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Holy Family, The. [Ital. Sacra Famiglia.] A name applied to a numerous class of compositions by the great mediaeval painters of Europe, in which are portrayed the domestic life of the Virgin and the infancy of the Saviour. Of the great number of pictures which are designated by this title, apart from those generally called by the name Madonna, or the Prench equivalent Im Vierge, the following may be mentioned as among the more celebrated and familiar. See also Madonna and Virgin.
4-S* "It is towards the end of the fifteenth century, or a little later, that we first meet with that charming domes tic group called the Holy Family, afterwards so popular, so widely diffused, and treated with such an infinite variety." Mrs. Jameson,
Holy Family. A picture by Fra Bartolommeo (1469-1517), regarded as a tine specimen of this artist's work.
Holy Family. A picture by Rembrandt van Ryn (1606-1669), the Dutch painter. Now in the Louvre, Paris. There is another upon the same subject at the HermiJage in St. Petersburg.
Holy Family. A celebrated painting bv Michael Angelo (1474-1564), in the Tribune of the Uffizi, Florence. It is the only finished picture by his hand known to be in existence.
O- "The composition hy Michael Angelo, styled a 'Holy Family,' is, though singular in treatment, certainly devotional In character. The grand, mannered, symmetrical treatment is very remarkable aud characteristic. There are many engravings of this celebrated composition." Mrs. Jameson.
grg- "The picture altogether is a work which we study with admiration, rather than one which irresistibly at. tracts and fascinates us."
Holy Family. A picture by Michael Angelo Amerighi, surnamed Caravaggio (1569-1609). In the Palazzo Borghese, Rome.
Holy Family. A picture by Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640). In the Palazzo Pitti, Florence, Italy.
BV "Mary, seated on the ground, holds the Child with a charming maternal expression a little from her, gazing on him with rapturous earnestness, while he looks up with responsive tenderness in her face. . . . Wonderful for the Intensely natural and domestic expression and the beauty of execution." Mrs. Jameson.
Holy Family. A picture by Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), representing the Virgin holding the Infant, who is adored by St. John, with Elizabeth and Joseph. This picture was formerly in the gallerv of Vienna, afterwards in the collection of the Marquis of Hertford, and is now in the BethnalGreen Museum, London.
Holy Family. A picture by Andrea del Sarto (1488-15:»). In the Louvre, Paris. There is another upon the same subject in the National Gallery, London, and a third in the collection of Lord Lansdowne. In the Pitti Gallery, Florence, Italy, is a picture upon the same subject by this artist, and another still is in the Pinakothek, Munich, Bavaria.
Holy Family. A picture by Giulio Romano (1492-1546), the pupil of Raphael, and often ascribed to that master, representing the Virgin as preparing to wash the child, who is standing in a vase, while the little St. John is pouring in the water. In the Dresden Gallery.
Holy Family. A noted picture by Bernardino Pinturicchio (1454-1513). In the Academy at Siena.
4^. *• Mary and Joseph are seated together; near them are some loaves and a small cask of wine. More in front the two children, Jesus aud St. John, are walking arm in arm. Jesus holds a book, and John a' pitcher, as if they were going to a well."
Holy Family. A picture by Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641). In the Pinakothek at Munich, Bavaria.
Holy Family. A noted picture by Leonardo da Viuci (1452-1519), "in which St. Anna is seated ou a sort of chair; and the Virgin ou her knees bends down toward the infant Christ, who is sporting with a lamb." In the gallery of the Louvre, Paris.
Holy Family. A celebrated picture "by Raphael Sanzio (148.11520). See Bridgewater MaDonna.
Holy Family uncle)' the Oak. A picture executed chiefly by Giulio Romano (1492-1546), but in parts, it is supposed, by Raphael, and deriving its name from the oak under which the figures are standing. It is in the Museum at Madrid. There js a copy in the Pitti Palace, Florence, which is known as the Madonna delta Lucertola, q.v.
Holy Family with the Pnlm-tree. A circular picture by Raphael Sanzio (148.1-1520), representing the Virgin seated under a palm, holding the Child in her lap; while Joseph, kneeling, presents flowers to him. This picture was formerly in the Orleaus collection, but is now in the collection of the Earl of EUesmere, London.
Kf " The following anecdote of this
glcture was related lo the Marquis of tafford by the Duke of Orleans when on a visit to England. It happened once . . . that this picture fell to the portion of two old maids. Both having an equal right, and neither choosing to yield, they compromised the matter by cutting it in two. In this statu the two halves were soid to one purchaser, who tucked them together as well as he could, and sent them further into the world. The transfer from canvas to wooii has obliterated every trace by which the truth of this talc might be corroborated." Pasmtant.
Eoly Ghost, Descent of the. See Descent Of The Holy Ghost.
Holy Grotto. A sacred shrine in the Latin Convent of Nazareth, in Northern Palestine, believed to be the spot in which the annunciation by the angel to the Virgin Mary took place. Over the vestibule in front of this grotto once stood, according to the Catholic legends, the famous house in which Mary was born, and which was afterwards mirac
ulously transported to Lore to in Italy. See Santa Casa.
Holy Island Castle. A fortress upon the so-called Holy Island, on the coast of Northumberland, England, the scene of much legendary and poetical narrative.
Holy Mountain. See Mount Athos.
Holy of Holies. The name given to the innermost apartment in the Temple at Jerusalem, which was held peculiarly sacred, and into which the high priest only was allowed to enter once a year. See Sancta Sanctorum.
4EJ-" In the Temple, the only light that could penetrate to the Holy of Hoiicb was from the front; and though the holy place was partially lighted from the sides, its principal source of light must have been through the eastern facade." Fergusaon.
The spirit of Mammon has a wide em* plre; but it cannot, and must not, be worshipped in the Holy of HoUtt.
Holy Oil. [Mir.l The oil of lap tism with which all Rttssian children throughout the whole extent of the empire are anointed. It is preserved in 38 jars of massive silver in the Kremlin, Moscow; and it is said that about two gallons a year are necessary to supply Russia.
Holy Pillar. See Capella Della Colonna Santa.
Holy Sepulchre. This church of Jerusalem purports to be built, as the name indicates, over the garden-tomb of Jesus. It is showy and gorgeous, and contains chapels for Latins, Greeks, and Armenians. The visitor is shown the tomb, the place of the cross, the pillar of scourging, and various other sacred places, whose genuineness is, however, more than questionable. The church is a Byzantine edifice, and was erected by the Empress Helens, mother of Constantine the Great. The Holy Sepulchre stands in the centre of the rotunda of the church.
Holy Staircase. See Santa Scala.
Holy Stone. A famous stone preserved at Ardtnore, in the county of 'Waterford, Ireland, sacred to St. Patrick, and believed to have floated over the ocean from Rome with the vestments of the saint, a bell for his tower, and a lighted candle for the celebration of mass. 4a~ ■* The people crowd to the Holy Stone, and, having gone on their bare knees several times round It, creep under It, lying flat. The painful contor. tions of some of these poor people it is distressing to witness, as they force themselves through the narrow pas. sage. It is only at low water that this part of the ceremony can be performed. The stone, which weighs perhaps four or rive tons, rests upon two small rocks, leaving a passage under it."
Mr. and Mrt. Ball.
Holy Synod, House of the. A celebrated structure in the Kremlin, Moscow, Russia. It derives its name from the council-hall of the Holy Synod, which is in the building. It contains the robes worn by the Russian patriarchs during the last 600 years, as well as the silver jars containing the holy oil of baptism used throughout the whole empire.
Holyrood Abbey, [i.e.. Abbey of the Holy Rood or Cross.] A ruined monastery in Edinburgh, Scotland, the foundation of which dates from the twelfth century. At the time of the Reformation the church was plundered and burned. Attempts were made to restore it in the last century, but the undertaking was relinquished.
Holyrood Palace. An ancient and famous royal palace in Edinburgh, Scotland. It stands on the summit of a huge rock, 443 feet above the sea, and is built in the shape of a quadrangle, with a court in the centre. The palace was begun in the reign 6f James IV., was nearly destroyed by the soldiers of Cromwell in 1650, anil was rebuilt in the reign of Charles II. The apartments occupied by Mary Queen of Scots are preserved ' almost in their original condition. The palace has in recent times been very seldom used as a place of residence.
.ay" Dark old Holyrood, where the memory of lovely Mary lingers like a stray beam In her cold halls, and the fair, boyish face of Rizzlo looks down from the canvas on the armor of his murderer." Bayard Taylor.
The truth of the record has been called in question, but I regarded It with the same determined faith with which I contemplated the stains of Rlzzlo's blood on the floor of the palace of Holyrood.
Irving. Old Holyrood rung merrily That night with wassail, mirth, and glee: King James, within her princely bower. Feasted the chief of Scotland's power.
Or should some csnkcred biting shower
Homer and the Greeks. A picture by Wilhelm Kaulbach (b. 1805), the eminent German painter.
Honore, Rue St. See St. Hoxoke.
Hope, The. One of the principal theatres in London in Shakespeare's time.
Scenery, dresses, and decorations such as would now be thought mean and absurd, but such as would have been esteemed incredibly magnifleent by those who, early In the seventeenth century, sate on the filthy benches ut the Hope, or under the thatched roof of the Kose, dazzled the eyes of the multitude.
Hope House. A modern mansion in London, built in 1849, and noted for its rich and elaborate ornamentation, and collections of art.
Hope, Mount. See Mount Hope.
Hore Abbey. An interesting and well-preserved ruined monastery in Tipperary County, Ireland.
Hornberg. A castle on the Neckar in Germany, once the fortress of Goetz of the Iron Hand. His armor is kept here, and the castle was inhabited nearly to the beginning of the present century.
Hornet, The. An American warship, which, under Capt. James Lawrence, captured, in January, 1813, the British ship Peacock.
Horns of Hattin. A singularly shaped hill in Northern Palestine, not far from Nazareth. Accordinn to the tradition of the Latin Church, this is the Hill of the Beatitudes from which the "Sermon on the Mount" was delivered. According to the tradition of the Greek Church, it is the scene of the miracle of the multiplication of the loaves and the fishes (Matt. xiv. 15 et teq.). In the neighborhood of this hill took place the great hattle in which Saladin overthrew the Christian power in Syria.
Horologe of Petrus Lombardus. [Ital. Torre del Orolo</io.] A celebrated clock-tower in Venice, Italy, erected 1466. It has a blueand-gold dial, and is surmounted by two Moorish figures in bronze, which, swinging round, strike the hours upon a bell with a hammer.
43- "Over this Porch stands that admirable Clock celebrated next to that ofBtrasburg for its many movements; amongst which, about 12 and 6, which arc tbclr hours of Ave Maria, when all the towne are on their knees, come forth the three kings led by a Starr, and, passing by the image of Christ in his Mother's arms, do their reverence, and enter into the clock by another door. At the top of this turret another automaton strikes the quarters. An honest merchant told me, that one day, walking in the Piazza, he saw the fellow who kept the Clock struck with this hammer so forceably as he was stooping his head neerc the bell to mend something aniisse at the minute of striking, that, being stunn'd, he reePd over the battlements and broke his neck."
John Evelyn, IMS.
Horse Armory. A celebrated collection of equestrian figures clothed in the armor of various reigns from the time of Edward I. to James II., contained in a gallery of the Tower of London.
Horse-fair, The. A well-known picture by Rosa Bonheur (b. 1822).
Horse Guards. A building used for military purposes in London, and comprising the offices of the secrctary-at-war, the commanderin-chief, the adjutant-general, and quartermaster-general. In the rear is a parade-ground for the inspection of troops. In two stone alcoves, Hanking the gates,
is stationed a guard of two mounted cavalrv soldiers from ten to four o'clock, relieved every two hours. Orders concerning all the guards are given out by the field-officer on duty. The marching and countermarching o( the Guards, who are considered the finest "Household Troops'' in Europe, make one of the Uh»: picturesque sights of London.
Let no man despair of Governmentwho looks on these two seniriei at tl.e Horae-Ouards, and our United Servkr Clubs 1 Carl!/. .
Horse of Berkshire. See White Horse Op Berkshire.
Horse-Shoe Bend. A celebrated curve on the Pennsylvania Kailroad, near Kittanning Point. The curve is so short that the front of the train may be seen going in a direction just opposite to that of the rear portion.
Horse-Shoe Fall. This fall at Niagara is 158 feet in height and nearly 2,400 feet in width. The . river is divided above the falls into two branches by Goat Island; and the larger volume of water, wlajch flows on the Canada side, forms the Horse-Shoe Fall. [Called also the Canadian Fall.]
Horses, Bronze. See Bhosze Horses.
Horticultural Hall. 1. A fine edifice in Boston, Mass., of composite architecture, designed for floral exhibitions, fairs, and other purposes.
2. A building on Broad Street, Philadelphia, Penn., devoted to exhibitions of flowers and fruit.
Hospice of St. Bernard. A celebrated stone building, serving l>oth as a monastery and as an inn for the accommodation of travellers, at the summit of the St. Bernard Pass, in Switzerland. It is supposed to have been founded by St. Bernard in !*'-, hence the name of both Hospice and Pass. Everybody has heanl of the St. Bernard dogs which render such efficient aid to travellers: their number has now become very small. This is the highest winter habitation in the Alps. Hospice of the Grimsel. A celebrated inn, once a monastery, near the summit of the Grimsel pass in Switzerland.
Hospice of the St. Gothard. A
well-known inn near the summit of the St. Gothard pass in Switzerland. Hotel Cluny. This beautiful building in Paris derives its name from the Abbe of Cluny, who bought an ancient palace which stood on the spot now occupied by the present one. This was built in 145)0. It was once used as a theatre, afterwards as a convent, and during the Revolution Marat held his meetings there. Subaequentlvitbecameaniuseum.and passed into the hands of the government. It contains many treasures of art, mosaics, reliefs, stained glass windows, ivory cabinets, vases, and paintings. The building itself is much admired for the grace and delicacy of its sculptures. See Palais Des Thermes.
Hotel de Pimodan. A noted mansion in Paris of the time of Louis XIV.
Hotel de Kambouillet. A palace in Paris — the residence of the Marquis de Rambouillet — very famous in the seventeenth century, and subsequently, as the centre of a literary and political coterie. According to Roederer, the opening of the salon of the Hotel de Rambouillet took place in the year NiOO, under the reign of Henry IV. The marquis was an enemy of Sully; and his house became the headquarters of the opposition party, where the barbarism and immoralities of the court were offset by purity of language and of manners. The most celebrated wits of the period, and the finest ladies of the realm, sought admission to these rivnions. Through the indifference to literature manifested by Louis XIII. and the various ministries which succeeded each other down
to the time of Richelieu, the Hotel de Rambouillet soon had the exclusive patronage and direction of letters, and exerted an influence which was for a long time without a rival. But notwithstanding the excellence of its motives, it could not escape the law which governs all literary coteries. In time it engendered mannerism and affectation. The discussions turned upon idle and frivolous questions, upon the merits of roundelays, madrigals, enigmas, and acrostics. The women who frequented the Hotel de Rambouillet took the name of Pre'cieuses. It was a title of honor and a sort of diploma of talent and purity; but when pedantry and affectation had begun to draw down upon them the shafts of the satirists, it lost its original meaning, the epithet ridicules was appended to it, and Moliere, with his pungent irony, gave the fatal blow to the literary fame of the celebrated salon by holding it up to public laughter in his "Pre'cieuses Ridicules" and his "FemmesSavantes." The name Hotel de Rambouillet is at present only a derisive sobriquet.
The house o( Mile, de L'Enclos was a hranch establishment of the Hdttl de Rambouillet. J Janm.
The great comedienne [Comat] had her court and her Hotel Rambouillet
Roger de Beauvotr.
Hdtel de Ville. [City-Hall.] A general term applied in France and Belgium to the buildings used for municipal offices, some of which are among the finest existing specimens of architecture. See infra.
Hotel de Ville. A large and beautiful building in Paris, the official residence of the Prefect of the Seine. It contained also rooms for the public festivals of the city, the sittings of the council, and meetings of learned and scientific societies. It was adorned by sculptures which were chiefly from the hand of Jean Goujon. The building had many interesting historical associations; the