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spot where were buried the 20,000 children massacred by order of Herod. There is also hero a lowvault known as the Chapel of the Nativity, within which is a marble slab bearing the inscription, " Hie de Virgine Maria Jesus Christus natus est" (" Here Jesus Christ was born of the Virgin Mary "). Here is also the small chapel of the Pramejiium, or" Manger," the manger being represented by a marble trough. Attached to the church are large con vents belonging to Roman Catholics, the Greek Church, and the Armenians.

Natural Bridge. 1. A remarkable natural curiosity near the James Eiver in Virginia, about 125 miles west of Richmond. It is an arch more than 200 feet in height spanning Cedar Creek.

This scene [the passage of the Potomac through the valley of the liluc Ridge] is worth a journey across the Atlantic; yet here, as In the neighborhood of tiie Natural Bridge, are people who have passed their lives within a dozen miles, and have never been to survey thesa monuments of a war between rivers and mountains, which must have shaken the earth itself to Its centre. Tlwmat Jrffaton.

2. A curiosity of nature in Walker County, Ala., considered by many as remarkable as the celebrated bridge in Virginia.

Naval Academy. See United

States Naval Academy.

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demon. The picture has undergone such injuries and repairs as to make any critical estimaw difficult.

*W " 'Christ walking on the Sea' Is a familiar and picturesque subject, not to be mistaken. The most ancient and most celebrated representation is Giotto's mosaic (A.l). 12ys), now placed In tho portico of St. Peter's over the arch opposite to the principal door. The sentiment in the composition of this subject is, generally, 'Ixird. help me; or 1 perish.' St. Peter is sinking, and Christ is stretching out his band to save him. It is considered as a type of the Church in danger, assailed" by enemies, and saved by the miraculous Interposition of tho Redeemer; and in this sense must the freqticnt representations in churches be understood."

Mr*. Jame&m.

Navona, Piazza. See Piazza Na


Naworth Castle. The seat of the Earl of Carlisle, near Gilsland, Scotland.

Nazionale, Villa. See Villa Reale.

NecesBidades. A palace of vast size in Lisbon, Portugal, used for the meetings of the Cortes.

9S" "Hence we were driven to the huge palace of Nccessidades, which U but a wing of a building that no King of Portugal ought ever to be rich enough to complete, and which, if perfect, might outvie the Tower of Babel. The mines of Brazil must have been productive of gold and sliver indeed when the founder imagined this enormous edifice. . . . Although the palace has not attained any thing like its full growth, yet what exists is quit* big enough for the monarch of such a little country. . . . The Nccessldadea arc only used for grand galas, receptions of ambassadors, and ceremonies of state. ... Of all the undignified objects In the world, a palace out at elbows is surely the meanest."


Necklace, The Diamond. See Diamond Necklace.

Negroni, Villa. See Villa MassiMo.

Nelson Column. A monument erected in 1843 to the memory of Lord Nelson in Trafalgar Square, London, and supporting a statue of that great aduural.

I wish they would offer the Trafalgarsquare Pillar to the Egyptians: and that both of the huge, ugly monsters were lying In the dirt there [Egypt), side by side. Tliucterai.

Nelson's Pillar. A fine Ionic column in Sackville Street, Dublin, Ireland. It is 134 feet in height, and is surmounted by a statuu of Lord Nelson, leaning upon the capstan of a ship. The pillar commands a fine view of the city.

Nepomuck. 8ee St. John NepoMuck and Shrine Op St. John Nepomuck.

Neptune, Temple of. See Temple Op Neptune.

Nero's Golden House. See GoldEn House.

Nesle, Tour de. See Tour De


Neutral Ground. 1. The name given to a space near the northern extremity of the isthmus which connects the fortress of Gibraltar with the mainland. It is between the " Spanish lines" and the English "Rock" of Gibraltar.

2. A name formerly applied to Westchester County ,N.Y\, which was for five years or more during the Revolutionary War the scsne of constant skirmishing' between the Loyalists and Queen's Bangers on the one side, and the patriot soldiery of New York and New England on the other. Cooper's well-known " Spv " is a "Tale of the Neutral Ground."

Nevskoi Prospekt. [The New Prospect.] The principal street and public promenade in St. Petersburg, Russia. It is four miles in length, nearly in a right line, and 150 feet in breadth, with a double carriage-way. The houses facing upon it are magnificent, and some of the finest churches in the city are here located. In winter the display of sledges and costumes which crowd this street affords one of the finest spectacles to be seen in Europe.

A walk In Broadway or Fifth Avenue will show you damsels and damea who will remind you of those you have met in Piccadilly or the Boulevards ... In the Prater or Xecsloi Prospeit. Galaxy.

The days came and went; fashionable equipages forsook their summer ground of the Islands and crowded the A'erstoi Prospekt; the nights were cold and raw, the suns lessening declination was visible from day to day, and still Winter delayed 'to make his appearance. Bayard Taylor.

New Abbey. An interesting ruined monastery, founded in the thirteenth century, near Dumfries, Scotland. Its last abbot is said to have been the original of Sir Walter Scott's Abbot of St. Mary's.

New Forest. A large tract of woodland, the greater part of which belongs to the Crown, in the neighborhood of Southampton, England, about 50 miles in circumference, originally set apart by William the Conqueror, and of much historical interest.

This is the place where William's kingly

Bid from their poor and peaceful homes

Unfriended, desolate, and shelterless.
The inhabitants of ail the fertile tract
Fur as these wilds extend.

Robert Southey. I have read somewhere that the lineal descendants of the man who carted off the body cf William Unfits, with Walter Tyrrel's arrow sticking In it, have driven a cart (not absolutelv the same one. I suppose) in the J/ae Forut, from that day to this. Holmes.

New Grange. A remarkable Druidical tumulus on the banks of the Boyne, between Drogheda and Slane, Ireland. One or two others of a similar character are in the neighborhood. The interior was first explored in 1099. A long gallery opens into a wonderful cave or sacrificial chamber, where more than 2,000 years ago the Druids held their solemn meetings.

*3-"0f their Druldlcal character no one can entertain the remotest doubt; they would carry conviction to the most sceptical, even if ample corroborative testimony did not exist." Mr. and Mrs. Hall.

New Hall. An historical mansion near Chelmsford, England, once belonging to the Duke of Buckingham, anil the scene of many interesting incidents. Only a part of the building now remains. New Harmony. A celebrated socialist community established in 1825, in a place bearing this name in Indiana, purchased by Robert Owen (1771-1S58) for the purpose of testing his theory of society. The experiment proved entirely unsuccessful.

New Inn. A law seminary in London, one of the inns of Chancery.

New Ironsides. A noted vessel in the United States navy in the Civil War of l£61-65. She was the flag-ship of Admiral Dupont's flotilla in the attack upon the defences of Charleston, S.C.

New Palace. TGer. der Konii/sbuit.] A splendid palace in Munich, Bavaria, imitated in part from the Palazzo Pitti in Florence, Italy, built in 1835.

4E2F " The >"ew Residence Is not only one of the wonders of Munich, but of the world." Bayard Taylor.

New Palace (at Westminster). See Westminster. Palace.

New Place. The name of the house which Shakespeare purchased at Stratford-on-Avon, after his return to his native town, and in which he died. The foundations of the house are all that now remain. The site, purchased by public subscription, has been converted into a pleasureground.

JO-" It cost Shakespeare sixty pounds sterling (equal to about $1,500); a small outlay for the dwelling of a man of its new possessor's means and capacity of enjoyment. No representation o*f the house as it was in Shakespeare's time is known to exist, it having been altered after his denth; yet Its size was not enlarged, and an existing representation of it in its last condition shows that it was a goodly mansion." Richard Grant White.

t&~" After that we were taken to see New Place. 'And what is New

Place,' you say, — 'the house where Shakespeare lived-" Not exactly, but a house built where his house was. ... We went out into Shakespeare's garden, where we were shown his mulberry,— not the one that he piarjt«*i, though, but a veritable mulberry planted on the same spot."

Jfrt. If. B. Stetce

New York University. See UviVeb81ty Op The Cltt Of New York.

Newark Castle. This Scottish castle on the river Yarrow was formerly a royal residence. Tb« Duchess of Biiccleueh is supposed to have been here, listening to the " Lay of the Last Minstrel," who

"Passed where Newark's stately tower
Looks out from Yarrow's birkeu bower."
Rislns from those lofty groves,

behold a ruin hoary.
The shattered trout of Xnearl's tetter,
Renown'd in Hurder story.


Newbattle Abbey. The seat of the Marquis of Midlothian, near Dalhousie, Scotland.

Newcastle House. A famous mansion in London, the residence of the Duke of Newcastle. It is no longer standing, its site being occupied by Newcastle Place.

Newgate. A celebrated prison in Loudon, and the oldest in the city, formerly used for felons and debtors, now as a jail for the confinement of prisoners before and after trial at the Old Bailey. Many distinguished persons have been imprisoned within the walls of Newgate, and many famous criminals have here been executed. It was rebuilt in 1770-SO. Among those who have been imprisoned here are, Sackville the poet, George Wither, Penn, Do Foe, Jack Sheppard, Dr. Dodd, Lord George Gordon. Newgate prison had its origin in the gate-house of New-Gate, which was one of the print'i|>al gates of the City. The executions which formerly were carried out at Tyburn now take place here.

J£y-" It has a most imposing exterior, which is perhaps its greatest use aa a deterrer from crime, and the worst poaaible interior." Capt. William*.

j|ES" M There, at the very core of London, in the heart of Its business and animation, in the midst of a whirl of noise and motion: stemming, as it -were, the giant current* of life that flow ceaselessly on from different quarters, and meet beneath its waits, stands Newgate." IHckens.

Kg- " Newgate, though only a prison, and pretending to be nothing else, is still one of the best public buildings in the metropolis. . . . There is nothing 1b It but two great windowless blocks, each 90 feet square, and between them a very commonplace gaoler's residence. Ftrgusson.

Jfewgate he builded falre
For prisoners tit live In;
Chris ts-ehurch he did reoalre
Christian love for to win.
Many inure such like deedes
Were done by Whlttlngton;
Which joy and comfort breedes,
To such as looke thereon.


For what is history, in fact, but a kind of Newgate calendar, a repleter of the crimes mid miseries that man has Inflicted on his lelluw-man? Jiving.

Nay. look at Newgate: do not tho offscourings of Creation, when condemned to the gallows, as if they were not mm but vermin, walk thither with decency, and even to the scowls and hootlnps of the whole Universe give.their stern goodnight lu silence? Carlyle.

The drop on the stones, of the blind man's

staff, As he trades In bis own griefs sacredness; The brothel's shriek, and the Newgate

laugh. Mrs. Browning.

New stead Abbey. An antique building near Nottingham, England, originally a monastery, founded by Henry II., celebrated as having been once the residence of Lord Byron, and in which numerous relics of the poet are still preserved. The building is now the property of Col. Wildinan.

Jsjs- ** News tend Abbey is one of the finest specimens in existence of those quaint and romantic piles, half castle, half convent, which remain as monuments of the olden times of England. It stands, too, in the midst of a legendary neighborhood; being in the heart of Sherwood Forest, and surrounded by the haunts of Kobin Hood and his band of outlaws, so famous in ancient ballad and nursery tale." Irving,

Newstead.' fast falling, once resplendent

dome! Religion's shrine I repentant Henrv'a

pride! Byron.

Through thy battlements, Newstead, the

hollow winds whittle; Thou, the hall of my fathers, art gone to

decay; In thy once smiling garden the hemlock

and thistle Have choked up the rose which Into

bloomed in the way. ILtd.

What made my heart, at Newstead, mile-1

swell? 'Twus not the thought of Byron, of his

cry Btonnily sweet, his Titan agony.

Matt/iew Arnold.

Newtown Abbey. A picturesque ruined monastery near Trim, in the county of Meath, Ireland.

Niagara. A picture by Frederick E. Church (b. 182G), well known through frequent reproductions. Now in the Corcoran Gallery, Washington.

,8y "Church's Kiagara was immediately recognized as the first satisfactory delineation by art of one of tho greatest natural wonders of the Western world, and this la lu itself extraordinary praise.'* Tuckerman.

K$- " Mr. Ruskln, when looking at Church's 'Niagara,' pointed out on effect of light upon water, which he declared lie had often seen In nature, especially among the Swiss waterfalls, but never before on canvas."


Niagara, The. 1. A ship of Commodore Perry's squadron, which did great service in the naval battle with the British on Lake Erie in 1813.

2. An American man-of-war employed, in connection with the English steamer Agamemnon, in laying the first Atlantic cable iu 1857 and 1858.

Niblo's Garden. A theatre on Broadway, . New York, chiefly used for spectacular plays.

Nickajack Cave. A natural curiosity in Alabama on the borders of Georgia. The name is a corruption or improvement upon *'Nigger Jack, the leader of a band of negroes who frequented this cave.

Nicolas des Champs. See St.

Nicolas Pes Cuami-s,

Nicolas du Chardonnet. A church in Paris, rebuilt in 1656-1709 in the Italian style of that time.

Niddrie Castle. A ruined feudal stronghold in Scotland not far from Linlithgow. Here Mary Queen of Scots tarried for a time after her escape from Lochleven.

Niedcrwald. The name given to a series of heights and also to a forest near Bingen on the Rhine.

Night, The. One of four colossal figures executed by Michael Angelo Buouarotti (1475-1564). In the church of S. Lorenzo, Florence, Italy.

49- "The famous statue of tho Night, La Nolle dl Michelagnolo, that work known by name to all who have heard of Michael Angclo. Of none can it be asserted with so much justice that he alone could have produced it."

Grimm, Tirana.

Michel's Night and Day And Dawn and Twilight wait in marble scorn. Mrs. Brotcnitig.

Night, The. A celebrated basrelief by Albert Bertel Thorwaldsen (1770-1844), the Danish sculptor. It is well known by engravings.

Night. A picture by Sir Edwin Landscer (180:1-1873), the celebrated English painter.

Night-Watch, The. A celebrated picture by liembrandt van Byn (1007-lOG'J), the Dutch painter, the largest ho ever painted, and regarded as his chief work, It is in the Amsterdam Gallery.

Nile, The. A colossal marble statue discovered during the pontificate of Leo X., and now in the Vatican, Home.

U3- " A grand reclining statue called •The Kile,'a copy of which is in the Tuilcries. Nothing could be more graceful, more fluid, than thcBe infuntllo diminutive creatures playing around this large body; nothing could better express the fulness, tho repose, tho indefinable, the almost divine life of a river." Taint, Trant.

Nilometer. [Arab. Mckkccdi.] This celebrated structure, situated on the island of lloda, near Cairo,

Egypt, serves, as its name indicates, to measure the height of the water in the Nile. It consists of a square well or chamber, within which is a pillar graduated into cnbits (each 21 7-16 inches long), those in the upper part of the pillar being subdivided into 24 digits each. Every day during the period of the inundation criers proclaim through the streets of Cairo the height to which the water has risen, as indicated by the Nilometer; and when it ruts reached a certain height the canals are opened, and the water flows over the land. The usual height to which the water rises (during the inundation) at Cairo is from 24 to 26 feet. The date of construction of the Nilometer at Boda is assigned to the ninth century.

tO- Among other Kilometers was one at Memphis in the time of th« Pharaohs, one at I tithyia in the time of the Ptolemies, and one at Elephantine during the reigns of the early Roman emperors.

O"* "Wc crossed by a ferry-boat to the island of Roda, to 6ee the Kilometer, which 1 was surprised to find a very pretty place; a damp, dim chamber, tufted with water-weeds, steep stairs down into it, and a green pool and mud at the bottom ; in the centre, s graduated pillar; in the four sides of the chamber, four pointed arches,— one filled in with an elegant grating; round the cornice, nnd over the arches, Cuiic inscriptions; nnd in two of the niches, within the arches, similar inscriptions. The crypt-llkc aspect of the chamber, with its aquatic adornments of weeds and mosses, —so perfectly in accordance with its purpose, —was charming." MUa Jfariinrau.

Nimes Arena. See Arena.

Nina, The. One of the three vessels with which Columbus set sail for America from 1'alos, Si>ain, on the 3d of August, 1492. The Nina was commanded by Vincente Yanez Pinzon.

Nine Ladies. The name given to a so-called Druidical circle at Stanton Moor, England. It is formed of a circular mound of earth, about 3G feet in diameter, on which tho upright stones are

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