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covered by a magnificent yewtree of a growth of centuries.
Muezzin, The. A picture bv Jean Leon Gerome (b. 1824), the French painter.
Mug-house Clubs. The Mug-house club was one of the most popular clubs in London early in the eighteenth century. The house in Long Acre derived its name from the fact that each member drank his ale from a separate mug. After a time other similar clubs were formed, and they became intimately connected with political events. Their tumults and struggles with the Jacobites culminated in the serious Mug-house riots of the year 1716. The Mughouse club in Long Acre, thougn subsequently a political rendezvous, was not such at first, and is said to have consisted of gentlemen, lawyers, and statesmen. The Club in it-s early days is thus described: '"They have a grave old Gentleman, in his own gray Hairs, now within a few months of Ninety years old, who is their President, and sits in an arm'd chair some steps higher than the rest of the company to keep the whole Room in order. A Harp plays all the time at the lower end of the Room; and every now and then one or other of the Company rises and entertains the rest with a song, and (by the by) some arc good Masters. Here is nothing drunk but ale; and every Gentleman hath his separate Mug, which he chalks on the Table where he sits as it is brought in; and every one retires when lie pleases as from a Coffee-house. The Room is always so diverted with Songs, and drinking from one Table to another to one another's Healths, that there is no room for Politicks, or any thing that can sow'r conversation.
Mulberry Garden. A celebrated place of resort and entertainment in London in the seventeenth century, now included in the gardens of Buckingham Palace.
Muleteer, The. A picture by Antonio Allegri, surnamed Correggio (1491-1534). In the gallery of Stafford House, London.
Mulcts, Grands. See Grands MuLcts.
Mulino, II. See Mill, The.
Mungret Priory. An interesting monastic ruin in the county of Limerick, Ireland. It is said to have been founded by St. Patrick, and is undoubtedly of high antiquity.
MUnster Congress. A picture by Gerard Terburg (1608-1(>81), the Dutch ^enrc-painter, and considered one of his masterpieces. It was sold at the Demidoff sale for 182,000 francs, and is now in the National Gallery, London.
Murder of the Innocents. See Massacre Of The Innocents.
Muro Torto. A piece of broken wall in the garden of the Pincian Hill.
«- " At the farthest point of the Plncio you look down from the parapet upon the Muro Torto, a massive fragment of the oldest Roman wall, which juts over, as if ready to tumble down by Its own weight, yet seems still the most indestructible piece of work that men's hands have ever piled together." Hawthorne, The Marble Faun.
Hence turning to the right nut of tbo Porto del Popolo. we cam,* to Justinian's garden neere ihc Muro Torto. so prominently built as threatening every moment to fall,yet standing so for thoie thousand years. John Evelyn, 1644.
&&•" Vainly have the antiquaries puzzled themselves to conceive them with what intention, or by whom, this piece of deformity was made, whether originally built In this strange shape, or whether fallen Into it by time or accident." Eaton.
Mus6e du Louvre. A vast collection of works of art in Paris, occupying almost the whole of the Louvre Palace and Louvre Gallery. See Louvre.
Kg-" As a whole It Is perhaps the finest, and as regards numbers the largest In Europe, although It must yield In Italian art to those of the Vatican and Florence; In Dutch, to those of the Hague, Amsterdam, and Antwerp; in Roman antiquities, to the Museums of the Capitol and Vatican at Rome, and to that of Naples; and in Greek sculpture, to the British Museum. Most of the objects are set out and exhibited to the best advantage in splendid rooms. Under Napoleon III. the whole was re-arranged,whilst very great additions were made in every department, especially in the Egyptian, Assyrian, and Etruscan, — among thern the magnificent collections of the Marquis Campana, of Rome, purchased in 1801 for nearly 200,000/., which form the most important portion of the Musee Napoleon III." Murray's Handbook.
Musee du Luxembourg. [Museum of the Luxembourg.] A gallery of paintings in the Luxembourg Palace, Paris.
&2F" This gallery contains what are considered to be the best works of living French painters; at the expiration of ten years from the death of an artist, his works may be transferred to the Louvre. This gallery dates from 1818, and the works have "been mostly purchased after the annual exhibitions under the selection of a jury composed chiefly of members of the Institute. Until lately the pictures selected were almost entirely of the school of the Empire and Restoration — enormous clnssical or academic subjects. Of late, however, this Bystem has been departed from, and the collection is now a fairer representation of the French school of the day." Murray's Handbook.
Museo, El. [The Museum.] The royal picture-gallery of Madrid, Spain, and one of the richest collections in the world. Of the building, Fergusson says, " If not quite successful in design, it has so many good points about it as to be well worthy of study." The gallery contains a vast number of pictures by Spanish and Italian artists.
Museo Borbonioo. [Bourbon Museum.] A celebrated museum of antiquities, sculptures, paintings, gems, etc., in Naples, Italy. It received its name from Ferdinand I., in 1816, who placed in it the royal collectionsof antiquities and pictures. The greater part of the relics found at Herculaneum and Pompeii are deposited here. This museum is now called iluseo Nationals.
Museo Capitolino. [Capitoline Museum.] A gallery of sculpture, — the Museum of the Catri
< tol, — at Rome. It was begun by Pope Clement XII., and, though not so extensive as that of the Vatican, is a most interesting collection.
Museo Chiaramonti. An apartment in the Vatican, Rome, tilled with sculptures, arranged by Canova. It was founded by Pope Pius VIII., and derives its name from that of his family.
tff" " Here are some seven hundred pieces of sculpture,—all worthy of examination, many of them curious, and some of them of great merit."
Museo Gregoriano. See EtbcsCax Museum.
Museo Nazionale. See Museo
Museo Fio-Clementino. A museum in the Vatican Palace at Rome, so called from the two popes Clement XIV. and Pius VI., who made large donations to it. It contains the most magnificent collection of ancient sculpture in the world, among which may be mentioned the Torso Belvedere, the Meleager, the Antinous, the Laocoon, and the Apollo Belvedere.
AS- " This is by far the most extensive collection in the Vatican. Besides the Cortilc of the Belvidcro ... It comprises the Hall of Animals, the Gallery of the Muses, the Circular Hall, the Hall of the Greek Cross, the Hall of the Blga, and the Grand Staircase. In point of architecture, these are the most Bplendld portions of the whole Vatican, and the visitor knows not which most to admire, the innumerable works of art which solicit his attention, or the spacious courts, and the noble apartments around and in which they are distributed."
Museum, The. 1. This renowned institution at Alexandria, Egypt, was founded by Ptolemy Soter. Alexandria was a famous seat of learning, where for a long time flourished literature, science, and all branches of philosphy. According to Strabo, the Museum was a large structure surrounded by a corridor, and the famous Library of Alexandria was attached to it.
2. A hill in Athens, Greece, south-west of the Acropolis.
3. A well-known edifice on Tremont Street, Boston, Mass., used for theatrical purposes, and containing a museum of curiosities and antiquities.
Tickets to the Museum,— said the landlady.—There is them that's glad enough to go to the Museum, when tickets Is given •em; but some of 'em ha'n't had a ticket aence Cenderilla was played. Holmes.
4. See British Museum, InDia Museum, Sloans Museum, Soane Museum, etc.
Music Hall. A plain edifice in Boston, Mass., containing a noble hall, used for concerts and other
purposes, and the largest organ in America.
Music Master. A picture by Jan Steen (1620-1679), the Dutch genre painter. In the National Gallery, London.
Musidora. An admired picture by Thomas Gainsborough (1727-1788). In the National Gallery, London.
k¥3~ "His [Gainsborough's] Musidora has such delicate feet and so intelligent a head that she Is no simple girl bathing, but a lady."
Myrtle Grove. A mansion near Youghall, Ireland, near Cork, once the home of Sir Walter Raleigh. It derives its name from the luxuriant growth of the myrtles by which it is nearly covered, and some of which are nearly 30 feet high.
Nag's Head. A former tavern in London.
Naraur, Siege of. See Siege Of Namub.
Nando's. A coffee-house in Fleet Street, London, formerly much frequented by professional loungers. It is no longer a coffeehouse.
jgr* "The lawyers discussed law or literature; criticised the last new play, or retailed the freshest Westminster Hall * bite' at Nando's or the Grecian, both close on the purlieus of the Tern.
Jle. Here the young bloods of the nns-of-Court paraded their Indian gowns and lace caps of a morning; and swaggered in their lace coats and Mechlin ruffles at night, after the the. atre." National Review.
Napoleon at Fontainebleau. A picture by Paul Delaroche (17971856), the eminent French historical painter.
Napoleon at St. Helena. An admired picture by Benjamin Robert Haydon (1786-1846).
Narcissus. An ancient marble statue supposed to be the copy of a work by Praxiteles, the Greek sculptor (b. 392? B.C.). It is in the Museum at Naples, Italy. [Called also Pan, and Bacchus.]
Narcissus and Echo. A picture by Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775-1851), the English landscape-painter, and regarded one of his best works.
Narragansett Fort. A ruined Indian fortress near Kingston, R.I., the scene of one of the most desperate conflicts between the early colonists of New England and the Indian tribes during "King Philip's War." The fort, of which a few remains still exist, was taken by the Massachusetts and Connecticut men in December, 1675.
Nashville, The. A noted privateer of the Confederate navy in the war of the Rebellion. She was one of the most active and formidable vessels afloat, but was finally destroyed by the Montauk, under command of Capt. Worden.
Nassau, John, Duke of, and hU Family. A family picture by Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641), and one of his graudest compositions. Now at Panshanger.
National Academy of Design. A fine building on Fourth Avenue, New York, devoted to the exhibition of works of American art.
National Cemetery. A national burying-ground in Arlington, Va., containing the bodies of 16> 000 soldiers, who fell in the war of the Rebellion.
National Gallery. A collection of paintings and works of art in London. It originated under the auspices of the British government, and was founded in 1824. The building of the Nfr
, tional Gallery was erected 183238.
49" " It possesses windows without glass, a cupola without size, a portico without height, pepper-boxes without pepper, and the finest site in Europe, without any thing to show upon it.
All the Year Round.
National Gallery of Statuary. A semicircular chamber in the Capitol at Washington, formerly the hall of the House of Representatives, in which that body sat (or 32 years. In 18K4 the room was set apart as a hall of statuary. It contains statues of some of the most eminent men of the republic, and of the colonial period, contributed by the different v States.
National Monument. A memorial structure in Edinburgh, Scotland, begun in 182*2, in honor of those British soldiers who fell in the Napoleonic wars. It was designed to be a copy of the Parthenon at Athens, but for want of funds the building is still in an unlinished state.
National Monument. An imposing memorial structure of granite, erected on Cemetery Hill, Gettysburg, Penn., in honor of the Union soldiers who gave their lives for their country at this place in the great battle of July 3, 18t)3. It stands in the centre of the enclosure, which contains the bodies of some 3,500 soldiers, representing eighteen Northern States. The monument bears upon its base the famous words ol President Lincoln, delivered at the consecration of the cemetery in November, 1803.
National Portrait Gallery. An interesting gallery in the South Kensington Museum, London, founded in 1858.
National Road. An ancient national highway, established by Thomas Jefferson, and once a great thoroughfare. It extended from Baltimore, Mil., through Frederick, Cumberland, and Wheeling, to Columbus, O. Sometimes called the old Cumberland Road.
Nativity, The. [Ital. R Pretepio, Fr. La Nativittf.] A very common subject of representation by the great mediicval painters, exhibiting, under various aspects and circumstances, the birth of Christ. Of the numerous pictures treating of this subject, the following may be mentioned as among the more noted.
But for the occasion nnd the appellation It would he quite Impossible to distinguish the loves that sport r"Uiul Venus and Adonis from the Cheruhhn. so called, that hover above a Hativity, or a Rlpo*o.
Nativity, The. A celebrated picture by Correggio. See Notte,
Nativity, Tfie. An admired picture by Mariotto Albertinelli (1474-1515). In the Pitti Gallery, Florence,Italy.
Nativity, The. A well-known picture by Giulio Romano (14!t2154li), which formerly belonged to Charles I. of England. Now in the Louvre, Paris.
Nativity, The. A picture by Albert Diirer (1471-1528), the German painter and engraver, erroneously ascribed to Herri de Bles. It is in the collection of the Marquis of Exeter at Burleigh House, England.
Nativity, The. An altar-piece with wings, executed by Hugo van der Goes (d. 1482), the Flemish painter, for the church of the Hospital of Santa Maria Nuova at Florence, Italy, where it is still preserved.
Nativity, The. A small triptych altar-piece, representing the Nativity, a Dead Christ in the lap of the Virgin, anil Christ appearing to his mother after the Resurrection, by Roger van der Weyden, (d. 1404). It was presented by Pope Martin V. to the King of Spain, afterwards was brought to France, and is now in the Berlin Museum.
Nativity, The. A wall-painting by Nabor Martin (1404-1453), a Flemish painter. In the "Grande Boucherie" at Ghent, Belgium.
Nativity, The. A picture bv Gheerardt David (1484-1523), a Flemish painter. Now in the National Gallery at Madrid, Spain.
Nativity, Cave of the. See Cave Of The Nativity.
Nativity, Church of the. This splendid basilica at Bethlehem, the oldest specimen of Christian architecture in the world, was built by the Empress Helena in 327 A.D. In consequence of its being used by all sects alike, the church is now in a state of neglect. Connected with it is a chamber which was formerly the 'study of Jerome. In the church is an altar reputed to be upon the