its branches,measuring some two or three miles.
Grotto of Jeremiah. A spacious cave near the Damascus Gate of Jerusalem.
Grotto of St. John. A cavern, or grotto, belonging to the monastery of St. John in the island of