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Labourage Ni vcrnaiR. See Ploughing In Nivernais.
Labyrinth. 1. One of the most remarkable and mysterious monuments of ancient Egypt, near Lake Mceris. According to Manetho, the Egyptian historian, it was built by Mceris as a sepulchre for himself. In 1843 the site of this monument was excavated and explored by a Prussian expedition under Lepsius, but without fully satisfactory results. It was described and greatly admired by Herodotus, who says that it surpassed the Pyramids, and consisted of 3,000 chambers, half of which were below ground, and contained " the sepulchres of the kings who built the Labyrinth; and also those of the sacred crocodiles." Ancient authors differ as to the founder of this Labyrinth; but the earliest name discovered among the ruins is that of Amenemha III., of the twelfth dynasty, and it is thought that he was the builder of the Labyrinth, as well as of Lake Mceris.
"I visited this place, and found it to Burpass description; for if all the wallB and other great works of the Greeks were put together in one, they would not equal, either for labor or expense, this Labyrinth." Herodotus.
8&~ "From such data as have been given to the public, we learu that the Labyrinth was a building measuring about 1,150 feet east and west, by 850 feet north and south, surrounding three sides of a court-yard. ... In the Labyrinth itself n number of small chambers were found, two stories in height, as the account of Herodotus leads us to expect, but so small, being only four feet in width at most, that we cannot understand the admiration they excited in ids mind. As there are no hieroglyphics upon them, it is difficult to determine whether they belong to the old Labyrinth, or to that which Herodotus writes of as erected by Psammeticus and the kings of his day."
— within the brazen doors Of the great Labyrinth, slept both boy sod
beast. Tired with the pomp of their Osirian (t ML Shelley 2. I >;i'ilalus is said to have built a Labyrinth near Cnossus in Crete, for the confinement of the fabled monster the Minotaur, but nothing of this structure can be found. Remains of a labyrinth were extant in the time of Pliny on the isle of Lemnos. Others, the existence of which is doubtful, are said to have been built on the island of Samos, and in Clusium, near Etruria. A remarkable example of a natural labyrinth is found in theAdersbach Rocks.
Mausolus worke will be the Cartons glorle
And Crete will boast the Labyrinth, now
Lackawanna, The. A noted ironclad of the Confederate navy in the civil war of 1861-ti5.
The great Larkaieava came down
She reversed; hut,.lbr all our pains.
//. //. BnmmtB Lacryma Christi. [The Tear of Christ.] A celebrated wine, distinguished for the delicacv of its flavor, produced upon the" slopes of Mount Vesuvius, Italy. Lady Franklin. An Arctic exploring ship which sailed from England under Capt. Penny in 1800.
Lady of Aboshek. This smaller temple at Aboo-Simbil, Egypt, dedicated to Athor, who is called the " Lady of Aboshek," "Lady of the West," etc., is like the other, very old, having been excavated from the solid rock in the time of Rameses the Great, 1400 B.C. The temple is iX) feet in depth. It contains statues of Athor and of other deities. See Temple Of Aboo-slmbel.
«- "The smaller temple of 'the Lady of Aboshek,*—Athor, — beside the large one, is very striking, as seen from the river. The six statues on the facade stand out boldly between buttresses; and their reclining backwards against the rock has a curious effect." Milt Alartineau.
Lady with the Lute. An admired picture in Alnwick Castle, England. It was formerly ascribed to Giorgione, but is now attributed to Jacopo Palraa, called Falma Vecchio (1480-1528).
Lafayette. A well-known bust of the marquis, executed by the French sculptor Jean Antoine Houdon (1741-1828) for the Capitol at Richmond, Va.
Lafayette College. A collegiate establishment in Easton, Penn. It was founded in 1826, and is well endowed. Lafayette, Fort. See Fobt LaFayette. Lafayette Park. A public square
in St. Louis, Mo. Lafayette Square. A beautiful park in Washington. It contains a colossal equestrian statue of Gen. Jackson. Lafitte. A farmhouse or small chateau in the vine district of Medoc, on the Garonne, below Bordeaux. Here is produced the celebrated wine known as Chateau Lafitte, which is sometimes sold as high as $25 a bottle. The estate is the property of Baron Rothschild. The annual yield of the vineyard does not exceed 400 hogsheads. Lafitte, Rue. A street in Paris, so called from M. Lafitte, once a well-known banker and politician. It was formerly known as the Rjte d'Artois. Here some of the richest bankers live; and here the Rothschilds have two hotels, which are among tbe finest private residences in the city. Lahneck. A well-known ruined fortress of mediaival times in the neighborhood of Coblenz, on the Rhine. The poet Goethe has commemorated it in his " Geister Grata."
Lais Corinthiaca. [The Corinthian Lais.] A picture by Hans Holbein the Younger (14!>8-154:i), the German painter, representing a beautiful youn" girl in elegant dress, professecfiy the portrait of a member of the Offenburg family. It is in the Basle Gallery.
Lake Country or District. The general name by which the counties of Cumberland and Westmoreland in England are often known from the picturesque lakes with which they are interspersed, and also familiar from their association with the so-called Lake School of poets and writers, of which Wordsworth, Southey, Coleridge, Lamb, and Wilson may be taken as representatives. Those who travel much in the "Lake District" can readily trace the course of the chivalrous Uaron. J. F. JJuttneicelt.
Lake Mceria. A celebrated reservoir which was situated in the centre of the plateau of the Fyoom, Egypt, serving to store up the water of the Nile during the inundation, and to afterwards distribute it through canals over the land during the dry season.
c ,p • Herodotus, who speaks of it as being " in the neighborhood of Crocodilopolls," says: "Wonderful as is the labyrinth, the work called the i.ake of Mteriw, which is close by the labyrinth, is yet more astonishing. The measure of its circumference is 3,600 furlongs, which is equal to the entire length of Egypt along the sea-coast. The lake stretches it) its longest direction from north to south, and In its deepest parts is of the depth of 50 fathoms. It is manifestly an artificial excavation; for nearly In the centre stand two pyramids, rising to the height of 300 feet above the surface of the water, and extending as far beneath, each crowned with a colossal statue sitting upon a throne. The water of the lake does not come out of the ground, which Is here excessively dry, but is introduced by a canal from the Nile. The current sets for six months into the lake from the river, and for the next six months into the river from the lake." This great work was built by Amenemha III. of the twelfth dynasty, who is thought to have also built the labyrinth. Lake Mceris is not to he confounded with the natural lake Birket el Kuril, with which it probably communicated during the inuudalion.
By ifcerii and the Mareotld lakes,
He lifts his head and roars amain;
F. Freiligrath, nans.
Lamb, Adoration of the. Bee Adoration Of The Lamb.
Lambert, Hotel. See Hotel LamBeut.
Lambeth. A metropolitan borough of London. The name of this now densely populated district, once a swamp, is said, but not with certainty, to be derived from Lamb-hithc, that is, a lauding-place for sheep.
Yonder flab-wipe Will not away. And there'syour giantess. The buwd of Lambetli. Sen Jonson.
Lambeth Bridge. An iron-wire suspension bridge across the Thames at London.
Lambeth Palace. An episcopal mansion in London, and for six
. and a half centuries the residence of the Archbishops of Canterbury. Lambeth House has at various times proved an asylum for learned foreigners who have been compelled to flee from the intolerance of their countrymen.
US' " Lambeth is a stately pile of quaint antique buildings, rising most magnificently on the banks of the Thames. It is surrounded by beautiful grounds laid out with choice gardening." Mrs. II. B. Slowt. Such Lambeth, envy of each band and gown. Pope.
The grand hospitalities of lamfieth have perished, but Its charities live.
Landing of Columbus. A picture in one of the panels of the Rotunda in the Capitol at Washington, representing the debarkation of the great discoverer with his companions upon the soil of the New World in 14<«. This painting was executed under commis
sion from Congress by John Vanderlyu (1776-1S51!), who employed
a French artist to do a good part of the work. It has been severely criticised for its inaccuracy and marks of haste; in proof of which, among other things, it is noted that the three flags borne by the three vessels of the original discoverers are represented in the picture as blown outward in three different directions. This work of art has become very familiar to the general public by its reproduction in the form of an engraving upon the back of the five-dollar notes of the national currency.
Landing of the Pilgrims. A wellknown painting by Sargent, in the Pilgrim Hall at Plymouth, Mass.
Landing of Venus at Cytherea. A picture by Francesco Albani (1578-1660), and one of his best works. In the Chigi Palace, Rome.
Landore, Villa. See Villa Ghe
Land's End. The famous headland in which the western coast of England terminates at the extremity of the county of Cornwall.
Let any social or nhvsical convulsion visit the Vnlted States, and Enuland would feel the shock from Lauds End to John o' Groat's. Charles Dietau.
Langton Elm. A famous elm of great age in what was Sherwood Forest. It was for a long time so remarkable as to have a special keeper.
Lanleff Temple. A remarkable structure of unknown origin and antiquity, near St. Briene, in France. It is thought by some to be a pagan temple, hut "is probably a Christian church of the eleventh or twelfth century. It is of a circular form, like some of the English and Dutch churches, and built in imitation of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
Lansdowne. A noted house, formerly standing in what is now Fairmount Park, Philadelphia It was the residence of Joseph Bonaparte, and later of Lord Ash burton. It was destroyed by fire in 1854. Ages. Of the many compositions upon this theme, a few of the more celebrated anil familiar examples are mentioned below. Concerning the treatment of this subject, Laxly Eastlake writes: "The * Last Judgment' has tested the , powers of some of the greatest and most opposite masters, both north and south of the Alps. Giotto appropriately led the way 'with the now ruined wall-paint[ ing in the Chapel of the Arena at Padua. The solemn Orcagna followed in the Campo Santo. . . . Fra Angelico has left several versions of the subject. . . . Michael Angelo stands alone here, as in every subject on which he set the stamp of his paganized time, and his maniera terribile. Koger van der Weyden, the mournful painter of Brussels, treated the subject with great dignity and reticence; . . . while Rubens, like Michael Angelo, has made the subject rather an occasion for displaying his peculiar powers, than an illustration of the most awful chapter in Christian art."
Lanadowne House. A noble house in London, situated on the south side of Berkeley Square, originally built for the Marquis of Bute, and subsequently sold to the Marquis of Lansdowne. It contains a gallery of paintings and sculptures.
Lantern of Diogenes. A popular name for the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates at Athens. A structure in imitation of the Greek monument formerly stood at St. Cloud [France], "but was destroyed in 1870 by the Prussians. [Also called the Lantern of Demosthenes.] See Chobagic MonUment or Lysicrates.
49"" A littie monument, formerly known under the name of the Lantern of Demosthenes, and of which a copy occupies at St. Cloud [France] the summit of a tower well known to the Paristans, deserves attention as one of the rare specimens of the Corinthian order lo be seen in Greece. It formed one of those small houses which were used to contain the tripods received by the victors in the scenic games."
Lantern of Ireland. The popular name of the beautiful ruined Priory of St. John, in Kilkenny, Ireland. It is so called from the number of its windows.
4£S- " For about fifty-four feet of the south side of the choir, It seems to be alruoBt one window." Grose.
Lanti Vase. An antique vase brought from England by Lord Cawdor, and now in Woburn Abbey, the seat of the Duke of Bedford.
Lanzi, Loggia de'. See Loggia De' Lanzi.
Laocoon, The. A celebrated work of sculpture, now in the Belvidere of the Vatican at Rome, discovered in 1506. It represents the death of Laocoon, a mythical priest of Apollo or of Neptune, and his two sons, who are crushed in the folds of two monstrous serpents. The group is probably
the same as that referred to by Plinv as standing in the palace of the Emperor Titus. Virgil gives a vivid description of the death of Laocoon in the second book of the jEneid (line 263 et seq.).
8£- " The fame of many sculptors Is less diffused, because the number employed upon great works prevented their celebrity; for there is no otic artist to receive the honor of the work, and, where there are more than one, they cannot all obtain an equal fame. Of this the Laocoon Is an example, which stands in the palace of the Emperor Titus,—a work which may bo considered superior to all others, both In painting and statuary. The wholo group — the father, the boys, and the awful folds of the serpents — were formed out of a single block, in accordance with a vote of the Senate, by Agesander, Potydorus, and Athcnodorus, Rhodian sculptors of the highest merit." Pliny, Tran*.
U5" " I felt the Laocoon very powerfully, though very quietly; an immortal agony, with a ntrnnge calmness diffused through it, so that It resembles the vast rage of the sea, calm on account of its immensity, or the tumult of Niagara, which does not seem to bo tumult, because ft keeps pouring on for ever and ever. It is a type of human beings struggling with an inexplicable trouble, and entangled in a complication which they cannot free themselves from by their own efforts, and out of which Heaven alone can help them." ffuiclhorne.
£5°-''This work is a compromise between two styles and two epochs, similar to one of Euripides' tragedies. . . . Aristophanes would say of this
froup, as he said of the Hippolytns or phigenia of Euripides, that it makes us weep and does not fortify us; instead of changing women into men, it transforms men into women."
Turning to the Vatican, go see
Lapidary Gallery. See GAlleria Lapidaria.
Imsi Judgment. An admired picture by Fra Angelico (13871455). In the Academy at Florence, Italy.
Last Judgment and Hell. A celebrated fresco in the Campo Santo, Pisa, Italy, which has usually been ascribed to Andrea Orcagna (d. 138!)), but has of late been referred by some to the Sienese painter, Pietro Lorenzetti.
j&* " In the taut Judgment of Orcagna, in the Campo Santo at Pisa, the Seven Angela [archangel*] are important personage*. They have the garb of princes and warriors, with breastplates of gold, jewelled sword-belts and tiaras, . . . while other angels hover above, bearing the instruments of the Passion." Mr9. Jameson.
hast Judgment. A celebrated picture by the Flemish painter, Roger van der Weyden (d. 1464). It was executed for the Burgundian Chancellor Rollin, between 1443 and 1447. and is now in the Hospital of Beauue, France. It is pronounced by Kugler the
most comprehensive example of this master that is left to us.
iMst Judgment. A picture by the Flemish painter, Petrus Cristus, executed (1452) for a convent at Burgos. Now in the Museum of Berlin, Prussia.
Latt Judgment. A celebrated altar-picture by Hans Memling (d. 1495), the Flemish painter.and pronounced not only his most important work, but one of the cAe/s-d'eeui'i-e of the whole Flemish school. From an inscription upon the picture, it is probable that it was painted in 1467. It is now in the Church of Our Lady at Dantzic, Prussia.
Dg- "In Memling's Last Judgment the redeemed are passing into a regular church, with angel musicians hymning their welcome from seats in the architecture above the porch."
Last Judgment. A fresco by Fra Bartolorameo (1477-1517), the Italian painter. In the Church of S. Maria Novella, Florence, Italy.
Last Judgment. A picture by Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640). Now in the gallery of Munich, Bavaria.
Last Judgment. A fresco painting of great size, 60 feet high by 30 feet broad, occupying the end wall opposite to the entrance of the Sistine Chapel, in the Vatican Palace at Borne. It is the work of Michael Angelo (1475-1564), who designed it in his sixtieth year, and completed it after eight years of labor, in 1541. It comprises nearly 300 figures, aud presents "aconfusedmass of naked bodies in the most violent attitudes aud most admired disorder, and excels chiefly in energy of expression." This picture is seen now under many disadvantages, having suffered from neglect and from alterations, and being obscured by the dampness, the smoke of candles and incense, but is still regarded as a masterpiece in painting of the great artist. It was undertaken by desire of Pope Clement VII., ana finished in the pontificate of Paul III. A copy on a small scale by