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Marcello Venusti, seven and a half feet liigh, is in the Gallery at Naples, and another by Sigalon in the Beaux Arts at Paris.
aES"" "Many fresco paintings belonging to the sixteenth century are at the present day in a sad state; few, however, have been more cruelly trifled with than the Last Judgment of Michael Angelo. The smoke of the altarcandles has had a fatal effect In the course of centurie*. The lower part of the painting Is most damaged. . . . The greatest evil, however, has been intentionally done to the work; the nakedness of the figures has been considered offensive; and they have been covered with painted, and often glaringly bright, drapery. . . . From all this, the work appears in such a condition, that only after long study is it possible to form an idea of what it was In the year 1541.'* Grimm, Trans.
*«v- "'While in Raphael's angels we do not feel the want of wings, we feel, white looking at those of Michael An gvlo. that not even the ' sail broad vans' with which Satan labored through the surging abyss of Chaos could suffice to lift those '1 itanic forms from earth, and sustain them in mid-air. The group of angels over the Last Judgment, flinging their mighty limbs about, . . . may be referred to as characteristic examples." Jim. Jameson. Or hues of Hell be by his pencil pour d Over the damn'd before the Judgment
throne. Such as 1 saw tbem. such as all shall see. Byron
Last ,Tiidc/meiit. A picture bv Lnca Signorelli (1441-152:1?), and his masterpiece. In the Cathedral of Orvieto, Italy.
Last Jitilf/ment. A picture by Hierouytnus van Aeken, commonly known as Jerom Bosch (14fiO-151<>), the Flemish painter. It is now in the Museum at Berlin, Prussia.
Last Judgment. A picture by Luc Jacobsz, called Lucas van Leyden (1494-1533), a Flemish painter, anil one of his most important works. It is now in the Town-house of Leyden, Holland.
Last Judgment. A famous fresco painting by Peter von Cornelius (.1787-1867). In the Ludwig's Kirche, Munich, Bavaria. It occupies the whole end of the church behind the high altar, and is perhaps the largest painting in I
the world. The circular dome In the centre contains groups of martyrs, prophets, and saints, painted in fresco on a ground of gold.
Last Supper. [Ital. H Cenacolo, or La Cena; Fr. La Cine.] A favorite subject of. representation by the great painters of the Middle Ages. This incident in the life of Christ is depicted both historically and as a religious mystery. Among the more noted and familiar paintings which illustrate this theme, the following may be mentioned.
Last Supper. A picture by Giotto di Bordone (1270-1336). In the refectory of the convent of Santa Croce at Florence, Italy. The earliest representation of this subject in Western art.
**T* "The arrangement of the table and figures, so peculiarly fitted for a refectory, has been generally adopted since the time of Giotto in pictures painted for this especial purpose."
Last Supper. A fresco painting by CosimoRosselli (1439-1506). In the Sistine Chapel, Rome.
Last Supper. A composition by Ghirlandaio (1449-1494). Executed for the refectory of San Marco in Florence, Italy. "The arrangement is ingenious: the table is what we call of the horseshoe form, which allows all the figures to face the spectator."
Last Supper. A fresco discovered in 1845, in what was formerly the refectory of the convent of S. Onofrio, Florence, Italy. It bears in one place the name of Raphael and the date 1505, which circumstance has given rise to much discussion concerning its authorship. It is now generally agreed that it is the work of some other painter— perhaps Pinturicchio.
W "The authenticity of this picture has been vehemently disputed; for myself—as far as my opinion is worth any thing—I never, after the first five minutes, had a doubt on the subject." Mrs. Jameson.
Last Supper. A picture by Andrea del Sarto (1487-1531), generally considered as taking rank next after the representations of this subject by Leonardo da Vinci and Kaphael. In the convent of the Salvi, near Florence, Italy. Last Supper. A famous picture by Hans Holbein (1494-1543). At Bas'.e, Switzerland. There is another and smaller work on this subject by the same artist in the Louvre at Paris.
iMst Supper. A famous picture by Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1520). painted by order of the Duke of Milan, Ludovico Sforza, on the walls of the refectory in the Dominican convent of the Madonna delle Grazie. The figures, being above the eye, and to be viewed from a distance, are colossal. The picture is now in a state of great decay, but it is very familiar through the engraving of Raphael Morghen. There are many good old copies of this celebrated picture; one of the best being by Marco d'Oggione, about 1510, and now in the Royal Academy, Loudon.
03" "When Leonardo da Vinci, lhe greatest thinker as well as the greatest painter of his age. brought all the resources of his mind to bear on the subject, there sprang forth a creation so consummate, that since that time it has been at once the wonder and the despair of thoBe who have followed in the same path. True, the work of his hand is perishing — will soon have per. ished utterly. Fortunately for us, multiplied copies have preserved, at least the intention of the artist In his work.'* J/rs. Jameson.
4Eff- "It is probably the most celebrated picture in the world; that is, the most talked of and written about, . . . a work full of melancholy interest,—a picture in ruins; and the imagination peoples the denuded walls with forms not inferior to those which time has effaced." G. S. UUlard.
45T "At the present day, when the work has almost disappeared, it still produces an irresistible effect from the attitude of the figures and the art with which they are formed into groups. . . . It Is certainly the earliest work of that magnificent new style in which Michael Angelo and Kaphael subsequently painted." Qrimm, Trans.
Though searching damps and many an
envious flaw Have marr'd this work, the calm, ethereal
grace, The love deep seated In the Saviour's face. The mercy, goodness, have not failed to
awe The elements; as they do melt and thaw The heart of the beholder —and erase (At least for one rapt moment) every trace Of disobedience to the primal law. The annunciation of the dreadful truth Made to the twelve survives; the brow.
the cheek. And hand reposing on the board in ruth Of what It utters, while the unguilty seek Unquestionable meanings, still Bespeak A labor worthy of eternal youth.
Time hath done
years Between thee hung and half its heavenly
grace. Hangs there, a fitting veil; nor that alone — Gaze on It also through a veil of tears!
Aubrey de Yere.
Last Supper. A picture by Domenico Ghirlandajo (1449-14'.*?). In the museum of St. Mark, Florence, Italy.
Last Supper. A picture by Jaeopo Robusti, called II Tintoretto (1512-15114).
Last Supper. An altar-piece by Dierick Steuerbout (d 1475). the Flemish painter. In the Church of St. Peter's at Louvaiu, Belgium.
Lateran, Palace of the. The old
palace was the residence of the ]x>pes in Rome for nearly a thousand years, from the time of Constantfne to the return of the Holy See from Avignon. It was tinallv destroyed by Sixtus V. The private chapel of the jiopes, and a portion of the dining-ball, are all that now remain of this famous building. The new or modern Palace of the Lateran was built by Sixtus V. In lliiXi it was turned into a hospital; in 1843 it was converted by Gregory XVI. into a museum; and it is now the principal depository for antiquities found at Rome within the last few years.
Lateran. See Obelisk Of The Lateran and St. John Lateran.
Latin Convent, Nazareth. This convent is the largest building in Nazareth, and contains the Church of the Annunciation. This church is huilt, according to tradition, over the grottos •which formed the lower part of the house of Joseph and Mary. The church is plain but handsome, and the music is very fine. The monks show the granite pillars which stand where the angel Gabriel and Mary stood at the annunciation, the workshop of Joseph, the house where " Jesus gave a supper to his friends before and after his resurrection, and the table 'Mensa Cbristi,' which they seem to value most of all."
Latin Quarter. See Quabtier Latin .
Latin School [of Boston]. An ancient school foundation in Boston, Mass., the oldest institution of the kind in America. It originated in 1KH. Benjamin Franklin, Sam Adams, John Hancock, Cotton Mather, Sir William Peppereli, aud other celebrities of early days, as well as many eminent men of later times, have been pupils of this school. The school building was originally on School Street, to which it gave its name.
Latour. A farmhouse, or small chateau, in the wine district of Medoc, on the Garonne, below Bordeaux, France. Here is produced the celebrated wine known as the Chateau Latour.
Laurel Hill. A large and beautiful cemetery adjoining Fairmount Park, Philadelphia. It has fine views of the Schuylkill, and noted collections of trees, including some cedars of Lebanon.
Lnval University. An institution of learning, with fine buildings, a library, museum, etc., in Quebec, Can.
Lawrence, The. The flag-ship of Commodore Perry's squadron on Lake Erie in 1813.
Laxenburg. A palace near Vienna,
which has been a favorite resi
■ dence of the royal house of Aus
tria. It is generally known as the Blue House.
Laying down the Law. A picture by Sir Edwin Landseer (1803-1K73), the most celebrated modern painter of animals.
Lazare, St. See St. Lazaee.
Lazarus, Raising of. See Raising Of Lazabus.
Leadenhall Market. The largest and best poultry-market in London, formerly celebrated for its beef. It derives its name from the manor-house of Sir Hugh Neville.
Wouldst thou with mighty beef augment
thy men]. Seek Leadenhall. Gay.
Leadenhall Street. A well-known street in London, formerly a
freat meat-market. The East ndia House stood in this street. Further on. through Leadenhall Street and Fleet Street—what a world! Here come the ever-thronging, ever-rolling Wmv es of life, pressing and whirling on in their tumultuous career.
Leads, The. [Ital. IPiombi.] The celebrated prison-cells in the Doge's Palace, Venice, Italy, so called from their situation under the roof.
But let us to the roof. And when thou hast sun-eyed the sea. the
land. Visit the narrow cells that cluster there. As in a place of tombs. There burning
suns Dav alter day. beat unrelentingly; Turning all things to dust, and scorching
up The brain, till Reason fled, and the wild
yell And wilder laugh hurst out on every side. Answering each other as in mockerv!
Rogers. 1 have betray'd myself; But there's no torture in the mystic wells Which undermine your palace, nor in
those Not less appalling cells, the "leaden
roofs. To force a single name from me of others. The Pozzl and the Pxombi were In vain; They might wring blood from me, but . treachery never. Byron.
League House. See Union League House.
Leander's Tower. An ancient structure near the Golden Horn at Constantinople, so called after the Leander of classic story, a youth of Ahydos, who swam nightly across the Hellespont to visit his love. Hero, a priestess of Sestos. The Turks call this tower the " Maiden's Tower," and connect with it a story of a Greek princess, who was kept imprisoned here by her father, but was liberated by the Arabian hero Heschan. It is now used as a light-house.
We swept round the Gotden Horn, past Leander's tower, and now lay in the harbor which extends into the sweet water*. Hans Christian Andersen.
Leaning Tower [of Pisa]. The name by which the Campanile, or Boll-tower, of the Cathedral of Pisa, Italy, is popularly designated. The deviation of about 13 feet from the perpendicular is doubtless owing to an imperfect foundation. The same peculiarity is observed in many other Italian towers, but nowhere to the same extent as here. That the inclination of the tower was not intentional, but the result of a defective foundation, is said by competent judges to be very evident. It was begun in 1174, is built of white marble, and is 178 feet in height, and 50 feet in diameter. See Campanile.
tfS"" Sismondi compares the Tower to the usual pictorial representations In children's books of the Tower of Babel. It is a happy simile, and conveys a bettur idea of the building than chapters of labored description. Nothing can exceed the grace and lightness of the structure; nothing: can be more remarkable than its general appearance. In the course of the ascent to the top (which is by an easy staircase), the inclination is not very apparent; but at the summit it becomes so, and gives one the sensation of being in a ship that has heeled over, through the action of an ebb-tide. The effect ujrton the low side, so to speak, — looking over from the gallery, and seeing the shaft recede to its base,—la very startling; and I saw a nervous traveller hold on to the Tower involuntarily, after glancing down, as if lie had some idea of propping it up. The view within, from the ground,— looking up, as J through a slanted tube, — is also very curious. It certainly inclines as much ae'
the most sanguine tourist eouM desire. The natural impulse of ninety nio* people out of a hundred, who were about to recline upon the grass below it, to rest, and contemplate the adjacent buildings, would probably be, not to take up their position under tbe leaniug side; it Is so very much aslant-" IHektta.
<3-"This piece of architectaral eccentricity was, and 1 suppose is, oat of the commonplaces of geography, and la put in the same educational cUieroom with the Wall of China, the Great Tun of Heidelberg, and the Natural Bridge of Virginia. . . . This singular structure is simply a campanile, or bell-tower, appurtenant to the cathedral, as id the general custom in Italy. It is not merely quaint, but beautiful; that is, take away tbe quaintneas, and the beauty will remain. It is built of white marble, wonderfully fresh and
fiure when we remember that neary seven centuries have swept over it." Hiltard.
*3f" In any event, there are other leaning towers in Italy, at Bologna for example: voluntarily, or involuntarily, this feeling for oddness, this love of paradox, this yielding to fancy, is one of the characteristics of the Middle Ages." Taine, Trans.
4ES" " The Tower of Pi.«a may claim to be the noblest tower of Southern Romanesque. The round form doubtless comes from Kavenna; but tbe PiBan tower is a Ravenna tower glorified." freeman.
The well-curb had a Chinese roof;
Lear. A picture by Benjamin
Leda. 1. A mythological picture by Leonardo da Vinci (1452-151°), sometimes called a Carita, or Charity. It is in tnepossession of Prince Frederic of Holland, at the Hague. A picture by Michael Angelo (1475-15<>4) upon this subject, executed for tlie Duke of Ferrara, is lost; but an early copy — a cartoon — is in the RoyalAcaderay, London.
2. A picture bv Antonio Allegri, surnamed Oorreggio (14941534). In the Museum at Berlin. Prussia.
Leeds Castle. An ancient ruined fortress near Maidstone, Kent, England.
Lehigh University. A collegiate establishment in Bethlehem, Penn., founded in 1865 by Asa Packer.
Leicester House. A mansion built about 1650 in Leicester Square, London, for the Earl of Leicester. It was occupied at various times by royal personages, among others by Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia, who lived there, and died there in 1662. George II. resided in Leicester House from 1717 to 1720.
Leicester Square. A well-known square in London, built between 1630 and 1731, noted as a resort and place of residence for foreigners.
49- " Come through this narrow lane into Leicester Square. You crone here the first limit of the fashionable quarter. This U the home of that most miserable fish out of water — a Frenchman in London." .V. I'. WillU.
They dined ataminerahlechcap French restaurateur in the neighborhood of Leicester Square, where they were served with a caricature of French cookery. Jming.
Lemon Hill. An eminence in Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, surmounted by an old mansion, once the residence of Robert Morris, the great financier of the Revolution.
Lenox Library. A marble building in New York City, fronting on Central Park, built at a cost of S500,000, to contain a museum, art-gallery, library, and lecturehall. It derives its name from its founder, James Lenox, a wealthy citizen of New York.
Leo X. A celebrated portrait of this Pope by Raphael Sanzio (1483-1520), representing him as seated at a table, with the Cardinals de' Medici and de' Rossi behind him on each side. This is regarded as one of Raphael's best portraits. It is now in the Pitti Palace, Florence, Italy. There is a repetition of this picture by
Andrea del Sarto (1488-1530), who was employed by Ottaviano de' Medici, the possessor of it, to copy it for the Duke of Mantua. This repetition is so well executed that it deceived even Gittlio Romano, who had taken part in the execution of the original. This copy is in the Gallery of Naples, and there has been much discussion as to which was the original picture.
Leonardo da Vinci. A portrait of himself by the painter (1452-1520). In the collection of autograph portraits of the painters, in the Uffizi, Florence, Italy.
Leonard's Crags. See St. LeoNard's Chaos.
Leonine City. [Ital. CUt'a Leoiiiiia.] The northern district or quarter of modern Rome, founded in the ninth century by Leo IV., who enclosed it in walls to protect it from the devastation of the Moorish pirates. It is the most interesting quarter of the modern city, as it includes the Castle of St. Angelo, the Vatican, and St. Peter's. At the Italian invasion of September, 1870, it was promised to the Pope, as the sanctuary of the Holy See, the last relic of its temporal sovereignty. This quarter of the city is known as the Borgo. Dyer says, that, when it was enclosed by Leo IV., it obtained the name of Borgo from the Saxon settlement called "Burgus Saxonum."
Leopard, The. A British ship of war which attacked and captured the American vessel Chesapeake, in a naval duel in 1813.
Lepanto, Battle of. See Battle Of Lkpanto.
Lethe Lake. A well-known subterranean lake in the Mammoth Cave, Kentucky. It is crossed in boats.
Levant, The. A vessel of the United States navy. See PortsMouth, The.
Levee, The. A famous dike or