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one William Ireland. His name occurs in a deed by which a house on this site was conveyed to Shakespeare.
Iron Crown (of Lombardy). A famous crown, consisting of *' a broad fillet of gold, within which runs a thin circlet or hoop of iron, formed of one of the nails of the Holy Cross beaten out." It is said to have been brought from the Holy Land by the Empress Helena. As many as 34 kings, including the emperors Charles V. and Napoleon Bonaparte, have been crowned with it. Until the year 1859 it was kept in the Chapel of the Holy Nail (Santo Chicdo) in the Cathedral of St. John, in Monza, Italy; but it is now preserved in tlie Belvedere Museum at Vienna, Austria, the model alone being shown at Monza.
Iron Gates. A celebrated rass on the Lower Danube, near Gladova, where a spur of the Transylvanian Alps nearly barricades the river.
&r*- "A mile and a half of slow, trembling, exciting progress, and we have mounted the heaviest grade; but six hours of the same tremendous scenery awaits us. We pierce yet sublimer solitudes, and look on pictures of precipice and piled rock, of cavern and yawning gorge, and mountain walls, almost shutting out the day, such as no other river in Europe can show."
Iron Mask. A black mask, not of iron, as the popular name would imply, but of black velvet, stiffened with whalebone, and fastened behind the head with a padloek or by steel springs. It owes its celebrity to the fact that in the reign of Louis XIV. it served to conceal the features of the mysterious state prisoner of France, known in consequence as the Man with the Iron Mask (L'Homme an Masque de Fer), about whom there has been much difference of opinion, and whose identity has never been satisfactorily determined. He was secretly conveyed, about 1079, wear
ing this mask as a disguise, to the castle of Pignerol. In 1686 he was removed to the isle of Saint* Margucrite.^nd in 1698 was carried to the Bastille, where he dial in 1703. He was always treated with great respect and" courtesy, but was continually watched, and during all these years of imprisonment was never seen without the concealment of the Iron Mask.
£3- He has been variously conjectured to have been a son of Anne of Austria and Cardinal Mazaiin (Gibbon argues in favor of this theorv); a twill brother of Louis XIV. (Voltaire, among others, adopts this view); die Duke of Monmouth; and Fouqnt*. Among these and other suppositions the one now generally received is, that the disguised prisoner was a Count Matthioll, a minister of Charles III., Duke of Mantua. Delort and Lord Dover adopted this explanation, which is favored in Tophi's "Man with the Iron Mask," 1869, but disputed bv other recent writers. Another theory la, that he was a conspirator against Louis XIV., known as Lefroid. lung hold* this view in his "La Verite But le Masque de Fer," Paris, 1873; but the whole matter Is Involved ill entire uncertainty. Dumas has a story concerning this famous prisoner, entitled " The Iron Mask."
It varied, till I don't think his own mother
t'other; Till cuesslm: from a pleasure Brew a task. At this epistolary " Iron Mali." Bi/ra*.
Iron Virgin. [Gcr. Die Eiserne Junufrau.] A famous instrument of torture, of a kind not uncommon in the Middle Ages, still existing in Nuremberg, Germany. It represents a girl of the fifteenth century. The front, when opened by a spring, discloses the interior lined with pointed spikes which pierced the victim who was forced into it. Beneath is a trap-door into which the body fell.
Ironmongers' Hall. The building of the Ironmongers' Company, one of the old London city companies. In Fenchnrch Street.
Isaac of York. A painting hy Washington Allston (1779-184."). Now in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Mass.
Isaac, Sacrifice of. See Sacrifice Of Isaac.
Isabella. A portrait of Isabella, Governess of the Low Countries, by Anthony van Dyek (15!>J-lf>il). There are several portraits of this priucess by this painter, the best being the one now in the Vienna Gallery.
Isaiah. A picture of the prophet on a pillar of the church of S. Augustine, Rome.
S3- "In the church of the Augustinea Is Raphael's inimitable fresco of Isaiah,— a work sufficient of itself to have crowned his name with immortality. The fire and fervor of the prophet beam from that inspired and holy coun lenance. Even in force and sublimity it wiil bear a comparison with the Prophets and Sibyls which Michael Angvlo has left in the Sistiae Chapel." baton.
Isaiah's Tree. An ancient and venerable mulberry tree in Jerusalem, its trunk propped up by a pile of stones, and deriving its name from the circumstance that it, according to tradition, marks the spot where Manasseh caused the prophet Isaiah to be sawn in two.
Isia, Temple of. See Temple Op Is IS.
Isle of Dogs. An island —formerly a peninsula, but made an island by a canal cut in 1800 — lying in the river Thames, and constituting a part of London. The name is said by some to be a corruption from the Isle of Ducks, from the numbers of wild fowl formerly upon it.
Granted, the ship comes Into harbor with shrouds and tackle damaged; and the pilot I* therefore blame-worthy, tor he has not beeo all-wise and all-powerful: but to know Iwr blameworthy, tell us nr*t whether his voyage has been round the Olo e. or only to Uamsgate and the Isle of bogs. Carlyle.
Isle. See I I.e.
Islington. Now a part of London, but originally two miles north of the town. Said to be so called
from Isheldun, the Lower Fortress. Before the reign of James I. it was a favorite place for the practise of archery. Macaulay, speaking of this now populated district, says, that in the time of Charles I. Islington was almost a solitude; and ]x>ets loved to contrast its silence and repose - with the din and turmoil of the monster London. [Also called IsetUon, Yseldon, Eyscldon, hoiidon, Inendttne.]
Hogsdonc, Islington, and Tothnam Court,
For cakes and cieame had then no small
resort Witlier (1B28).
Let but thv wicked men from out thee
London h.is got a great way from the
streamc. I think she menus to go to Islington. To eat a dish of strawberries and cieame. Thouuu Freeman's Epigrams(lHU).
"It U"»ed to be called Merry Islington once upon a time. Perhaps it's merry n>'W. it so, it's all the better.''—Tom finch. Dxckent.
Tom. Tom. of Islington.
Isly, Battle of. See Battle Of Isly.
Isnah, Temple of.
Isola Bella. [The beautiful island.] An island (one of the socalled Borromean Isles) upon Lago Maggiore, famed for its beauty.
O fairy island of a fairy sea.
Wherein Calypso might have spelled the
Isola Bella, Palace and Gardens of. A famous show-palace, with a delightful prospect and elaborate pleasure-grounds, on the island of Isola Bella (one of the socalled Borromean Isles) iu Lagu Maggiore, Italy.
t&- " Isola Bella looks like a gentlemnii'a villa afloat. A boy would throw n stone entirely over it in any direction. It strikes you as a kind of toy, as you look Hi it from a distance: and, getting nearer, the Illusion scarcely dissipates; for, from the water's edge, the orangeladen terraces are piled, one above another, like a pyramidal fruit-basket, the villa itself peers above like a sugar castle; and it scarce Beems real enough to land upon." if. P. Willin.
Isola Madre. [The Mother Island.] A celebrated island in the Lago Maggiore, one of the four called tlie Borrotnean Islands.
Ishus, Battle of the. See Battle
OF THE ISSUS.
Italiens, Boulevart des. The gayest and most frequented of tlie boulevards of Paris. A modern enthusiast of Paris says, " France is the centre of civilized nations, Paris is the centre of France, the boulevard Uett llahens is the centre of Paris." See Boulevards.
Italy. See Ancient Italy and Modern Italv.
Itaska, The. A noted vessel of the United States Navy in the civil war of ISil-oVS. She was one of Admiral Farragut's flotilla at the attack upon the defences of Mobile, Aug. 5, 18t>».
Ivan Veliki. [Tower of John the Great.] A famous tower in the Kremlin at Moscow, Russia. This tower rises to the height of 20!) feet, and is surmounted by a gided dome.
-8ES~ •' Before us rises the tower of Ivan Veliki, whose massive sturdy walls seem to groan under its load of monster bells. At the foot of the tower stands on a granite pedestal the Tzar KolokoU or Kraperor of Bells, whose renown is world-wide. [*>ee Kmpkrok Of Bells.] In one of the lower stories of the lower hangs another bell cast more than a century before the Tzar Kolokot, and weighing 64 tons. Its iron tongue is swung from side to side by the united exertions of three men. It is only rung thrice a year; and when it speaks, all other bells are silent. To those who stand near the lower, the vibration of the air is said to be like
that which follows the simultaneous discharge of a hundred cannon. In the other stories hang at least 40 or 60 bells, varying In weight from M tons to 1,000 pounds: some of Ihem are one-third silver. When they all sound at once, as on an Easter mom, the very tower must rock on its foundation/' Bayard Taylor.
Ivy-Lane Club. This London club, founded by Dr. Johnson in 1749, met on Tuesday evenings at the King's Head, Ivy Lane, Paternoster Row. See Essex-head Club.
1 remember to have read In some philosopher,—I believe In Tom Brown'* works.
— that, let a man's character, sentiment*. or complexion be what they will, he can find company In London to wstch thera. ... If he be phlegmatic, he mav sit in silence In the hum-drum club in Ity-lant; and if actually mad, he mav lind verv
?:ood company in Moorticlds. cither a*t ledlnm or the Founderv, ready to cultivate a nearer acquaintance. (MdimifA
Izaak Church. A church in St. Petersburg, Russia, begun by the Empress Catherine, and completed by Nicholas I. It is a magnificent structure, with a gilded dome, and one of the most remarkable sights of the Russian capital. The foundation alone, of piles, is said to have cost 81,000,000.
tO- " The finest building In Russia
— In all Northern Europe, indeed—is the Cathedral of St. Izaak. Thirtytwo years of uninterrupted labor, backed by Ihe unlimited resources of the Empire, were required to complete this gigantic work. Its cost is estlmated at 90,000,000 rubles, or *67,6O0,. 000. The design Is simple and majestic; and the various parts are so nicely balanced and harmonized, that at first sight the cathedral appears smaller than is really the case. It grows upon the eye with each visit. . . . Crowning this sublime pile Is the golden hemisphere of the dome, which so flashes in the sunlight that the eye can scarcely bear its splendor. Far out over the Gulf of Finland, it glitters over the evening horizon like a rising star."
See! From the Finland marshes there "lis proud St. haac't rears In air, 1'illar on pillar, that shining dome 1
£. li. Proctor.
Jacinto, San. See San Jactnto.
Jackson Square. A well-known public square and pleasure resort in New Orleans, La. Formerly called the Place d' Arines.
Jacob and Rachel. A well-known picture ascribed to Giorgio Barbarelli, commonly called Giorgione (1477-1511), in the Dresden Gallery. This picture has also been attributed to Pal ma Vecchio, and of late, by some, to Cariani, of Bergamo, Italy.
Jacob blessing the Sons of Joseph. A picture by Rembrandt van Ryn (1606-1669), the Dutch painter. It bears date 1656, and is now in the gallery of Cassel, Germany.
Jacob. See FriTE De Jacob and Vision Of Jacob.
Jacobin Club. A famous political association organized in Paris, France, shortly before the Revolution of 1789. It derives its name from the monastery of Jacobin friars, where its meetings were held.
Jacob's Dream. A fresco bv Raphael Sanzio (1483-1520). In the Stanza of the Heliodorus, in the Vatican, Rome.
Jacob's Dream. A picture by Rembrandt van Ryn (1600-1669), the Dutch painter. Now in the Dulwich Gallery, England.
t&- " Strange to say, the most poetical painter of angels In the seventeenth century is that inspired Dutchman, Rembrandt. For instance, look at his Jacob's Dream, at Dulwich."
Jacob's Dream. A picture by Washington Allston (1779-1843), the American painter. Now at Petworth, England.
Jacob's Flight. See Fuixe De JaCob.
Jacob's Ladder. A picture by Giuseppe Ribera, called Lo Spagnoletto (1588-1650), and one of his best. In the gallery of Madrid, Spain.
Jacob's 'Well. A rock-hewn well, 9 feet in diameter, 75 feet or more "deep," at the foot of Mount Gerizim in Northern Palestine, traditionally held to be the ancient well of the patriarch Jacob, and the same by which Jesus sat wearied at noon, and conversed with the woman of Samaria. Over this well a church was built in very ancient times. It is alluded to by Jerome in the fourth century; and, though destroyed daring the wars of the Crusades, the ruins are still traceable. All circumstances concur with the universal tradition shared in by Jews and Samaritans, by Mohammedans and Christians, to identify this well as the one spoken of in the sacred history. The water in it is at present quite variable, sometimes there being a depth of several feet, and at another time the well being entirely dry.
«3-"No scene of these ancient incidents is more clear and interesting than this. It is impossible not to see his very gestures when he spoke of ■this mountain,'—the Gerizim which rose above him, — and when he bade his hearers lift up their eyes and look on the fields, already ' white unto the harvest,' the tilted lands of Jacob's plain which stretched before him."
Jacques, St. See St. Jacques.
Jama (Gama) Tooloon. See Mosque Of Ahmed Ebn Tooloon.
James, Shrine of St. See Shbine.
James the Apostle. A picture by Albert Diirer (1471-1528), the German painter. Presented by the Emperor Ferdinand III. to the Duke of Tuscany. Now in the Uffizl Gallery, in Florence, Italy.
James's, St. See St. James's
Janioulum, or Janiculan, The. [Lat. Mima Janiculus.] A hill rising abruptly on the west bank of the Tiber, at Rome. It derives its name, according to the tradition generally believed by the ancients, from Janus, the suugod of the Latins. Numa Pompilius is said to have been buried upon Mons Janieulus. Aneus Martius, fourth king of Rome, fortified the Janiculan, and connected it with the city by the first bridge of Rome, the "Pons Sublicius, celebrated in the old Roman lays as the bridge which Horatius Codes defended against the whole Etruscan army under Porsena. The Janiculan is connected with numerous other stories of early Roman history, — with that of Caius Mucins Sca> vola, the young Roman patrician, who. having made his way into the camp of Porsena, with the purpose of killing him, and his intention being discovered, burned off his own right hand, to show that he feared neither torture nor death, — with that of the hostage Clcelia, who escaped from the power of Porsena by swimming across the Tiber.
Januarius, Blood of St. See Blood Of St. Januakius.
Janus, Arch of. See Abch Of
Japanese Palace. See Aitoustkum.
Jardin, lie. [The Garden.] A well-known spot in the Alps, on the Glacier de Talefre, near Chamonix.
Jardin des Flantes. [Garden of Plants.] This garden iu Paris was established by Louis XIII. in 163S. Buffon was made superintendent of it in 172!), and greatly enriched it, besides establishing its museums, galleries, and hot-houses. It has been greatly improved under recent governments; and almost every known flower, shrub, or tree may be seen
here, besides a great variety of birds, beasts, and fishes. Much damage was done to it during the bomliardment of 1871 by the Prussians.
«S~ "This establishment combine* large botanical and zoological garden*, connected with which are most interesting collections uf natural history la every department, and comparative anatomy. The botanical garden i> not to be compared to that at Kew, either in arrangement, number, or luxuriant growth of the plant*; and the zoological one la far surpassed by that in the Kegent's Park." Murray's Handbook.
He [Diderot] cannot work; he hopes to dissipate his melanchulv by a walk; p*1* to the Invnlidcs, to the Courts, to the ltibli«>th6que du Koi. to the Jardm in Plantes Uademouclle bukm
These people nit look like the doleful birds of the Jardm da Plantes, be^lded. striped, befcathered, and sad. tmt rooetuu on a suitable perch. 7Vrtne. Trass.
Jardin Mabille. A famous garden in Paris (Avenue Montaigne. Champs Elysees), which is open in the evening, brilliantly illuminated, and much frequented by the populace for dancing and other amusements. It is much resorted to by " strangers and the women of the demi-monde." The Chateau des Fleurs is now combined with this garden.
«S- " At Mahilte. Plow often I had heard it spoken of! Young men dream of it. Strangers take their wives to see it. Historians will some day speak of it. . . . At ten o'clock in the evening, I go to Mabille. It is a grand ballnight. . . . The men are said to be hired; the women exhibit themselves gratis, though they feel that they are despised. ... A great moving circle floats around the dancers."
£S~ "There are bowers and refreshment-rooms around it, and a large saloon fur wet weather; in fact, it is a Parisian Cremorne without the fireworks and amusements; smaller, but brighter and gayer. This is the best appointed and best attended of all the summer balls." Murray's Handbook. I was never more surprised in my life thsn to see that staid, solemn, meditative, melancholy beast suddenly perk ii|> frith his long ears, and hop about over th-steep paths like a >:oat. Not more surprise' sliiMilii I he to see some venerable D-l>. <»f I'rineetiai leading off a dance in the Jardm Mabille. Btechtr