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Are de I'Etoile, or Aro de Triomphe. A very large and fine triumphal arch at the west end of the Champs-Elysees, Paris. It is one of the chief ornaments of the city, and, from its high situation, commands an extensive view over Paris. In 1806 Napoleon resolved to build this arch, and its construction was begun; but the work as now seen was not finished until 1836, after the accession of Louis Philippe. It is of a classical design; and the whole structure is 161 feet high, 145 feet wide, and 110 feet deep.
JS" M It was not, however, till we stood almost beneath It that we really felt the grandeur of this great arcb, including so large a space of the blue sky in its airy sweep. At a distance It impresses the spectator with its solidity; nearer, with the lofty vacancy beneath it." Havttlwmt.
She CMme. de B ] li not a cabinet
minister, sbe Is not a marshal of Franco, she has no appointment* In her gift, she lives beyond the Arc de I'Etoile; hut. for all that, people go to visit her from the four corners of Paris. Taine, Tram.
With every respect for Kensington turnpike, I own that the Arc de I'Etoile at Paris is a much finer entrance to an imperial capital. Thackeray.
You find here [In Rome] loss space and stone work, less material grandeur thnn In the Place de la Concorde, and in the Arc de Triomphe. but more Invention and more to interest you. Taine, Tram.
Arc ,de Triomphe. See Arc I>e L'etoii.e.
Arc du Carrousel. A triumphal arch in the centre of the Place du Carrousel, Paris, 48 feet high, 65 feet wide, begun in 1806.' It is a copy, with alterations, of the Arch of Severus at Home. Formerly the Arc du Carrousel was surmounted by four horses of bronze from St. Mark'B, Venice; but these were returned to Venice in 1814.
Arcade, The. A well-known building in Providence, R.I., being an immense granite bazaar 225 feet in length by 80 feet in depth (in parts 130 feet deep), containing under one glass roof 78 stores. The building was erected in 1828.
Arcadian Academy. [Ital. Accademia degli Arcadi.] A literary
institute at Rome, founded in 1U1K), which still holds its meetings in the Capitol. Its aim, which it failed to reach, was to improve the literary taste of the time, and at one period it numbered some 2,000 members. Its laws were drawn out in ten tables, its constitution was republican, its first magistrate was called custos, and its members shejiherds. Goethe was enrolled as an Arcadian in 1788.
Jfcd* " Each person on his admission took a pastoral name, and had an Arcadian name assigned to liim: tbc business of the meetings was to be conducted wholly in the allegorical language, and the speeches and verses as much so as possible. . . . The Arcadia has survived all the changes of Italy; it still holds its meetings in Home, listens to pastoral sonnets, and christens Italian clergymen, English squires, and German counsellors of state, by the names of the heathens. It publishes moreover a regular journal, the triornaif- Areadico, which, although it was a favorite object of ridicule with ihe men of letters in other provinces, eondescends to follow slowly the progress of knowledge, and often furnishes foreigners with interesting Information, not only literary but scientific."
Arch of Augustus. An old Roman memorial arch in Rimini, Italy.
Arch of Constantino. One of the most imposing monuments of ancient Rome, standing over the Via Triumphalis. It is ornamented with bas-reliefs and medallions illustrating the history of Trajan. These were taken from an arch of Trajan to decorate that of Constantine, though some writers have regarded the whole structure of Constantine as a transformed arch of Trajan. The frieze and sculptures upon the arch, which are of the time of Constantine, show plainly the decay which the art of sculpture had suffered since the age Of Trajan.
B&- " The Arch of Constantino . . . Is, I think, by far the most noble of the triumphal arches of Rome. Its superiority arises partly, no doubt, from its fine preservation. Its ancient magnificence still stands unimpaired."
C. A. Eaton.
Arch of Drusus. A triumphal arch near the gate of San Seuastiano in Rome, the oldest monument of this kind now in existence in the city.
Arch of Hadrian. This gate, on the outskirts of the modern city of Athens, Greece, is inscribed on the side toward the Acropolis, "This is Athens, the ancient city of Theseus;" on the other side, "This is the city of Hadrian, and not of Theseus."
Arch of Janus. (Quadrifrons.) This structure, which is rather inaccurately called an arch, since it consists of four arches, is now standing in what was once the Forum Boariura, Rome. It is a large square mass, each of its four fronts being pierced with an arch, which gives rise to the belief that it was a Compitum, a kind of structure which was generally erected at the meeting of four roads. It is supposed to have been used as a shelter from the sun and rain, and as an exchange or place of business for those trading in the Forum. The date of its construction is unknown, though it has been usually assigned to the time of Septimius Severus (146-211), and by some to as late an age as that of Constantino.
9Gp " I know few ruins more picturesque and venerable than this. 'Hiat this arch is a work of imperial Rome, there can be no doubt, but the date of its erection is purely conjectural."
Arch of Septimius Severus. 1. A ncted monument of ancient Rome, standing at the north-west angle of the Forum It was built of marble, A.D. 205, in honor of the emperor Septimius Severus and his sons Caracal la and Gcta, and consists of one large and two smaller arches. It is ornamented with bas-reliefs relating to the Eastern wars of the emperor, and was formerly surmounted by a car drawn by six horses abreast, and containing statues of Septimius Severus and his two sons. The part of the inscription of the
arch relating to Oeta was obliterated after his murder by his brother.
83?- " The heavy and clumsy style of its architecture is sufficiently strik. ing when viewed beside the noble buildings of the Forum, in which it stands. Indeed, I know few ancient edifices in which the art* have been so completely tortured out of their native graces. The whole building is covered with a profusion of bas-reliefs, and their deformity of design and execution is sufficiently evident through all the -injuries of time and accident. . . . Though this arch is entire, the sculpture has evidently suffered from fire.'" Eaton.
g£g~ " In the later days of the Empire two side arches were added for footpassengers, in addition to the carriageway in the centre. This added much to the splendor of the edifice, and gave a greater opportunity for sculp, tural decoration than the single arch afforded. The Arch of Septimius Severus is perhaps the best specimen of the class." Fergutson.
2. There is also a smaller Arch of Septimius Severus in the Velabruin, Rome, near the church of S. Giorgio in Velabro. It was erected to the emperor Severus, his wife Julia, and his sons Caracalla and Geta, by the silversmiths (Argentarii; hence it is also called Arms Argentarius) and tradespeople of the Forum Boarium. The dedication of this arch was changed after the death of Geta, as in the case of the larger arch described above. Arch of Titus. The most elegant triumphal arch in Rome. It stands upon the summit of the Via Sacra, and was erected by the Roman Senate and people in honor of Titus to commemorate the destruction of Jerusalem. As a record of Bible history it is the most interesting ruin in Rome, containing as it does a representation in bas-relief of the spoils brought from the Temple; among which may be recognized the table of shew-bread, the silver trumpets, and the golden seven-branched candlestick which is said to have fallen into the Tiber during the flight of Maxeutius from the onslaught of Constantine. There la a close resemblance between the basreliefs on this arch representing the trophies brought from Jerusalem, and the account of them given by the Jewish historian Josepnus.
W " The Arch of Titus—the moat ancient and perhaps the moat faultless of the Triumphal Arches — waa the -work of an age when the art*, which in the age of Domitlan had degenerated from their ancient simplicity into a style of false and meretricious ornament, had revived in their fullest purity and vigor, beneath the patronage of Trajan. But we now see ft to great disadvantage. The hand of Time has robbed It of much of its ancient beauty, his 'effacing fingers'have obliterated much of the expression and grace and even outline of the bas-reliefs, the design and composition of which we can yet admire." Eaton.
O- " Over the half-worn pavement, and beneath this arch, the Roman armies had trodden in their outward march to fight battles, a world's width away. Returning victorious, with royal captives and inestimable spoil, a Roman triumph, that most gorgeous pageant of earthly pride, has streamed and flaunted in hundred-fold succession over these same flagstones and through this yet stalwart archway."
43- •■ The Arch of Titus is the most graceful in its form of all the Roman arches. . . . The Jews to this day, It Is said, never pass under this arch; avoiding the sight of this mournful record of the downfall of their country and the desecration of their religion." Millard.
I stood beneath the Arch of Titus Ions; On Hebrew forms there sculptured long I pored;
Titus! a loftier arch than thine hath
spanned Rome and the world with empery and law: Thereof each stone was hewn from Israel! Aubrey de Verc
Arch of Trajan. 1. A fine relic of Roman times at Benevento, Italy. The arch, which is nearly perfect, is now called the Porta Aurea.
2. An old Roman triumphal arch in Ancona, Italy.
Archery Guild. [Dutch, het DocUtistiick.] A celebrated picture by Bartholomew van der Heist (1613-1670), the Dutch paiuter.
It Is now in the Amsterdam Gallery. There is a replica of the same now in the Louvre in Paris.
Archimedes, The. The first vessel propelled by a screw. She was built by the English Admiralty in 1838, and made her first trip in 1839.
Arctic, The. A vessel of the Collins line of transatlantic steamers which sank in 1854, with a loss of many lives, in consequence of a collision with the Vesta.
*S""In thatmyeteriousshroud,that vast atmosphere of mist, both steamers were holding their way with rushing prow and roaring wheels, but invisible. At a league's distance, unconscious, and at nearer approach, unwarned; within hall, and bearing right towards each other, unseen, unfelt, till in a moment more, emerging from the gray mists, the ill-omened Venta dealt her deadly stroke to the Jrvtic. . . . In a wild scramble that Ignoble mob of firemen, engineers, waiters, and crew, rushed for the boats, and abandoned the helpless women, children, and men, to the mercy of the deep! Four hours there were from the catastrophe of collision to the catastrophe of Sinking!" H. W. Beechtr.
Ardennes. [Written also poetically Arderu] An ancient forest of vast extent in Belgium and the North of France, of which but little remains at the present time. The Forest of Arden is familiar to readers of "As You Like It." There was an ancient forest named Arden in the central part of England, which has now entirely disappeared. Shakespeare's "Arden" is by some identified with the English forest.
*S-'*The wood of Soignies is supposed to be a remnant of the forest of Ardennes, famous in Boiardo's Orlando, and immortal in Shakespeare's ' As You Like It.* It is also celebrated In Tacitus as being the spot of successful defence by the Germans against the Roman encroachments." Byron.
OH. Where will the old Duke live?
Cha. They say he Is wlready in the Forest of Arden,nn<\ a many merry men with him; and there they live like the did Hobiu Hood of England. Shakespeare,. And Ardennes wave* above them her
That motley clown In Arden wood,
The forest-walks of Arden't (air domain,
Chat Us Lamb.
Ardfert Abbey. An interesting and picturesque monastic ruin in the county of Kerry, Ireland, near Tralee, of high antiquity.
Ardtornish Castle. An ancient ruined castle of the fourteenth century, in the island of Mull, formerly a place of great consequence as a stronghold, and as the headquarters of the "Lords of the Isles." Its situation, on a low basaltic promontory overlooking the sea, is very picturesque. [Written also Arlornisli and Ardlunish.']
Ardtornish on her frowning steep,
Arena, The [of Aries]. A Roman ruin in the city of Aries, France. This amphitheatre is thought to have surpassed in the days of its splendor that at Niines.
There, the hug" Coliseum's tawny brick, The twin arcs hand in hand. But there is
one In mine own country r saw clearer yet. Tbuu art the Aries arena in niv eves, Great ruin! Aubanil, Trans.
Arena, The [of Nimes]. A remarkable Roman ruin at Nimes, in Southern France. The amphitheatre is 437 feet long, 332 feet broad, and 72 feet high, and is one of the finest remains of the kind in existence.
U3~ " Rousseau, In the last century, complained of the neglected state in which the arenas of Nimes were allowed to He. . . . Not till the vear 1810 was an act passed for the clearing of this great amphitheatre, and now there is no obstruction to the view. Situated in the middle of the town, and not fnr from the ancient wall, the arenas [Fr. Les Arines] of Niines have long been fa
mous for their size and preservation. They are supposed to be contemporaneous with the Coliseum. . . . The interior present* only a picturesque mass of ruins, but the principal parts may even yet be easily distinguished."
Le t'evre. Trans. Donald. tiW "If the arena of Aries is better preserved in tbelnlerlor, the wall of that of Nimes is more intact, and its crown has not suffered so much. . . . Taken together these two amphitheatres furnish almost complete dcluils of the construe. Hon of these buildings, tbe purpose of which, and their gigantic proportions, argue a suite of things so different from our own." Mirimce.
Arena, The [of Verona]. A celebrated Roman ruin in Verona, Italy, being an amphitheatre of the age probably of Diocletian, and in a remarkable state of preservation. It is still used for theatrical purposes.
*S- " In the midst of Verona la the great Roman amphitheatre. So well preserved, and carefully maintained, that every row of seats is there, unbroken. Over certain of the arches the old Roman numerals may yet be seen; and there are corridors, and staircases, and subterranean passages for beasts, and winding ways above ground and below, as when the fierce thousands hurried in and out, Intent upon the bloody shows of the arena." JHcluns.
«S" " The amphitheatre is interesting: from the excellent preservation in which the interior still continues. . . . We see here that root of utility out of which the flower architecture springs. The idea of an amphitheatre is simply that of a building in which he who is the most distant, in a horizontal line, shall have the highest place. This is the way In which a crowd, on any occasion of interest,dispose themselves. The amphitheatre is still used for public exhibitions. I could not help thinking what a capital place it would be for a political caucus or a mass-meeting. It will hold twenty-two thousand spectators." IliUard. ITS" " The arena of this amphitheatre [at Verona] is very nearly perfect, owing to the care taken of It during the Middle Ages, when it was often used for tournaments and other spectacles. Its dimensions are 602 feet by 401, and 98 feet high, in three stories, beautifully proportioned." Fergusmn.
IKS- " This edifice seen from above looks like an extinct crater. If one desires to build for eternity it must be in this fashion." Taine, Trans.
Arena Chapel. A celebrated chap6l in Padua, Italy, noted for the line fresco decorations of Giotto (1276-1336), with which its walls are covered. Areopagus. [Hill -of Mars.] A hill in Athens, Greece, on the north-east side of the Agora, and between the Pnyx and the Acropolis.
£9* '* Above the steps [by which the hill is ascended], on the rocky pavement of the hill, are the stone sents on ■which the court of the Areopagus site. In this spot, distinguished by rude simplicity, is assembled the council by whose predecessors heroes and deities are said to have been judged, and whose authority commands respect and enforces obedience when other means fail, and whose wisdom has saved their country in times of difficulty and danger, when there appeared to be no longer any opportunity for deliberation." C. Wordsworth.
Then Paul stood in the midst of Mars' Hill, and said. Ye men of Athens, 1 perceive that In ail things ye are too superstitious. Actixvii. ti. FaUas in figures wrought the heavenly
powers. And Mart's Bill among the Athenian towers. Ovid, Trans.
Arethusa, Fountain of. See FounTain Of Arkthusa.
Argus, The. A noted vessel of the United States Navy, built at Washington, and in service in the war of 1812. She was captured bv the English Pelican, Aug. 14, 1813.
Argyll House. A mansion in Argyll Street, London, formerly the residence of the Duke of Argyll, taken down in 1862. Or hail at once the patron and the pile Of vice and folly. Greville and Aroule! Where von proud palace, Fashion's hal
Argyll Rooms. Formerly a fashionable place of entertainment in London, where balls, concerts, etc., were held. The buildings were burnt down in 1830.
While walking through the niehtly procession of the Haymarket, I thnneht about the Argyll Rooms, a sort of pleatare casino wuiell 1 bud visited the nitrht before. Taint, Truus.
Ariadne. A famous Greek statue, representing Ariadne sleeping. It was at one time thought to be a figure of Cleopatra. In the Gallery of Statues in the Vatican, Rome.
*iv "The effect of sleep, so remarkable in tbis statue, and which could not have been rendered by merely closing the lids over the eyes, is produced by giving positive form to the eyelashes, a distinct ridge being raised at right angles to the surface of the lids."
JES-" One of the finest works of antiquity . . . especially ndmlrable for the drapery, which bangs in the most natural folds, revealing tbe fine outline of tbe limbs which it veils, but managed with great refinement."
O. S. B'Mard.
Ariadne. A well-known and much admired group of statuary, representing Ariadne on a panther, by Johann Heinrich Dannecker (1758-1811). In the Ariadneum, or Museum of Bethmann, in Frankfort-on-the-Main.
Ariadne. See Bacchus And AbiAune.
Ariosto's House. The bouse of the poet (1474-1533) is still standing in the Via dei Ariostei, Ferrara, Italy.
Arkansas, The. A monster armorplated " ram " of the Confederate Navy, in the war of the Rebellion. Her mission was to "drive the Yankees from New Orleans." For that pur|>ose she went down the river; but encountering the three Union gunboats, the Essex, Cayuga, and Sumter, she was driven ashore and set on tire.
Arkhangelsk! Sabor. See St Michakl's.
Aries Amphitheatre [or Arena]. See Akena.
Arlington House. A noted mansion on the heights opposite Washington, D.C., overlooking the Potomac. It was once the property of Gen. Washington, who left it to his adopted son, George Washington Parke Custis, from whom it descended to Robert E. Lee, the General of the