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work, with tbe evil ballad of ' Moll Flanders' hungup un his loom; while tbe pleasant, comely-faced youth is aedufously minding his business, with tbe volume of tbo' Apprentices' Guide' lying open before him, through each intervening stage of the rise and fall ... on to the noble pathos of the last meeting of the early companions, when tbe justice on the bench bides his face after pronouncing condemnation on tho felon at the bar." Sarah TyiUr.
Idle Servant Maid. A picture by Nicolas Maas (1G32-1G93), the Dutch 7enjc-painter, and one of his principal works. In the National Gallery, London.
Idlewild. An estate on the Hudson River, near the village of Cornwall, N. Y., formerly tho home of N. P. Willis.
Idolino, V. [The Little Image.] An ancient statue. Now in the Uffizi, Florence, Italy.
If. A famous castle, used as a state prison in part for political offenders, situated upon a small island of the same name in the Mediterranean, near Marseilles. The name is said to signify a yewtree.
Happily, the old marquis himself, in perli*1sof leisure, or forced leisure, whereof he had many, drew up certain " unpublished memoirs "of ills father and progenitors; out of which memoirs young Mlra* beau, also In forced leisure (still more forced, in the Castle of (/!), redacted ono memoir of a very readable sort: bv tho light of this latter, so tar as it will last, we walk with convenience. Carlyle.
Igel Siiule. [The Igel-coluran.] A monumental structure of Roman times near Treves, in Rhenish Prussia. It is a sandstone obelisk, 70 feet in height, with inscriptions and bas-reliefs. It is of uncertain date and origin.
Ikenild Street. An ancient Roman road in Britain. It extended from the coast of Norfolk to the south-west of Cornwall. The name is of uncertain origin.
Udefonso Group, The. A celebrated marble group in the Museum at Madrid, Spain.
«-" F. Tlcck, the sculptor and brother of tbe poet, was the first to suggest that we have here AntlnoUB, the Genius of Hadrian, and Persephone.
. . . Charles Bottichcr started a new solution of the principal problem. According to him it was executed In the lifetime of Antlnous, and it represents ... a sacrifice of fidelity on the part of the two friends Hadrian and Antinous, who have met together before Persephone to ratify a vow of love till death. . . . After all is said, tbe Udefonso marble, like the legend of Antinous, remains a mystery."
J. A. Symonds.
Udefonso, San. See Granja, La.
He de la Cite". [Island of the City.] An island, in Paris, which, previous to 1C08, was divided into two parts. On this island, which is formed by two arms of the Seine, are situated Sainte Chapellc, Notre Dame, the Palais de Justice, the Prefecture do Police, the Tribunal do Commerce, the Morgue, Caserne de Gendarmerie, the Hotel Dieu. Here is the legal quarter of Paris, —the civil, criminal, and commercial law-courts. Here was the principal part of mediaeval Paris.
From tho centro of the T*ont Neuf we could see lor a long distance up nnd down tlie rivtr. The different bridges traced on either Mdo a dozen starry lines through the (lurk air. and a continued blaze lighted the two shores In their whole length, revealing tho outline of the Jslede la Cite. Bayard Taylor.
He de Paix. [Isle of Peace.] A little island in Lake Geneva, commanding a lovely view. It is referred to bv Byron in the "Prisoner of Cliillon."
And then there was a little Isle,
He St. Louis. An island in the
Hioneus. An admired antique kneeling figure in the Glyptothek, or gallery of sculptures, at Munich, Bavaria.
#S- " The head and arms are wanting; but the supplicatory expression of tho attitude, the turn of the body, the bloom of adolescence, which seemB absolutely shed over the cold marble, the unequalled delicacy and elegance of the whole, touched me deeply."
Immaculate Conception [of the Virgin Mary]. A picture by Giuseppe Ribera, called Lo Spagnoletto (1588-1056), and one of liis chief .works. In the gallery of Madrid, Spain.
Immaculate Conception. See G«eat Co>xr.i'TiON Of Seville.
InarimtS. A ruined castle at Ischia, once occupied by Vittoria Colonna.
High o'er the sea-surge and the sands,
Ashure In- storms, thy custle stands
'1 hy castle on the crags above In dust shall crumble aiid decay.
But not ihe niemoiy of her love.
Incendio del Borgo. [Burning of the Borgo.] A celebrated fresco by Raphael Sauzio (148.V15J0), representing the fire in the Borgo, or suburb, of Rome, which was miraculously extinguished by the Pope. It is in a chamber oi the Vatican, Rome, called, after this picture, the Stanza del Incendio.
Incendio del Borgo. See Stanze Of Raphael.
Inchcape, or Bell Rock. The celebrated and dangerous sunken reef known as the Inch Cape, or Bell Rock, is in the German Ocean, on the northern side of the entrance of the Firth of Forth, and about twelve miles from land. An abbot of Aberbrothock (Arbroath) is said to have placed a bell here, as a warning to sailors, which was cut loose by a Dutch rover, who, as a retribution for this mischievous act, was subsequently wrecked upon the very same rock. This story, which is an old tradition, is told by Southey in his wellknown ballad of " The Inchcape Rock." See Bell Rock LightHouse.
*3~ " In old times upon the snide rock there was a bell fixed upon a timber, which rang continunlly, being moved by the sea, giving notice to snylers of the danger. This bell was put there and maintained by the abbot of Aberbrothock; but, being taken down by a sen-pirate, a yenre thereafter he perished upon the same rocke, with chip and goodes, in the righteous Judgement of God."
Stoddart, lUmarkt on Scotland.
The Abbot of Aberbrothock
Incredulity of St. Thomas. -V picture by Giovanni Battista Cima, called le Conegliano(b. about 1400). Now in the National Gallery, London. There is another work of a similar character in the Brera, Milan, Italy.
Incredulity of St. Thomas. A distinguished picture by Giovanni Francesco Barbieri, sttrnauied Guer.:ino(1590-1GOO). Iu the Vatican, Rome.
Independence, Fort. See Fort Independence.
Independence Hall. A building on Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, rich in historical associations, and regarded as the birthplace of the American Republic. Here the Continental Congress assembled. Here in June, 1775, George Washington was chosen commander of the American forces. Here on July 4, 177(i, the Declaration of Iudependence was adopted by Congress, and read to a great multitude assembled in front of the building amidst the ringing of bells and prodigious enthusiasm. It is from this circumstance that the edifice derived its name. The halls are now used »is a museum and a receptacle for curiosities and relics connected with the history of the country. It contains portraits of the Revolutionary patriots, specimens of old furniture, autographs, and other souvenirs of the past, including the famous Liberty Bell.
Independence Square. A public ground in Philadelphia, Penn., contiguous to Independence Hall, from which the Declaration of Independence was read to the people assembled in the square.
India Docks. See East Indu Docks and West India Docks.
India House. See East India House.
India Museum. A celebrated collection of curiosities formerly in the East India House (?.».), afterwards in Fife House, Whitehall, and now at the South Kensington Museum. Large additions have been made to tlie old collection, exhibiting the riches and resources of British India. It contains, besides historical relics and antiquities, specimens of the natural productions, arts, manufactures, etc., of India.
Indian Chief. A statue by Thomas Crawford (1818-1857). In the hall of the New York Historical Society.
Indian Hill. An old mansion near Newburyport, Mass., the residence of Ben: Perley Poore. It is noted for the historical curiosities which it contains.
Indianola, The. A powerful ironclad steamer of the United States navy in the civil war in 186105. She ran safely the batteries at Vicksburg, but was finally captured by a Confederate " ram."
Industrie, Palais de 1*. See PaLais DE L'iNDUSTRIE.
Infant Hercules strangling the Serpents. A mythological picture bv Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792), the celebrated English portrait-painter. It was painted for the Empress of Russia, and is regarded as one of his best works.
Inferno. [Hell.] A celebrated fresco bv Andrea di Cioni, called Orcagna" (1325?-1385?). In the Cainjx> Santo, Pisa, Italy.
Influence of Christianity in the Arts. A large and noted picture by FriedrichOverbeck(178(>-18K(l). In the Stadel Institut, Frankforton-the-Main.
$fiB~ "Among the oil-paintings by Overbeck, the 1'riumph or Religion in the Art*, one of the choicest treasures in the Stadel Institute, is certainly the most elaborate and ambitious. This grand composition, which may be likened in its intent to RaphnePs ' School of Athens,' or to the 'Uemicycle' by
Delaroche, has been aptly termed by German critics the 'Christian Parnassus,' the dawn of light In Europe."
I. B. Atkinson.
Inghirami, Fedra. A portrait byRaphael Sanzio (1483-1520). In the Pitti palace, Florence, Italy.
Inisceaitra. [Holy Island.] An islet in the Shannon, in the county of Clare, Ireland, famous from very early ages for its reputed sanctity.
*5~ " It possesses structures belonging to the Pagan as well as Christian periods, — a round tower, and seven small churches, or rather celts, or oratories. The round tower is about 70 feet high, and is in good preservation. . . . lioly Island continues a favorite burial-place with the peasantry; and although its religious establishments are ruined and desecrated, the ancient sanctity of its character still endures, and pilgrims from remote distances seek its shores. On the patron, or festival, day of St.Camin (12th of March), 1 the crowd of these devotees is very great." Mr. and Mr*. Halt.
Inner Temple. One of the four Inns of Court in London which have the exclusive privilege of conferring the degree of barrister-at-law requisite for practising as an advocate or counsel in the superior courts. The gentlemen of the Inner Temple were of old famed fortheir plays, masques, revels, and other sumptuous entertainments. Among the eminent members were Littleton and Coke, Sir Christopher Hatton, Selden, Judge Jeffreys, and the poets Beaumont and Cowper. The Inns of Court have always been celebrated for the beauty of their gardens. In the "Temple Garden," Shakespeare has laid the scene of the origin of the red and white roses as the cognizances of the houses of York and Lancaster. The red and white Provence rose no longer blossoms here; but the gardens are carefully kept, and are very attractive.
In signal of my love to thee.
Agninst proud Somerset and William
Poole, Will 1 upon thy party wear this rose: And here I prophesy, — this brnwl to-diy. Grown to this faction. In the Temple Oarden,
Shall send, between the red rose and the
white, A thousand souls to death and deadly
Shakespeare, Henry VI., Pi. 1.' JEB" " I was born, and passed the first seven years of my life, in the Temple. Its church, its halls. Us gardens, its fountain, its river I had almost said, — for in those young years, what was this king of rivers to mc but a stream that watered, our pleasant
fdaces? —these are of ray oldest recolections. I repeat, to this day, no verses to myself raoro frequently, or with kindlier emotion, than those of Spenser, where he speaks of this spot.
There when they came, whereas those
brlcky towers. The which on Themmea brode aged back
duth ride. Where now the studious lawyers have
Indeed, it is the most elegant spot In
confronting, with massy contrast, the lighter, older, more 'fantastically shrouded one, named of Harcotirt, with the cheerful Crown-office Kow (place of my kindly engendure), right opposite the stately stream which washes the garden-foot with her yet scarcely trade-polluted waters, and seems but Just weaned from her Twickenham Naiads! a man would give something to have been born in such places."
Charles Lamb. Innocents. See Fontaink Des InNocents and Massacre Op The Innocents.
Inna of Court. The name given to the celebrated law-colleges in London, known respectively as the Inner Temple, Middle Tem
i»le, Lincoln's Inn, and Gray's nn. The Inns of Court, were so called because the students of the law belonged to the "King's Court." James I. is said to have declared that there were only three classes of. persons who had
any right to settle in London,"the courtiers, the citizens, and the gentlemen of the Inns of Court." The lawyers were unpopular in the time of Jack Cade's rebellion; and Shakespeare, in "Henry VI.," represents Jack Cade as saying, "Now go some and pull down the Savoy; others the Inns of Court; down with them all!" See Inner Temple, Middle Temple, Lincoln's Lvy, and Gray's Inn.
"The Inns of Court are intere«tln|r to others besides lawyers, for they ire the last working institutions in the nature of the old trade-guilds. It li no longer necessary that a shoemaker should he approved by the company of the craft before he can apply himself to making shoes for his customers; and a man may keep nn oyster-stall without being forced to serve an apprenticeship, and be admitted to the Livery of the great Whig Company; but the lawvers'guilds guard the entrance to the law, and prescribe the rules under which it shall be practised."
The lawyers discussed law or literatim*, criticised the last new play, or retailed the freshest Westminster Half" bite" at Ntndo's or the Grecian, both clo»e on the purileus of the Temple. Here the voung bloods of the Jttns qf Court paraded" their Iudliin (.'owns and laee cups of a morning, and swagucred In their lace coot* and Mechlin ruffles at night, after the theatre. National Jierie*.
They [Christ-Churchmen] were dominant at Oxford, powerful in the hut of Court and in the College of Physicians, conspicuous In parliament ;m.i In the literary and fashionable circles of London. Macaulay.
Institut, Palais de 1*. See Palais De L'institut.
Insurgento, L\ [The Insurgent.] A famous French frigate of 40 guns, captured by the Unitai States vessel of war Constdlntion, in 1708. The Insurgent* was at that time one of the fastest sailing vessels in the world.
Intermontium. The ancient Latin name of the place in Rome now occupied by the Piazza del Campidoglio. See Piazza Del Cam
Intrepid, The. 1. A famous vessel, originally a Tripolitan ketch, captured by Stephen Decatur,
and in which he accomplished his brilliant uaval exploit of destroying; vessels in the harbor of Tripoli, Feb. 10, 1804. Later, the Intrepid was used as a floating mine to destroy the Tripolitan cruisers in the harbor. The ship was exploded with a terrible concussion, but the brave men who went on the expedition never returned.
*3- " Nearly fourscore years their fate has been an impenetrable secret. At the front of the midshipmen's quarter* at Annapolis [Md.J stands a fine monument erected to their memory, and of those who periBhed on the 7th of August, by the officers of the navy. The monument is of white marble, and U about 40 feet in height." Lowing.
2. An Arctic exploring ship which set sail from England under Commander Austin in 1850.
Invalides, Hotel deg. One of the chief public monuments of Paris. It was begun by Louis XIV. in 1671, as an asylum for the soldiers wounded and maimed in his numerous wars. At the revolution of 1793 it was called the Temple of Humanity; under the reign of Napoleon, the Temple of Mars. The building is capable of containing 5,000 persons. Its library and council chamber contain some interesting objects, but the church is the most attractive part of the institution. The portico and dome are exceedingly beautiful, as is also the interior of the church. It contains the grand mausoleum of Napoleon, and his remains as they were brought from St. Helena. Bertram! and Duroc, the near friends and companions of Napoleon, lie on each Bide of the entrance »l the crypt that leads to his tomb.
Jkj- " In the afternoon we went to the llOlel des Invalides, which contains 3,000 old soldiers. Those who were wounded in the Crimean campaign are, however, nearly all sent to their own homes with an allowance of fix hundred francs." Count Moltke, Trail*.
W" The dome of the Invalides rises upon the eye from all parts of Paris, a perfect model of proportion
and beauty. It was this which Bonaparte ordered to be gilded, to divert the people from thinking too much upon his defeat. . . . The interior of the dome is vast, and of a splendid style of architecture; and out from one of iu sides extends a superb chapel hung all round with the tattered flags taken in his victories alone." N. P. Willis.
The Lion [of St. Mark's] has lost nothing by his journey to the Invalides but the Gospel which supported the paw that is now on a level with the other tout.
The beautiful ssrcophapus of Scipio. the
silent soldier of the Invalides. vet speaks
In graceful epitaphs. II. T. tuckerman.
I walked the day out, listening to the
chink Of the flrst Napoleon's dry bones, as they
lay In his second grave beneath the golden
dome That caps all Paris like a bubble.
Inverary Castle. A baronial mansion near Inverary, Scotland, the seat of the Duke of Argyle.
Inverleithen. A watering-place at the junction of the Leithen Water and Tweed, somewhat celebrated for its mineral springs. This spot is the scene of "St. Ronan s Well."
Inverna. The name given in some parts of Italy to a wind blowing from the south.
Investigator, The. An Arctic exploring ship, the companion ship to the Enterprise, in Sir James Ross's expedition, set sail from England in 1848.
Invincible Armada. See ArmaDa, The Invincible.
Io and Jupiter. A picture by Antonio Allegri, surnamed Correggio (14SH-1534). In the Museum of Berlin, Prussia. The head of this picture, which was formerly in the Orleans Gallery, was cut ■ out by the son of its owner, the Duke of Orleans, "because it was too voluptuous in expression." Another was substituted by Prud'bon. A replica of this picture, or what is believed to be such, is in the gallery at Vienna, Austria.
Ireland S"ard. A locality in London, England. So called from