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Minerva. A famous statue of antiquity, executed by Phidias (000 B.C.?), tho Greek sculptor, for the Parthenon at Athens.

Minerva Medioa. A celebrated Greek statue which derives its name from the Temple of Minerva Medica, where it was discovered. Now in the Vatican, Home.

Kg- "In tho Olustinianl palace [since removed] is a statue of Minerva which fills me with admiration. Wlnekclmann scarcely thinks any thing of it, or at any rate does not give It its proper position, but I cannot pratse it sufficiently.'* Goethe, Trans. That's you, Miss Leigh: I've watched you

half an hour, rreclsely as I watched tho statue culled A I'allas in the Vatican. Mrs. Browning.

Minerva Medica, Temple of. See Temple Of Minerva Medica.

Minerva Press. The name applied to a printing-house inLeailenhall Street, Loudon. In the latter part of the eighteenth century and the early part of the nineteenth century, numbers of popular but trashy novels were issued from this establishment. Lamb speaks of these works, which had a wide circulation, as having heroes which are neither of this nor of any conceivable world.

Hesperus and Titan themselves, though in Conn nothing more than "novels of real life,"as the Minerva Press would say, have solid metal enough in them to furnish whole circulating' libraries, were it beaten into the usual nllgree. Cartyle. In this respect. Burns, though not perhaps absolutely a great poet, better manliest* his capability, better proves the truth of his genius, than If he had, by his own strength, kept the whole Minerva Press going, to the end of his literary course.


Miniato, San. See San Miniato Al Monte.

Minories, The. A parish in London, named from the Sorores Minorca, or nuns of the order of St. Clare, founded 129.'), whose convent stood in this street. The street has long been noted for its gunsmiths.

The Mulcibcrs who in the Minories sweat.

Minotaur, The. A very formidable iron-clad ship of the British navy, launched Dec. 12, I860.

Minot'a Ledge Light. A wellknown light-house on Cohasset reefs, in Massachusetts Bay.

The lonely ledge of Minot.

Where the waKhmaii lends his light,
And sets his perilous beacon,

A star in the stormiest iilpht.

Mary Class**.

And naked In the howling night
The red-eyed light-house lilts lis form.
Tho waves with slippery Unpen clutch
The massive tower, and climb anil f-ill,
And. mutterinc, growl with baffled rage
Their curses on the sturdy wall.

Fits-James O'Brics.

Mir. See Holy Oil.

Miracle of Bolsena. See Mass or Bolsena.

Miracle of Hoses of St. Francis. A large fresco-painting bv Friedrich Overbeck (1789-18011), and considered his masterpiece in that department of art. At Assisi, Italy.

Miracle of St. Mark. A celebrated picture attributed to Giorgio Barbarelli, called Giorgione (1477-1511), based upon a famous legend connected with the history of Venice. In tho Accadeinia delle Belle Arti, in Venice, Italy.

XES" "No painting, in my Judgment, surpasses or perhaps equals bis [Tintorct's] St. Mark. Xo one, save Rubens, has so caught the Instantaneousness of motion, the fury of flight; alongside of this vehemence and this truthfulness, classic figures seem stiff, as if copied after Academy models whose arms are upheld by strings: wc are borne along with him, and follow him to the ground, as yet unreached." Taine, Tram.

Miracle of the Cross. A picture by Gentile Bellini (1421-1507). In the Accade.mia delle Belle Arti, at Venice, Italy.

Miraculous Draught of Fishes. The subject of one of the famous cartoons of Raphael Sanzio (14831520), from which the tapestries in the Vatican at Rome were executed.

syw " The composition of Raphael [tho cartoon of the Miraculous Draught of Fit/he*] is just what we should seek for in Raphael, a masterpiece of dramatic expression — the significant, the poetical, the miraculous predominating." Jfr*. Jameson.

Miraculous Wafers. A Catholic holy relic preserved in the chapel of St. Sacrament des Miracles in the Cathedral of Brussels, Belgium. The wafers when scoffmgly pierced with knives by Jews, who in the fourteenth century had stolen them from the altar, are said to havo emitted jets of blood. The miracle is the occasion of an annual religious ceremony.

Miramar. A well-known Gothic castle on a point of land extending into the sea, near Trieste, Austria. It was the residence of Maximilian, the Emperor of Mexico, and Carlotta, his wife.

Miriam singing the Song of Triumph. A picture by Washington Allston (1779-1&43). Formerly in possession of Hon. David Sears, Boston, Mass.

Misericordia di Lucca. A celebrated picture by Baccio del Porta, called Fra Bartolommeo (14(591517), and his most important work. At Lucca, Italy.

*?* "Famous in the history of art. The expression in the heads, the dignified beneficence of the Virgin, the dramatic feeling in the groups, particularly the women and children, justify the fame of this picture as one of the greatest of the productions of mind." Mrs. Jameson.

Misers, The. See Two Misers.
Misfortunes of Job. See Job.

Miss Kelley*a Theatre. See Soho

Mission Dolores. An interesting old Spanish mission station and church about three miles from San Francisco, Cal. It was founded by Jesuit missionaries upwards of a hundred years ago. The church has been partly enclosed with wood in order to preserve it.

Mitre, The. 1. A noted tavern in Fleet Street, London, deriving

its fame chiefly from the fact that it was a favorite resort of Dr. Johnson. It is no longer standing. Here Johnson and Bosweli determined to make a tour to the Hebrides.

*5r "The Mitre Tavern still stands in Fleet Street; but where now is its scot-aud-lot paying, beef-and-nle loving, cocked-hatted, pot-bellied Landlord; its rosy-faced, assiduous Landlady, with all her shining brass pans, waxed tables, well-filled larder-shelves; her cooks, and bootjacks, and errandboys, and watery-mouthed hangers-on 1 Gone! Gone! The beckitig waiter, that with wreathed smiles, wont to spread for Samuel and Bozzy their 1 supper of the gods,' has long since pocketed his last sixpence; and vanished, sixpences and all, like a ghost at cock-crowing. The Bottles they drank out of arc all broken, the Chairs they sat on all rotted and burnt; the very Knives and Forks they ate with havo rusted to the heart." CarlyU.

t&- "The orthodox high-church sound of The Mitre the figure and manner of the celebrated Samuel Johnson — the extraordinary power and precision of his conversation, and the pride arising from finding myself admitted as his companion, produced a variety of sensations and a pleasing elevation of mind, beyond what I had ever experienced." Boswetl.

ta- "On the other side of Fleet Street we can see the 'Mitre Tavern,' closing up the end of a court — but not the old original' Mitre' where Johnson sat with Bosweli. It was pulled down within living memory, and with It tho corner in which the snge used to sit, and which was religiously marked by his bust. Yet even as it stands in its restoration, there is something quaint in the feeling, as you enter through a low covered passage from Fleet Street, and see its cheerful open door at tho end. The passage to the 'Mitre'is as it was in Johnson's day, and his eyes must havo been often raised to the old beams that support lu roof. Even in Its modern shape, it retains much that is old-fashioned and rococo."


2. A London tavern, in Wood Street, destroyed in the Great Fire of lfi66, and spoken of by Pepys a few years before that time as beinj? "a house of the greatest note in London."

3. An old London tavern in Fenchurch Street, destroyed in the Great Fire (1666), but soon afterwards rebuilt.

Moat of Knockgraffon. A very singular artificial mound in Tipperary county, Ireland, built, according to tradition, in 1108, and invested with much legendary lore.

Mock Election. A noted picture by Benjamin Robert Haydon (1786-1846).

Modern Italy. A picture by Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775-1801), the celebrated English painter.

Modesty and Vanity. A celebrated picture by Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519). In the Palazzo Sclarra, Rome.

a5" "One of Leonardo's most beautiful pictures, . . . remarkably powerful in coloring and wonderfully finished." Kugler.

Kg- "' Mary Magdalene rebuked by her slater Martha for her vanity and luxury.' 1 believe I am the first to suggest that the famous picturo in the Bclarra l'aiace, by Leonardo da Vinci, known as 'Modesty and Vanity,' Is a version of this subject."

Mrs. Jameson.

Vg~ " One of the masterpieces of this gallery [in the aclarra Palace], and perhaps the greatest, I find to be the Modesty and Vanity of Leonardo da Vinci. It is simply two female figures on a dark background. . . . The ^expression of the face representing Vanity is extraordinary. We can never know the research, the combinations, the Internal spontaneous reflective labor, the ground traversed by his spirit and intellect in order to evolve a head like this. She Is much more delicately formed and more noble and elegant than Mona Lisa. Tho luxuriance Bnd taste of the coiffure are remarkable. She has a strange, melancholy smile, one peculiar to Da Vinci, combining the sadness and irony of a superior nature." Taint, Trans.

Mceris, Lake. See Lake Miehis.

Mogul. See Coubt Of The Great


Mohammed All, Mosque of. See Mosque Of Mohammed Alt.

Mohocks, The. A name under which ruffians and villians com

mitted dastardly assaults and various cruelties in London. This fraternity assembled in the time of Queen Anne, and was not broken up till nearly the end of George the First's reign. A royal proclamation was issued against them in 1712, but with little result.

«y "Here is the devil and all to do with these Mohocks. Grub-street papers about them fly like lightning, sad a list printed of near eighty put into Beveraf prisons, and all a lie; and I begin to think there 1b no truth, or very little, in the whole story. . . . My man tells me that one of the lodgers heard In a coffee-house, publicly, that one design of the Mohocks was upon me, if they could catch me; and though I believe nothing of it, I forbear wsliinj late."

Dean Swift {Journal to Stella, 1712). Who has not trembled at the JfcJocfi

name? Was there a watchman took his hourly

rounds Safe from their blows or new-lnventw

wounds? I pass their desperate deeds and mischief*.

done Where from Snow-hiU black steepy torrents run; How matrons, hooped within the hogshead's womb. Were tumbled furious thence; the rolBag

tomb O'er the stones thunders, bounds from doe

to side: So Rcgulus, to save his country, died.


Moliere, Fontaine. See Fontaikk


Molle, Ponte. See Ponte Moll*.

Momba Devi. A famous Hindoo

temple in Bombay, India. Mona Lisa. See Belle Joco>t>e.

"Monaco di Leonardo." A picture by Leonardo da Vinci (14521519). In the Palazzo Pitti, Florence, Italy.

Monadnock, The. A formidable armor-plated vessel of the United States navv in the Civil War o( 1861-65. She was one of the vessels of Admiral Porter's flotilla in the attack upon Fort Fisher, Dec. 14,1864.

Monarch of the Glen. A wellknown picture by Sir Edwin Landseer (1803-1873), the most celebrated modern painter of animals.

Monastery, The. A picture by Jacob Ruysdael (16257-1681), and considered one of his niaster

Iiieces. In the Dresden Galery.

Monboddo. A country-seat in Scotland, near Fordoun, formerly the seat of Lord Monboddo, distinguished for the remarkable speculations upon the origin of man, contained in his " Dissertations upon the Origin and Progress of Language."

Monceaux, Pare de. A promenade and garden in Paris, tastefully laid out, containing flowers, shrubs, some fine ancient trees, and various artificial adornments. Here is a small lake surrounded by a partly ruined portico of Corinthian columns. It was originally laid out in 1778 with grottos, bowers, fountains, etc., by Carmontel, for Philippe Kgalite. It is now the property of the municipality of Paris, and is open to the public.

Monitor, The. A novel American gunboat, built in New York by John Ericsson (b. 1803), a Swedish engineer, during the war of the Rebellion. Her first engagement was with the Confederate ram Merrimack, in Hampton Roads, on the 9th of March, 1802. The Merrimack was quickly put to flight. The Monitvr was a sort of flat iron raft with a heavy-plated revolving turret containing two powerfulguns. The name Monitor has since been applied to ironclad vessels of similar construction.

<S" M The Monitor was built almost wholly of three-inch Iron, pointed at both ends like a whale-boat, her deck only a few inches above the water. It Vm 124 feet in length, S4 in width, and six in depth, with a flat bottom. Over this hull was another that extended over the lower one three feet all round, excepting at the ends, where the projection was 25 feet, for the protection of the anchor, propeller, and rudder. On her deck was a revolving turret made of eight thicknesses of one-inch • wrought-irou plates, round, 2D feet iu

diameter, and 10 feet high. The smokestack was telescopic In construction,so so us to be lowered iu battle. Within this revolving turret or citadel (which was easily turned by a contrivance) were two heavy Dahlgren cannons. By turning the turret these ' bull-dogs' might look straight into the face of an attacking euemy, wherever he might be, without changing the position of the vessel. The Monitor was propelled by a powerful steam-engine."


Monmouth Street. A well-known London street, called by Dickens, from its shops for old clothes, "the burial-place of the fashions." It is now Dudley Street.

«S- " If Field Lane, with iu long fluttering rows of yellow handkerchiefs, be a Dionysius' Eur, where, in stifled Jarring hubbub, we hear the Indictment which Poverty and Vice bring against lazy Wealth, that it has left them there cast-out and trodden under foot of Want, Darkuess, and the Devil, — then Is Monmouth Street a Mirzu's Hill, where, in motley vision, the whole Pageant of Existence passes awfully before us; with its wail and jubilee, mad loves and mad hatreds, church-bells and gullows-ropcs, farcetragedy, beasl-godhood,— the Bedlam of Creation 1"

Cartyle {Sartor Iitsartua).

The long tables had disappeared, and. In place of the saee magi. 1 beheld a ragged, threadbare throng, such as may be seen plying about the ^reat repository of cast-oft* clothes, Monmouth Street.


With awe-struck heart I walk through that Monmouth Street, with its empty Suits, as through a Sanhedrim of stainless Ghosts. Curlyte.

Monongahela, The. A noted vessel of the United States navy, in service in the War of the Rebellion, 1861-65.

Quickly breasting the wave.

Eager the prize to win,
First of us all the brave

Monongahela went In,
L'nder full head of stesm.

H. II. Broanell.

Mons Aventinus. See Aventine MormT; and for Moss Capitoli

NL'S, Mons Co2I.Il s, Mons EsijllJ.inijs, Mons Palatum's, Mons Qoibinus, Mons Viminalis, and the like names, see Cai'itoline Hill, Coslian Hill, Esqiiline Hill, Palatine Moi'nt, QiikiKal Hill, Viminal Hill, etc.

Mons Meg. A famous piece of ancient ordnance in Edinburgh Castle, Scotland, supposed to liave been forged at Mons, in Flanders, in the fifteenth century.

Mons Sacer. [Ital. Monte Sacro, The Sacred Mount.] A hill three miles from Rome, and beyond the Anio, to which the plebeians withdrew at the time of their famous secession under Menenius Agrippa, B.C. 494. A second secession Jook place, after the death of Virginia, when the plebeians revolted against Appius Claudius, and retired again to Mons Sacer. The epithet Sacer is derived, according to Dionysius, from an altar erected to Z«i»t Act^ario?. According to others it was from the Lex Sacrata decreed upon the occasion of the first secession.

Monserrat. [From Mons Serrutus, the jagged mountain.] This famous Benedictine convent, near Barcelona, Spain, was founded A.D. 07(i. It owes its origin, according to the Catholic legend, to the miraculous image of the Virgin, which was brought to Barcelona by St. Peter himself, A. D. 50. Upon reaching the summit of the Mons Serratus, where the convent now stands, the Virgin refused to proceed any farther; upon which a chapel with a cross was built over her, where she remained 100 years. It is said that not less than 100,000 persons, including tourists and pilgrims, visit this convent yearly.

Mont Brilliant. A royal country residence, with a fine picture-gallery, near Hanover, Germany.

Mont de Fi6t6. The great pawnbroking concern of Paris, established in 1777.

jBJ3" '* The name Mons Pifiatis came with the invention from Italy. In the first century of the Christian era, free glftB were collected, and preserved in churches, to defray the expenses of divine service, and for the relief of the poor. The collections thus made were* called Monies or Mounts, a name originally applied to all moneys procured or neaped together; and it has ap

peared that the inventor added the word Pitta* to give to tiis institution a sacred or religious character, and to procure for it universal approbation and support. In Italy their establishment is of very early date, and in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries the

flan had spread to nearly all the cities, n 1777 a Mont de Plete. was established in Paris by a royal ordinance of Louis XVI." Mr. and Mrs. UaU.

*%g- " Pawnbroking in France, as in most parts of the Continent, is a municipal monopoly. It was established in 1777, but is now regulated by the law of June, 1851, and the necessary capital taken from the general hospital fund, which also receives the net profits for charitable purposes. About 1,000,000(. is usually lent out. The average of articles pledged is \"f.; the lowest value rate uf interest is about six per cent. The articles pledged,if out redeemed, are Bold at the expiration of 14 mouths; and the surplus money,if any, is paid to the owner if application is made within three years. There are two large branch establishments in tlie Rue Bonaparte and Rue de la Roquette, and about 20 branches (CommitHonaire*) in different parts of Paris. The profit annually to the institution is about 233,000/." Murray'* Handbook.

AEsT"" 1 must own, however, that although the interior of the Mont de Piete was repulsive to witness, 1 left its central office with an impression which reflection has strengthened rather than removed. — that that portion of the community of anv country, whose necessities force them occasionally to pawn their effects, have infinitely less to fear from an establishment guided by fixed principles, and open every day from nine till four to the public, than they would be, — and in England are, — in transacting the same business in private, cooped with an individual who, to say the least, may encourage the act which nothing but cruel necessity can authorize."

Sir Francis £. Htad.

Mont Parnasse, Boulevard du. This quarter of Paris is said to have been so called because the students were accustomed to declaim verses here.

Mont Valeirien. [Motint Vatfnrn.] An eminence near Paris, rising 34H feet above the Seine, on the route to St. Germain, converted into a citadel, which is considered one of the strongest of, the fortifications of Paris.

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