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Aaron's Tomb. The time-honored tomb of the Hebrew highpriest is situated upon Mount Hor, in Arabia Petriea. The present tomb is of comparatively modern date, but is composed of the ruins of an older structure. The place has been held sacred for many centuries, and unbroken tradition tends to substantiate the belief that this is really the place where Aaron died and was buried.
Abbaye. [Fr. Prison de VAbbaye.] A military prison, near St. Germain des Pres, in Paris, built in 1522, and demolished in 1854. Here the French Guards who had refused to tire on the people were imprisoned in 178!', but soon released by the mob. One of the well-known revolutionary cries was "A l'Abbaye!" Here 104 prisoners were murdered in September, 1792, by infuriated republicans under Maillard.
Abbey. For names beginning with the word Abbey, see the next prominent word of the title.
Abbotsford. The residence of Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832), near Melrose In Scotland. It is on the banks of the Tweed, but does not command a fine view. It is interesting chiefly from its connection with the great novelist, and because it contains some valuable relics. The expense of the purchase and building of Abbotsford, and the extended hospitality which Scott practised there, was the chief source of his subsequent pecuniary difficulties. It was
Scott's ambition to attempt to revive old times in this mansion on the Tweed, and to play the part of one of those feudal lords whom he has so well portrayed in his works.
.Kg- " Viewed aa a mere speculation, or, for nutrht I know, aa an architectural effort, this building may perhaps be counted as a "mistake and a failure. I observe that it is quite customary to speak of it, among some, as a pity that he ever undertook it. But viewed as a development of his inner life, as a working out in wood and stone of favorite fancies and cherished ideas, the building has to me a deep interest. The gentle-hearted poet delighted himself in it; this house was his stone and wood poem, as irregular perhaps, and as contrary to any established rule, as bis 'Lay of the Last Minstrel,' but still wild and poetic. The building has this interest, that it was throughout his own conception, thought, and choice; that he expressed himself in every stone that was laid, and made it a kind of shrine, into which he wove all his treasures of antiquity,and where be imitated, from the beautiful old mouldering ruins of Scotland, the parts that had touched him most deeply. The walls of one room were of carved oak from the Dunfermline Abbey; the ceiling of another imitated from lloslin Castle; here a fireplace was wrought in the image of a favorite niche in Melrose; and there the ancient pulpit of Ersklne was wrought into a wall. To him, doubtlesB, every object in the house was suggestive of poetic fancies." Mrs. II. B. Utowe.
Abelard and Eloise. See Tomb or Abf.lard And Ei.oise.
Aberbrothoek. See Arbroath Abbey.
Abooaeer. See Kock Of Aboo
Aboo-Simbel. See Temple Of
Aboshek, Lady of. See Lady Of Aboshek.
Abraham, Heights (or Plains) of. An eminence in the vicinity of Quebec, Canada, where on the 13th of Se])tember, 175H, was fought a battle between the English (who were victorious), under Gen. Wolfe, and the French, under the Marquis de Montcalm. Both commanders were killed, and a monument 40 feet in height, to the memory of Wolfe, marks the spot where he fell.
To many the rock over which Wolfe cliniN'd to'the Plaint qf Abraham, and on the summit of which he fell In the hour of victory, give* to Quebec Its chiefest charm. Anthony Tiollope.
Abraham's House. The name given by the Jews to a ruined structure at ■Rainct-el-Khulil, Syria, which they identify as the spot where the patriarch pitched his tent beneath the oak of Mam re.
Abraham's Oak. An ancient oak or terebinth which long stood on the plain of Mamre, near Hebron in Syria, and was believed to be that under which the patriarch pitched his tent. It was for centuries an object of worship, to put an end to which the Emperor Constantino is said to have ordered a basilica to be erected. A writer of the seventh centursr speaks of the church, and of the oak which stood by it.
Absalom's Tomb. A sepulchral monument near Jerusalem, popularly called by this name. It has a structural spire in place of the usual pyramidal roof.
JK3~ " The capitals and frieze are so distinctly late Itoman, that we can feci no hesitation as to the date being cither of the age of Herod, or subsequent to that time." Fergwtnon.
Abydos, Tablet of. See Tablet Of Abvdos.
Aoademia. [Academy.] A suburban and rural gymnasium in ancient Athens, said to have been named from one Hecademus. It was here that Plato established
his famous school, B.C. 388. The place retained something «of its old repute as late as to the second or third ceutury of the Christian era, and has bequeathed its name to the modern institutes of learning and art. See there the olive grove of Academe, Plato's retirement, where the Attick bird Trills her thick-warbled notes the summer long Milton. No round-robin signed by the whole main-deck of the Academy or the Porch. be Qumcey. Nearer and dearer to the poet's heart. Than the blue ripple belting Salamis, Or long grass waving over Marathon, Fair Academe, most holy Academe. Thou art, and bast been, und sualt ever be. Edwin Arnold.
Academy, Academic, or Accademia. for names beginning with either of these words, see the next prominent word of the title. See also infra.
Academy of Design. See NationAl Academy Of Design.
Academic Francaise. [French Academy.] One of the five academies embraced in the Instilut, the most important learned society of France. It is devoted to matters relative to the French language, and particularly to the composition of its Dictionary. This celebrated society owes its origin to the Cardinal Richelieu. The first edition of the Dictionary appeared in NiSM, the last in 1835. The Academy is composed of forty members, called the forty Immorldt. In consequence of often having recruited its numbers from the ranks of those literary men whose careers were ended, the Academy has been sometimes called the Hotel del Invalides of literature.
Acadia. The original name of Nova Scotia, and that by which it is often poetically designated. The forced removal of the French inhabitants of Acadia, in 175S, has been made by Longfellow the subject of his poem of " Evangeline."
Aceldama. [Field of Blood.] The reputed site of the "field of blood, bought with the " thirty pieces of silver," the price of the betrayal of the Saviour (Matt, xxvii"), is on the side of the hill opposite the Pool of Siloam, near Jerusalem. There is here a long vaulted structure, of heavy masonry, in front of a precipice of rock". The interior is dug out to a depth of perhaps 20 feet, forming a huge charnel-house into which the bodies of the dead were thrown. It is traditionally of the time of Jerome. The soil was thought to consume the bodies within twenty-four hours. The place is no longer used for burial.
Anil it was known unto all the dwellers at Jerusalem; Insomuch as th«t field Is called. In their proper tongue, Aceldama, that is to say, The field of blood.
Acts I. 19.
Achilles. A noted colossal statue in the corner of Hyde Park, London, nearly opposite Apsley House. It was cast from cannon taken at Salamanca and Vittoria.
Achilles, The. An armor-plated ship of the British navy, launched Dec. 24,1863.
Achilles and Briseis. A celebrated picture painted in distemper, found at Pompeii, Italy, of which there is a well-known engraving. Now in the Museum at Naples.
Acrocorinthus. A hill nearly 1,900 feet in height, near Corinth, Greece, which for 3,000 years has served as the citadel of that place. Hieron writes of the Corinth of ancient times," There was hardly a stronger fortress in all Greece, and perhaps no spot afforded a more splendid view than the Acrocorinthus. Beneath it might be seen the busy city and its territory, with its temples, its theatres, and its aqueducts; its two harbors, Lechieuin on the western bay, Cenchrese on the eastern, filled with ships, and the two bays themselves, with the isthmus between them, all in sight."
Stranger, wilt thou follow now.
I stood upon that great Acropolis,
Where once again, from slavery's thick
abyss Strangely delivered, Grecian warriors
dwell. Lord Houghton
Acropolis. [The upper or higher city.] 1. The ancient citadel of Athens, Greece, said to have been built by the mythical Cecrops. It was at the same time the tortress, sanctuary, and museum of the city. Here are the remains, in a ruined state, of three temples,—the Temple of Victory, the Parthenon, and the Erectheum. Fragments of the Propylrea are still standing.
*¥&• " Imagine a rocky height, rising precipitously from the plain, so as to be inaccessible on all sides but the west, where it is approached by ft gentle slope; give it an elevation of 360 feet above the vale of .Athens, and 569 above the sea, a length of about 950 feet from east to west, and a breadth of 430 from north to south. This la the Acropolis." T. Chase.
JO- " From the gates of its Acropolis, as from a mother-city, Issued intellectual colonies into every region of the world. Ihese buildings now before us, ruined as they are at present, have served for 2,000 years as models for the most admired fabrics in every civilized country of the world."
Or could the bones of all the slain.
Byron. He said to the young lady, however, that the State House was the Parthenon of our Acropolis, which seemed to please her. for she smiled, and he reddened a little,— so I Ihouijht. Holmes.
2. [Of Argos.] A conical hill in Greece, nearly 1,000 feet iu height. It was called Larissa in ancient times. A ruined castle on the summit preserves some fragments of the noted Acropolis of Argos.
3. [Of Corinth.] See Acko
Acteeon. See Diana And Action.
Adam and Eve. An engraving by Albert Diircr (1471-1528). In the
fallery of Vienna, Austria, 'here is also a painting on the same subject by the same artist in the Madrid gallery. Still another example, of great beauty, is in the Pitti Palace in Florence. An early copy or replica, which lias sometimes passed for an original, is in the gallery of Mayence.
Adam and Eve. Celebrated frescoes by Michael Angelo Buonarotti (1475-1564), representing the creation of Adam and Eve. In the Sistine Chapel, Rome.
Adam and Eve. A picture by Jacopo Palma, called Palraa Vecchio (1480-1528), which has been attributed to Giorgione. It is in the Brunswick gallery.
Adam and Eve. A fresco in the Loggie of the Vatican, Rome, executed by Giulio Romano (1492-1546), after a design by Raphael.
Adam and Eve. A picture by Jacopo Robusti, called Tintoretto (1512-1594). In the Academy at Venice, Italy.
Adam and Eve. See Fall Of Adam Axd Eve.
Adams, Port. See Fort Adams.
Adelphi, The. The name given to a series of streets on the south side of the Strand, London. See Adelphi Terrace.
He [Martin Chuzzlewit] found himself, about an hour before dawn, in the humbler regions of the Adelphi; and, aiUlivxsin« himself to a man in a fur cap. who was taking down the shuttero of an obBcure public-house, inquired if he could have a bed there. Dickens.
Adelphi Terrace. This terrace in Loudon occupies part? of what was formerly the site of Durham House and its gardens, and is so called from the Greek UtXfai (brothers) in commemoration of its founders, John, Robert, James, and William Adam (1768). It is approached by four streets, known as John, Robert, James, and William streets, after the Christian names of the brothers. David Garrick and Topham Beauclerk died in the terrace.
*S" " There U always, to this day, a sudden pause in that place to the roar of the great thoroughfare. The many ■ounda become Bo deadened that the
change Is like putting cotton In the ears, or having the head thickly muffled."
Adelphi Theatre. A well-known place of dramatic entertainment in the Strand, London, first opened in 1806, rebuilt and enlarged in 1858.
Bless me! when I was a lad. the stage was covered with angels who sang, acted, and danced. When I remember the Adelphi, and the actresses there!
Adelsberg Grotto. See Grotto Op Adelsberg.
Adcrabach Rocks. A remarkable natural curiosity, perhaps unequalled in its kind in Europe, near the village of the same name in Bohemia. It consists of masses of sandstone extending over a tract five or six miles in length by three in breadth, and divided by all manner of openings and clefts. "You walk, as it were, in a narrow street, with immense smooth walls on each side of you, opening here and there into squares, whence is obtained a view of the countless number of giant rocks which surround you on all sides." Such is the intricacy of the passages, that the region is a perfect labyrinth, from which extrication is very difficult, unless one is attended by a guide.
Admiralty, The. The building in which is conducted the bustness of the Admiralty, in Whitehall, London. It occupies the site of Wallingford House. The street front was built alwut 1726 by Thomas Ripley, and the stone screen towards the street was designed in 1776 by the brothers Adam.
See under Ripley rise a new Whitehall, While Jones' and Boyle's united labors fall. Pope.
Admiralty Pier. A magnificent breakwater of granite at Dover, England, one of the greatest works of the kind in the world. It extends nearly half a mile into the sea. The work was begun in 1844, and is not yet finished.
Admiralty Square. A famous square in St. Petersburg, Russia, around which are grouped the most important buildings and monuments of the city. It is about one mile in length by a quarter of a mile in breadth.
Adonis. An admired statue by Thorwaldsen (1770-1844). In the Glyptothek at Munich, Bavaria.
Adoration of the Kings. See Ado&ation Of The Magi.
Adoration of the Lamb. A remarkable altar-piece begun by Hubert van Eyck (1366-142o), the Flemish painter, but left unfinished by lain. It was painted for Jodocus Vydts, burgomaster of Ghent, and his wife Elizabeth, for their mortuary chapel in the Cathedral of St. Bavon at Ghent, Belgium. It consisted of two rows of separate panels, the subject of the upper picture being the Triune God with the Holy Virgin and the Baptist at his side, and the lower central picture showing the Lamb of the Revelation, " whose blood flows into a cup; over it is the dove of the Holy Spirit; angels who hold the instruments of the Passion worship the Lamb, and four groups, each consisting of many persons, advance from the sides. ... In the foreground is the fountain of life; in the distance the towers of the heavenly Jerusalem." This work no longer exists as a whole, the separate parts having been dispersed, and some of them lost. The centre pictures and two of the panels are still at Ghent, while others of the pictures are among the chief attractions of the Museum of Berlin. After the death of Hubert van Eyck, the pictures which were unfinished were completed by his younger brother Jan van Eyck. An excellent copy of this altarpiece was made, about a century after its completion, for Philip II. of Spain; but the panels of this work, like those of the original, have been dispersed, some being in the Berlin Museum, others being in the possession of the King of Bavaria, and others still at the Hague. There is also a copy in the Antwerp Museum.
*8-"Thi« [Van Eyck's Adoration of the Lamb] . . . may be considered as in some respects tbe highest cxposition of all representations of Ibis class, however marked by the tben growing corruptions and inconsistencies of religious art. The merit of this picture, which is exquisite in execution and expression, is the earnest reality uf certain portions: its fault is the incongruous symbolism and convention of others." Lady Kasttake.
Adoration of the Magi (Kings), fltal. VAdorazione de' Magi, L'Eplfania; Ger. Die Anbetung der Weitien ana dem Mon/enland, Die heiliye drei Kbnigen; Ft. L'Adoration des Rois Mages.] A very common subject of representation by the great mediaeval painters, who portrayed the visit of the three wise men from the East to Bethlehem, with their gifts of gold and frankincense and myrrn, according to the account in Matt. ii. 1-12.
MS" " In the first place, who were these Magi, or these kings as they are sometimes styled ?' To suppose,' says the antique legend, * that they were called Magi because they were addicted to magic, or exercised unholy or forbidden acts, would be, heaven save us! a rank heresy.' No! Magi, in the Persian tongue, signifies ' wise men.' They were In their own country kings or princes, as it is averred by all the ancient fathers. ... In the legends of the fourteenth century, the kings bad become distinct personages, under the names of Caspar (or Jasper), Melchior, and Baithasar." Mrs. Jameson.
Of numerous compositions on this subject, the following may be named as among the more noted.
Adoration of the Magi (Kings). A picture by Gentile da Fabriano (1370-1450 ?). In the Academy at Florence, Italy.
as-"The first real picture in the series is the Adoration of the Magi by Gentile da Fabriano, a really splendid work in all BenBes, with noble and beautiful figures in it." Hawthorne.
Adoration of the Magi (Kings). A remarkable altar-picture by Jan van Eyck (1390-1440). In the gallery of Munich, Bavaria.
Adoration of the Muyi (Kings).