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Whether they Inhabit princely houses In fashionable streets (which they often do), or nut: whether their sons have gritduatctl at the Jardtn Mabilte. or have been token from their father's shops.

O. W. Curlit.

Jardiniere, La Belle. See Isklle Jardiniere.

Jarvis Gallery. A collection of early Italian pictures in the Art School of Yale College, New Haven, Conn.

Jason. A statue bv Albert Bertel Thorwalclseu (1770-1844), the Danish sculptor.

Jasper Park. A public square in Savannah, Ga., named after Sergeant Jasper, a hero of the war of the Revolution.

Java, The. A British frigate captured during the war of 1812 by the United States frigate Constitution.

Jean Arnolfini. Portrait of, and of Jeanne de Chenany his wife, by the Flemish painter, Jan van Eyck (1370-1441). It is related that the Princess Mary, sister of Charles V., bestowed a post of 100 guldens a year upon the barber to whom it belonged. The picture is now in the National Gallery, London. Jeanne de Chenany. See Jean

Arnolfini. Jebel-er-Rahm. A sacred hill in Arabia, not far from Mecca, and a famous resort of Mohammedan

frilgrims. The tradition is that t is the place where Adam received his wife after their expulsion from Paradise, and a separation of 120 years. Jedburgh Abbey. A well-known ruined monastery in the town of Jedburgh, Scotland.

Kf "The abbey churches of Kelso and Jedburgh, as we now find thorn, belong eimer to the very end of the twelfth, or the beginning of the thirteenth, century. They display all the rude magnificence of the Norraan period used in this instance not expert, mentally, as was too often the ense in England, but as a well-understood stylo, whose features wore fully perfected. The whole was used with a Doric simplicity and boldness which is very remarkable." Ferguston.

Jehoshaphat. See Valley Of Je


Jenny's Whim. A noted place of entertainment in London, said to have been established in the time of George I., and characterized in 1775 as the Vauxhall of the lower class of people. It is no longer in existence.

Jephthah and his Daughter. A work of sculpture by Hezekiah Augur (1791-1858). At Yale College, New Haven, Conn.

Jeremiah. A picture by Washington Allston (1779-184;(). Now in the possession of Yale College, New Haven, Conn.

Jeremiah's Cave. See Cave Of Jekkmiah.

Jerome Park. A park in the neighborhood of the city of New York, a mile from Fordhani, " the most aristocratic race-course in America."

Jerome, St. See St. Jerome and Communion Of St. Jerome.

Jerpoint Abbey. An ancient and impressive ruined monastery near Kilkenny, in the county of Leinster, Ireland. It was founded in 1180.

I gaze where JerpoinVi venerable pile
Majestic in its ruins o'er me lowers.

S. C. Hall.

Jersey, The. A vessel of the British navy used as a prison-ship, in which many Americans were confined during the Revolutionary war.

Jerusalem Chamber. An apartment in the cloisters of Westminster Abbey, London, in which the upper House of Convocation meets, and where King Henry IV. died. It is said to have derived its name from having been hung with tapestries representing the history of Jerusalem.

King Henry. Doth any name particular
Untn the lodging where I first did swoon?
Warwick. "I'ls called Jerusalem, my

noiile lord.
King Henry. Lmid be to God! oven
there inv lite must end.
It hath been prophesied to me many years,
] should not die but in Jerusalem:
Which vainly I supposed the Holy Land:

But bear me to that chamber; there I'll

In that Jerusalem shall Harry die.

Shaltipeare, King Henry IV., Pari II.

«sr* " Out of these walls came the Directory, the Longer and Shorter Cutechisra.ond that famous Confession of Faith which, alone within these islands, was imposed by law on the whole kingdom.'' Dean Stanley.

Jerusalem Coffee-house. An old house in Cornhill, London, resorted to by captains and merchants interested in eastern commerce.

Jerusalem Delivered. A series of five large, frescos, taken from Tasso's poem "La Gerusalemme Liberata," by Friedrich Overbeck (1789-1809). In the Villa Massimi, Rome.

Jerusalem, Destruction of. See Destruction or Jerusalem.

Jerusalem Road. A road leading from Nantasket to Cohasset, Mass., following the line of the coast, with grand ocean scenery, and adorned with many fine villas.

Jerusalem Taverns. Houses in Clerkenwell, London, so called from the ancient priory of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem.

Jesus College. A foundation of the University of Cambridge, England. Established in 14'J6.

Jeux Floraux, Socie'te' des. A society in Toulouse, France, claiming to be the oldest literary institution in Europe, founded in the fourteenth century, and to be derived from the ancient troubadours. It distributes annually prizes of golden and silver flowers for the best essays in prose and verse upon prescribed subjects.

Jewish Cemetery. A picture by Jacob Ruysdael (1025 MG82), the Dutch landscape painter. In the Dresden Gallery.

Jewry, Old. See Old Jewry.

Jews' Quarter. See Ghetto and


Win the Middle Ages the Jews were commonly confined to a certain prescribed quarter of the cities In

which they lived, and, a» a rule, were locked in at night. Among better known districts occupied by them la European cities are the famous " Jews' Quarter " in Rome and that in Prague.

Joachim, St. See St. Joseph And St. Joachim.

Joan of Arc. An admired picture by Paul Delaroche (17W-18S6), the celebrated French historical painter.

Joanna of Aragon. A portrait of this famous beauty, who was the wife of Ferdinand of Aragon, by Raphael Sanzio (14831520), of which there are numer

• ous repetitions. One is in the collection of Baron Speck, of Lutschena, near Leipzig; another in Warwick Castle; another in the Louvre Gallery, Paris. The larger part of this last picture is said to have been executed by Giulio Romano. There is a copy which has sometimes been ascribed, but wrongly, to Leonardo da Vinci, in the ^Palazzo Doria, Rome. There are still other existing copies.

Job, Misfortunes of. A wellknown fresco by Francesco da Volterra in the Carupo Santo, Pisa, Italy.

Joconde, La. See Belle Joconde.

Johanneum, The. An institution in Gratz, Styria. the "pride of Styria," founded in 1812, and containing fine collections of art, and museums of antiquities and of natural science.

John and Peter. A picture of the two apostles, the figures the size of life, by Albert Diirer (1471-1528), the German painter and engraver. Another picture corresponding with this represents the apostles Mark and Paul. These are considered to be the grandest works of this master, and the last executed by him. They are now in the Munich Gallery.

«3- " These pictures are the fruit of the deepest thought which then stirred the mind of Albert Purer, and are executed with overpowerins; force. Finished as they are, they form the first complete work of art produced by rrotcatantism. Well might tho artist now close hi* eyes. He had In this

Eicture attained the summit of art: ere he stands side by side with the greatest masters known in history."

Kugltr. Handbook of Painting.

John Brown's Farm. An estate near-North Elba, in Essex County, N.Y., the former home of the famous abolitionist John Brown (1800-185!!), the invader of Virginia. an<l leader of the expedition against the national arsenal at Harper's Ferry. The houso and farm are now the property of an association organized for its purchase.

John O'Groat's House. This house is celebrated as having been considered the most northerly dwelling in Great Britain. Nothing remains of it but a turf-covered mound. It is related that John O'Groat and his cousins used to meet here once a year to celebrate tho memory of their ancestor De Groot, a Dutchman who had settled here long previous. They fell into a dispute as to which should preside at table; and John settled the difficulty by building a room with as many sides as there were cousins, and with a corresponding number of doors, and sides to the table, so that each, or neither, might be considered as presiding.

Hear, land <>' cakes, and brither Scots,
Frae Maldcnkirk to John o' Groat's,
If there's a hole tn a" yourcoau,

I rede yc tent it:
A chiefs am.mg you takln' notes.

And, faith, he'll preut it. Burns.

I was with a commercial friend at the hour of the mid-day meal; and he proposed luncheon, adding, "Let's go to Crosby Hall." 1 did not quite apprehend his meaning. It was much as If he had pro

Soaed to mo to take luncheon with him In tonehenje or John O' Groat's house.

Richard Grant White.

John, St. See St. John.

John the Baptist. An altar-piece representing three scenes in his life, by the Flemish painter Roger van der 'Weyden (d. 1464). These pictures were formerly in Spain, but are now in the Museum of Berlin, Prussia.

John the Baptist in the Wilderness. A well-known picture by Raphael Sanzio (148H-1520), in the Umzi Gallery, Florence, Italy. It is supposed that this picture was executed in part by other hands. Similar pictures in the Louvre, Paris, at Bologna, and elsewhere, are thought to have been taken from it.

John the Baptist. See BeheadIng Of St. John.

John's, St. See St. John's.

Johnson's Court. A place in London near Fleet Street, known as one of the residences of Dr. Johnson. It did not, however, derive its name from him.

We Ourselves, not without labor and risk, lately discovered Gouph Square, between Fleet Street and Holborn (adjoining both to Bolt Court and Johnson's Court), and on the second day of search the very house there, wherein the English Dictionary was composed. Cartole.

Jonah. A statue executed by Raphael (1483-15;>0), the Italian painter, and pronounced "a re.markable work of sculpture." It is in the Chigi Chapel, S. Maria Novella, Florence, Italy.

ttBm" Raphael, who handled the myth of Cupid and Psyche so magnificently In the Villa Farnesinn of his patron Agostino Chigi, dedicated a Btatue of Antinous, — the only statuo he ever executed in marble, — under the title of a Hebrew prophet In a Christian sanctuary. The fact is no less significant than strange. During tho early centuries of Christianity . . . Jonah symbolized self-sacrifice and immortality. During those same centuries Antinous represented those snrae ideas, however inadequately, and for the unlettered laity of Pagnnism. It could scarcely have been by accident, or by mere admiration for the features of Antinous, that Raphael, in his marble, blent the Christian and the Pagan traditions. To unify and to transcend the double views of Christianity and Paganism in a work of pure art waa Raphael's instinctive, if not his conscious, aim." J. A. Symonds.

Jonathan's. A former coffeehouse and resort of stock-jobbers in Change Alley, London.

The Cits met to discuss the rise and fall of stocks, and to settle the rate of Insurance, at Garraway's or Jonathan's.

Sufwnal lievieu.

Joseph. See St. Joseph and Potiphar's Wife Accusinq JoSeph.

Joseph sold Into Captivity. A fresco-painting by Friedrich Overbeck (1789-1869). Executed for the villa of the consul-general Bartholdy, in Rome.

Joseph's Coat. A celebrated picture by Diego Rodriguez de Silva y Velasquez (1599-1660), the Spanish painter. In the Museum of Madrid, Spain.

Joseph's Tomb. A burial-place near Mount Gerizim and Jacob's Well in Northern Palestine, traditionally held to be the tomb of the patriarch Joseph. It is believed to be genuine. .

Joseph's Well. A well of a total depth of 290 feet on the citadel hill at Cairo, Egypt, supposed to be so called from Yoosef, the other name of Saladin, by whom it was cleared of the sand which had filled it. . It is thought to have been cut in the rock bv the ancient Egyptians. It is built in two stages, the water being raised from the bottom to the first stage by donkeys or bullocks, and from the first stage to the top in the same manner.

Joux, Chateau de. A noted castle near Pontarlier in France, situated on a lofty hill, and memorable as having been the place of confinement of Toussaint L' Ouverture, who died here, and also of Mirabeau.

Solely by wav of variation, not of alleviation (especially as the If Cerberus too lias been bewitched), he has this sinner Dliralicau] removed In May next, alter some nine months space, to the Catilrof JOUJ-: an "old Owl's nest, with a few invalids," among the Jura Mountains.


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Joys and Sorrows of the Virgin. See Virgin.

Judenstadt. [ Jews'-town]. A famous quarter in Prague, Bohemia, occupied by Jews, and one of the most widely known Ghettm, or Jews' quarters, of those existing in any city. The Jews were formerly confined here, and the gates locked at eight o'clock in the evening; but all restrictions are now removed. In this close quarter of narrow labyrinthine streets are huddled toget her some 8,000 Jews. It is supposed to be the oldest Jewish settlement in Europe, the colony having existed, according to tradition, before the downfall of Jerusalem. In another quarter of the city is a celebrated Jewish cemetery of great antiquity, but no longer used.

Judge's Cave. A cleft in a group of rocks near New Haven. Conn., where the famous regicides Goffe and Whalley were secreted for a time in 1661.

Judgment, Last. See Last JcdgMent.

Judgment of Paris. A

L picture by Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640). It is in the National Gallery in London.

2. A picture by Angelica Kauffman (1741-1807).

Judgment of Solomon. 1. A picture by Giorgio Barbarelli, commonly called Giorgione (14771511). In the Uffizi Palace, Florence, Italy.

2. A noted picture by Benjamin Robert Haydon (1786-1846).

Judgment of the Gods. See Feast Of The Gods.

Judith and Holofemes. A wellknown bronze statue bv Donato di Betto Bardi, called Donatello (1381-14116). In the Loggia de' Lanzi, Florence, Italy.

*«T- "The Judith —a strange rather than an attractive work— was removed from the Medici Palace in the year 1495, and set up at the entrance of" the palace of the Government."

Grimm, 7Vo<ii.

Judith and Holofernes. A picture by Andrea Mantegna (H.'tO-lSOO). In the Museum at Florence, Italy.

Judith and Holofernes. One of the frescos of Michael Angelo (1474-151)4). In the Sistine Chapel, Home.

Judith and Holofernes. An admired picture by Cristofano Allori (1577-1IS21). In the Pitti Palace, Florence, Italy. There are repetitions of this picture, one in the Belvedere, Vienna, another in the Uftizi, Florence.

Juggernaut. A celebrated temple at Juggernaut, in India. It is the most famous place of pilgrimage in Hindostan. The name Juggernaut signifies the Lord of the World. In this temple is an image gorgeously decorated, ■which is carried on* festal davs upon a car moving upon wheels, and is drawn by people. The old belief, that while this car was moving along the crowded streets numbers of devout worshippers would throw themselves upon the ground in order to be crushed by the wheels, as an act of sacrifice to the idol deity, is now understood to be a gross exaggeration, the loss of life which occasionally attends the moving vehicle being the result of accident rather than intention. [Written also Jiiyyemath.]

»y"The -Asiatic Society has presented the French Government with a model of the temple and the processional car of Juggernaut. This precious specimen of art of the Middle Agca (119S) is placed in the Louvre, at l'aris.'' Le/evre. Tr. Donald.

A thousand pilgrims strain
Arm. shoulder, breast, and thigh, with
might and main.
To drag that sacred wain.
And scarce can draw along the enormous

I'ronc fall the frantic votaries In its road,

And. calling on the god.
Their self-devoted bodies there they lay
To pave his chariot-way.
On Jana~Sa>it they call.
The ponderous car rolls on, and crushes

Through flesh and bones It ploughs Kb
dreadful path.
Groans rise unheard; the dying cry,
And death and a^juny

Are trodden nnder foot by yon mad throng

"Who follow close, and thrust the deadly

wheels along. Southey.

Juillet, Colonne de. See Colonne De Juilust.

Julian, St. See St. Julian.

Julius Caesar. See Death Of JuLius Cesar and Triumphs Of Julius Cesar.

Julius II. A celebrated portrait of this pope by Raphael Sanzio (14H.T-1520), representing him as seated in an arm-chair, wrapt in meditation. It is adjudged one of Raphael's best portraits. Among the well-known copies of this picture are one in the Uftizi Gallery, Florence, one in the National Gallery, London, and another in the Berlin Museum.

Jumna Musjeed. A famous Mohammedan temple or mosque at Delhi, Hindostan. It is built of sandstone and white marble. Jungfernstieg. [The Maiden's Walk.J A fashionable promenade in the city of Hamburg, Germany. It is a broad walk around the sides of a basin of water formed by damming up the small river Alster. It is a scene of much animation on summer evenings when the surface of the water is covered with gaylypainted boats.

Junior United Service Club. A London club, founded in 1826. See United Service Club.

Some of our party . . . made choice of the cluh-housc In Commercial Square [Gibraltar], . . . rather, perhaps, resembling the Junior United Service Club In Cnarles Street, by which every Londoner has passed ere this witli respectful pleasure, catching glimpses of magnificent blazlne caudelabraa. under which sit neat half-pay officers, drinking half-pints of Port. Thackeray.

Juno. A celebrated head of the goddess in the Villa Ludovisi, Rome, and hence generally known as the Ludovisi Juno. It has been ascribed to the Greek sculptor, Polyeleitus the Elder (452 ?-112 t B.C.). See Barbekini Juno.

O-" There is a head of 'Juno, Queen,'possessing a grandeur and seriousness altogether sublime. I do not believe there is any thing superior to it in Rome." Taint, Tran:

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