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Confederate Armv. During the war of the Rebellion the estate was a camp-ground for the Federal troops, and the house was occupied as a headquarters. In 1863 the place was sold, and came into the possession of the United States.
Armada, The Spanish. This famous naval armament, or expedition, known as the Invincible Armada, was collected by Philip II. of Spain, and by him sent against England in 1588. The Armada, consisting of 130 ships, about 2,500 great guns, nearly 5,0(10 quintals of powder, about 20,000 soldiers, besides volunteers, and more than 8,000 sailors, arrived in the Channel on the 19th of July, and in the first en
Sagement was defeated by the Inglish fleet, which was commanded by Howard, Drake, Frobisher, and others. Several of the Spanish vessels were captured, and others destroyed. Afterwards fire-ships were sent into the Spanish fleet, which caused so much alarm that the Armada put «o sea in disorder, closely pursued by the English fleet, which attacked it so vigorously and kept up so persistent an engagement that the immense armament was fairly routed. A number of the Spanish ships were destroyed, many were injured, a large number of men were killed; and the Spanish commanders received such a fright that they did not dare return home the way they had come, but resolved to sail through the North Sea and round Scotland to avoid risking another engagement. In this passage they suffered from storms and disasters, many of the vessels were wrecked, and of the whole fleet but 53 shattered vessels and a little more than one-third of the army reached Spain. The attack of the Armada cost the English only one ship.
9ST" There was never any thing that pleased me better than seeing the enemy flying with a southerly wind to the northward." Drake
Armadale Caatle. The seat of Lord Macdonald in the island of Skye, one of the Hebrides.
Armenian Convent [in Jerusalem]. This conventual establishment, which is the most aristocratic in Syria, was formerly the property of the Georgians, by whom it was founded in the eleventh century. The convent has accommodations for three thousand pilgrims. Here are reputed to be the tomb of St. James, the stone which closed the Holy Sepulchre, the spot where Peter denied the Saviour, and the court where the cock crew. It contains a very gorgeous chapel. The Armenian Patriarchs of Jerusalem are buried here.
Armourers' Hall. The building of the Armourers' Company, one of the old city companies of London. Iu Coleman Street.
Armoury. See House ARMOfRY.
Army and Navy Club. A house opixraite the War Office, in Pall Mall, London, opened in 1851, is occupied bythis well-known club. It is a superb edifice, and, including the laud, cost not far from £100,000. In 1837, Sir Edward Barnes and others originated the idea of founding a militarv club; and the Duke of Wellington became a patron, under the stipulation that the navy and marines should be included in the scheme of the club.
Arnolflni, Jean. See Jean Arn
Arnstein Abbey. An ancient ruined monastery with a church still preserved of the fourteenth century, near Dietz, in Germany.
Arques Castle. A ruined fortress a few miles from Dieppe, France. It was an important stronghold in the Middle Ages. Under its walls Henri IV. gained a great victory over the army of the League.
Arrotino, L\ [The Slave sharpening his Knife.] An ancient statue, now in the Ufflzi Palace, Florence. The figure is represented as suspending his employment, and looking up as if to listen to something that is said to him. [Often called the KiitfeGrinder.]
tS"'l found in the figure of the Knife-Grinder quile a new revelation of toe power of art. A» is well known, this statue is an enigma, to which no satisfactory solution has ever been offered. Indeed, whether he is whetting his knife seems somewhat doubtful. But as to its power there can be no donbt. The figure is unideal, and the face and-head coarse; but every line glows with the lire of truth. ... It seemed to me that a single look at this figure bad given me a new insight into Rx>man life and manners, as ft one of Terence's characters had been turned into marble for my benefit." HUlard.
To be made a living statue of, —nothing to do but strike an attitude. Arm up —so — like theonein thetlarden. John of Bologna's Merctirv — thus — on one foot Xeedv knife-grinder in the Tribune at Florence. No, not "needy," come to think of It. Holmes.
Arsenal of Venice. This interesting structure is a work of the fourteenth century, of great extent, and containing many memorials of the early power and naval supremacy of Venice.
tg-" ~So reader of Dante will fall to pay a visit to the Arsenal, from which, in order to illustrate the terrors of his 'Inferno,* the great poet drew one of those striking and picturesque images, characteristic alike of the boldness and the power of his genius. Besides, it is the most characteristic and impressive spot in Venice. The Ducal Palace and St. Mark's are symbols of pride and pomp, but the strength of Venice resided here. . . . Here was the index-hand which marked the culmination and decline of her greatness." HUlard.
As In the Arsenal of the Venetians
Arsenal. See Bibliotheque De L'Arsenal.
Arthur's Club. This club in London, referred to by Lady Hervey as " the resort of old and young" in 1756, is so called from Mr. Arthur, the proprietor of White's Chocolate House, who died in 1761. The clulvhouse in St. James's Street was built in 1811, and reconstructed in 1825.
Arthur's Palace. See Kino ArThur's Palace.
Arthur's Bound Table. See Round Table and King ArThur's Round Table.
Arthur's Seat. An eminence in Edinburgh, Scotland, 820 feet in height, the most conspicuous feature in the view of the city. It derives its name from Prince Arthur.
O-" Arthur's Seat, a huge doubleheaded hill, presenting, from some directions, peculiar resemblance to a recumbent Hon." J. F. l/unnewell. Whose muse, whose cornemuse sounds with such plaintive music from Arthur's Seal, while . - . th* mermaids come flapping up to Leith shore to heur the exquisite music? Thackeray. Why do the Injured unresisting yield The calm possession of thtir native field? Why tamely thus before their fangs retreat, Nor hunt the bloodhounds back to Ar~ thur's Seat f Byron. Traced like a map the landscape lies, In cultured beauty stretching wide; There ocean with its azure tide; There Arthur's Seat. D. M. lioir.
Artist and the Easel. A picture by Adrian van Ostade (1610-1683), the Dutch o-enre-painter, and considered one of his chief works. In the Dresden Gallery.
Artornish Castle. See ArdtornIsh Castle.
Arundel Castle. An ancient baronial mansion, the property of the Duke of Norfolk, situated on the River Arun, in Sussex, England. There are references to it as early as the time of King Alfred. The castle stands upon a knoll overlooking the sea. Of the original structure, the gateway, part of the walls, and the keep are still standing. The latter, which is covered with ivy, is a stone tower of a circular form, 68 feet in diameter, and is one of the most interesting feudal remains in England. The castle was mainly in ruins till 1815, when it was restored by the owner at great expense. The buildings and grounds are magnificent.
Arundel House. A celebrated mansion which formerly stood in the Strand, London, and was taken down in 1678. It was here that the celebrated collection known as the Arundelian Marbles was gathered. See ArunDelian Marbles.
Arundel Library. A well-known collection now merged in the library of the British Museum, to which it was added in 1831.
Arundelian Marbles. Acelebrated collection of ancient Greek statues and monuments, brought to England in 1627 from the island of Paros, and purchased by the Earl of Arundel. After the Bestoration in 16G0, they were presented by the grandson of the Earl to the University of Oxford. [Called also Oxford Marbles.]
How a thing grows In the human Memory. In the human Imagination, when love, worship, and all that lies In the human Heart, is there to encourage it. And in the darkness. In the entire Ignorance, without date or document, no book, no Arundel-marble; only here and there some dumb monumental cairn. Carlyle.
Ascension, Convent of the. A convent on the summit of Mount Olivet, near Jerusalem.
Ascension of Christ. [Ital. VAscension*, Ft. L' Ascension, Ger. Die Himmelfahrt.] A favorite subject of representation by the early painters. The following may be mentioned as among the more celebrated and familiar examples.
Ascension, The. A picture by Giotto di Bordone (1276-lXtti). In the Chapel of the Arena at Padua, Italy.
Ascension, The. A grand altarpicture by PietrO Perugiuo (14461524), originally painted for the church of S. Pietro Maggiore, at Perugia, Italy, and afterwards presented by Pope Pius VII. to the city of Lyons, France, and now preserved in the museum of that city.
Ascension, The. A picture by Antonio Allegri, surnamed Correggio (1494-15:14). In the church of S. Giovanni, Parma, Italy.
Ashburnham House. A mansion in London, so named because formerly the residence of Ix>rd
Ashburnham. It was built by
Asher Place. See Esher Place.
Ashmolean Museum. A building connected with the University of Oxford, England, built bv Sir Christopher Wren in 1682, to contain the collections of Ashmole, the antiquary.
Asinelli, Torre degli. See Torre DEQLi Asinelli.
Assistance, The. An Arctic exploring vessel which sailed under Commander Austin, in 1850. Assumption, The. [Ital. L'Assunzione, Fr. L'Assomphon, Ger. Maria Himmelfahrt.'] A very common and favorite subject of representation by the early painters, in which is portrayed the exaltation of the Virgin Mary. Of the great number of pictures called by this name, the following may be mentioned as among the more celebrated and familiar. Assumption, The. A picture by Pietro Perugino (1440-1524). In the Academy at Florence, Italy.
Assumption, The. A celebrated picture by Albert Diirer (14711528), the German painter and engraver. The sum of 10,000 florins was paid for this picture by Maximilian, the Elector of Bavaria; but it was destroyed by fire at Munich in 1674. A copy of it by Paul Juvenel of Nuremberg is still preserved in the Stahlhof at Frankfort-on-the-Main.
Assumption, The. A noted picture by Guido Reni (1575-1642), now in the Gallery of Munich, Bavaria.
«3r"Tho fine large Assumption in the Munich Gallery may be regarded as the best exnmple of G'uido's manner of treating this theme." Mrs. Jameson.
Assumption, The. A picture bearing this title bv Guido Reni (1575-1642) in the National Gallery, London, is, according to the best authorities, an Immaculate Conception.
Assumption, The. A large altarpiece by Domenico di Bartolo (fl. 1440). Now in the Gallery of Berlin, Prussia.
«J- "This is one of the roost remarkable and Important pictures of the tfiena school/' Mrs. Jameson.
Assumption, The. A picture by Fra Bartoloinineo (1477-1517), the Italian painter. It is now in the Museum at Naples, Italy. There is another upon the same subject by this master in the Museum at Naples, and another at Besancon, France.
Assttmption, The. A picture by Antonio Allegri, called Correggio (UM-1534). In the cupola of the Duomo at Parma, Italy.
j*3T ■■ One glow of heavenly rapture is diffused overall; but the scene is vast, confused, almost tumultuous."
Assumption, The. A celebrated picture by Titian (1477-1576), and regarded as his masterpiece, now in the Accademia delle Belle Arti in Venice, Italy, to which it was removed from the church of S. MariaGloriosade' Frari. Itisone of the best examples of the work of this renowned master of coloring.
MS* " The Injury and neglect this marvellous picture had suffered In the keeping of the Roman Church protected it from the rapacity of the French. The lower part was literally burnt with candles, and the whole so blackened with smoke, that the French commissioners did not think it worth the transport to Paris. It continued in this state till 1 SIb, wheu, all danger being over, Count Clcognara drew attention to Titian's masterpiece, which was then cleaned and restored." £astlaktt Handbook of Painting, tfote,
43-"And Titian's angels impress me in a similar manner. I mean those in the glorious Assumption at Venice, with their childish forms and features, but with an expression caught from beholding the face of 'our Father that is in heaven:' It is glorified infancy. I remember standing before this picture, contemplating those lovely spirits one after another, until a thrill came over me like that which 1 felt when Mendelssohn played the organ, and I became music while I listened."
Assumption, The. A celebrated picture by Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1G40). Of a number of compositions upon this subject by Ifcubens, the most famous anil
splendid Is that in the Museum at Brussels, Belgium. Astankina. A summer palace and
1>ark in the immediate neighborlood of Moscow, Russia, belonging to the noble family of Cheremetieff. The grounds are laid out after the manner of Versailles.
4£J-"nere was the scene of one of those gigantic pieces of flattery by which the courtiers of Catherine II. sought to keep or win her favor. During a visit of that empress to Astankina, she remarked to the proprietor, * Were it not for the forest, you would be able to see Moscow.* The latter immediately set some thousands of serfs to work, and In a few days afterward prevailed upon the empress to pay blm another visit. * Your majesty,' he said, 1 regretted that the forest should shut out my view of Moscow. It shall do so no longer.' lie thereupon waved his hand, and there was a movement among the trees. They rocked backward and forward a moment, tottered, and fell crashing together, breaking a wide avenue through the forest, at the end of which glittered in the distance the golden domes of the city."
Astley's. A well-known place of entertainment, Westminster Bridge Road, London, so called from Philip Astley, the builder of nineteen theatres. It was originally built for equestrian exhibitions. The present theatre, which is the fourth erected upon this site, has been remodelled for performances of the regular drama.
*SP " There is no place which recalls so strongly our recollections of childhood as Astley's. It was not a ' Royal Amphitheatre"' in those days, nor had Ducrow arisen to «hed the light of classic taste and portable gas over the sawdust of the circus; but the whole character of the place was the same, the pieces were the same, the clown's jokes were the same, the riding-masters were equally grand, the comic performers equally witty, the tragedians equally hoarse, and the * highly-trained chargers * equally spirited. Aetley's has altered for the better— we have changed for the worse." Dickens.
He (Canning] came, but said he bated the whole thing; thnt he had come only because he had given his word; and then, turning suddenly on the Secretary, "Sow If yon will let me off from thin business to-night, 1 will treat yon to Astley's"
Oeorge Tietnor. We have four horses and one postilion, who hue a very long whip, and drives hi* team something like the Courier of St. Petersburg in the circle at Attleys or Franconl'a. Dtctens.
Base Buonaparte, filled with deadly Ire,
Astley's twice. Rejected Addresses.
Astor Library. A library in New York City, containing more than 100,000 volumes, so named after John Jacob Astor (17GJ-1S48), by whom it was endowed with S400'000.
Astrologer, The. A picture by Giorgio Barbarelli, commonly called Giorgione (1477-1511), in the Manfrin palace, Venice, Italy.
Astrologers, The. See GeomeTricians, The.
Athassel Priory. A beautiful ruined priory of the thirteenth century, in Tipperary County, Ireland.
Athenaeum. In ancient Athens a temple or gymnasium sacred to Minerva, where philosophers, poets, and rhetoricians were accustomed to recite their works. Hence applied in later times to an association or a building devoted to purposes of literature or art.
Athenocum. A noted club-house and club situated in Pall Mall, London, belonging to an association instituted in 1823, and composed of individuals distinguished for their literary or scientific attainments, or as patrons of science, literature, and art. The club-house was built in 1829. The Athenaeum has the best club library in London.
*B-"The only club I belong to is the Athenaeum, wlilch consists of 1,200 members, among whom are to be reckoned a largo proportion of the most eminent persons In the land, In every line —civil, military, and ecclesiastical,
peers spiritual and temporal (95 noblemen and 12 bishops), commoners, men of the learned professions, those connected with science, the arte, and commerce in all Its principal branches, as well as the distinguished who do not belong to any particular class. Many of these arc to be met with every day, living with the same freedom as In their own houses. For six guineas a year every member has the command of an excellent library, with maps, of the daily papers, English and foreign, the principal periodicals, and every material for writing, with attendance for whatever is wanted. The building is a sort of palace, and is kept with the same exactness and comfort as a private dwelling. Every member is a master, without any of the trouble of a master. He can come when he pleases, and stay away as long as he pleases, without anything going wrong. He has the command of regular servants, without having to pay or to manage them. He can have whatever meal or refreshment be wants, at all hours, and served up with the cleanliness and comfort of his own house. He orders just what he pleases, having no interest to think of but his own. In short, it is Impossible to suppose a greater degree of liberty In living."
9&- " Ninety-nine hundredths of this club are people who rather seek to obtain a sort of standing by belonging to the Athenaeum, than to give it lustre by the talent of Its members. Ninetenths of the Intellectual writers of the age would be certainly blackballed by the dunces. Notwithstanding all this, and partly on account of this, the Alhssncum Is a capital club."
Jfew Quarterly Review.
His [M. Gufzot'sJ name was Immediately proposed aB an honorary member of the Athenaeum. M. Gulzot was biackoalled. Certainly, thev knew the distinction of Ills name. But the Englishman Is not fickle. He had really made up his mind, now for years as he read his newspaper, to hate and despise M. Gulzot; and the altered position of the man as an illustrious exile, and a guest In the country, make no difference to him, as they would Instantly to an American.
Emerson. Everyday after leaving the Athrnxum, 1 go and sit for an hour in St. James's Park. Toine. Trans.
The broad steps of the Athenseum are as yet unthronged by the shuffling feet of the literati whose morning Is longer and more secluded than that of idler men, but who will be seen In swarms, at four, entering that Biinerb edifice in company with the employes and politicians who affect their society. iV. P. Willis.