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Athenasum. A building on Beacon Street, Boston, belonging to the Athenajum corporation, and containing a library of more than 115,000 volumes, and until recently a good collection of paintings and statuary. A great part of the works of art formerly in the Athenscum are now in the Museum of Fine Arts, in Boston. It contains also the library of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
Athenaeum. A building in Baltimore, Md., containing several libraries, a picture-gallery, reading-room, and museum of curiosities
Athenaeum. A very common name applied to numerous associations and buildings devoted to purposes connected with literature or art. See supra,
Athens, School of. See School
Athlone Castle. This castle at Athlone, Ireland, has been prominent in the military history of the island. It underwent a long siege in the reign of James II., and was at last taken by the English.
Atlanta, The. A powerful Confederate ram in the Civil War of 1861-65. She was under the command of Cant. Webb, formerly of the United States Navy. She was captured by the United States vessel-of-war Weetuiwken.
«3-" The Atlanta wo* in the Wilmington River. It was the pleasant month of .June. She went down to meet the two monitors [the Weehawken and the Jfahant], accompanied by gun. boat* crowded with citizens of Savannah, who wont to see the fight and enjoy the victory. When her intended victims appeared in sight, Webb assured his 'audience' that tbe monitors would be' in tow of the Atlanta before breakfast.' As she pushed swiftly toward the Weehawken, Capt- Rodgers sent a solid shot that carried away the top of the Atlanta'* pilot-house and sent her aground. Fifteen minutes afterwards she was a prisoner to the Weehawken. 'Providence, for some good reason,' said tbe astonished Webb pathetically to his crew, 'has interfered with our plans.'" Lossing.
Atlas. A noted statue representing Atlas sustaining a globe. This figure is of value as exhibiting the ancient ideas of astronomy. Now in the Museum at Naples, Italy.
Attila. A fresco by Raphael Sanzio (1483-1520) in the Stanza of the Heliodorus, in the Vatican, Rome.
ffaf* " Raphael's fresco styled 'the Attila' is Hither historically than religiously treated: it is, in fact, an historical picture." Mrs. Jameson.
Auburn. A place celebrated in Goldsmith's poem of "The Deserted Village." The situation of this village has been much in doubt; but it is now generally supposed to be the sauie as Lissoy, or Lishoy, in the county of Westmeath, near Athlone, Ireland. There is a village named Auburn (sometimes spelt Albourne) in Wiltshire, near Marlborough, which has by some been identified, but without any apparent reason, with the scene of the poem.
tW" The village of Llssoy, now and for nearly a century known as Auburn, and so 'marked on the maps,' stands on the summit of a hill. . . . The circumstances under which he [Goldsmith] pictured 'Sweet Auburn' as a deserted village, remain in almost total obscurity. If his picture was In any degree drawn from facts, they were in all likelihood as slender as the materials which furnished his description of the place, surrounded by all the charms which poetry can derive from invention. . . . The poem bears ample evidence, that, although some of the scenes depicted there had been stamped upon his memory, . . . the story must either be assigned to some other locality, or traced entirely to the creative faculty of the poet."
Mr. and Mrs. Hall.
.OtaT" " The village in its happy days is a true English village. The village in Its decay is an Irish village. The felicity and the misery which Goldsmith has brought close together belong to two different countries and to two different stages in the progress of society. He had assuredly never seen in his native island such a rural paradise, such a seat of plenty, content, and tranquillity, as his Auburn. He had assuredly never seen in England all the Inhabitants of such a paradise turned out of their homes in one day, and forced to emigrate in a body to America. The hamlet he had probably seen in Kent; the ejectment he bad probably seen in Munster; but by joining the two, he has produced something which never was and never will he seen in any part of the world."
JIacautay. *y " lie [Goldsmith] paints the friends and scenes of his youth, and peoples Auburn and Wakefield with remembrances of Lissoy." Thackeray. Sweet Auburn I loveliest village of the plain. Ooldsmitlt
Auburn, Mount. See Mount AuBurn.
Auchinleck House. The mansion of the Boswell family, near Cumnock, Scotland, often alluded to in the memoirs of Johnson, and associated with the name of his biographer.
Audley Castle. A picturesque ruined fortress in the county of Down, Ireland.
Audubon Avenue. A subterranean passage in the Mammoth Cave, Kentucky. It is one mile in length, 50 feet high, and 50 or 60 feet in width.
Auerbach's Cellar. A place of public entertainment, where l>eer and wine are sold, under an old house in Leipzig, Germany. It is noted as the scene of the traditional feats of the famous magician. Doctor Faustus. His magical exploits of drawing various wines from gimlet-holes bored for the purpose in the table, of making the members of the company seize each other's noses under the delusion that they were grasping bunches of grapes, and his finally riding out of the door upon a cask, are told by Goethe in his dramatic poem of "Faust," one scene of which is laid in Auerbach's Cellar. Two pictures painted upon the walls of the vault are supposed to commemorate the adventures of Faust.
flfS" " I supped there during my last visit to Germany, and took some pains to ascertain the traditions connected with it, which the waiter seemed to have a particular pleasure in communi. eating. He assured me that there was
not the shadow of a doubt as to my being seated in the very vault in which both Faust and Goethe had caroused." Uayward. ay " Another interesting place in Leipsic is Auerbach's cellar, which it is said contains an old manuscript history of Faust, from which Goethe derived the first Idea of his poem. He used to frequent this cellar." Bayard Taylor. As grosser spirits gurgled out From chair snd table with a spout, in Aucrbach't Cellar once, to flout The senses of the rabble rout. Where'er the gimlet twirled about Of cunning Mephlstopheles: .So did these cunning spirits seem in store, Behind the wainscot or the door.
Lowell. Biqlou Paperl.
A ucrback. A ruined castle on the road between Darmstadt and Heidelberg, Germany.
Augustan Age. A picture by Jeau Leon Gerome (b. 1824), the French painter.
Augusteum. A palace in Dresden. Saxony. It contains a valuable collection of works of art and scientific treasures. [Called also the Japanese Palace.]
Augustus. See Arch Of AuousTus, Mausoleum Of Augustus, Palace Of The Cf.sars.
Aurea Domus. See Golden House.
Aurora. 1. A celebrated fresco by Guido Reni (1575-1042) in the casino, or summer-house, of the Rospigliosi Palace in Rome. It is painted upon the ceiling, and represents Aurora scattering flowers before the chariot of the Sun. while the Hours advance in rapid motion. The engraving of this picture by Raphael Morghen (1758-183,')) has made it very familiar. According to Lanzi, the Venus de' Medici and the Niobe were the favorite models of Guido, and there are few of his large pictures in which the Niobe or one of her children is not introduced, yet with such skill that the imitation can hardly be detected.
a5j- " Guide's Aurora is the very type of haste and Impetus; for surely no man ever imagined such hurry and tumult, such sounding and clashing. Painters maintain that it is lighted from two sides: they have my full permission to Ugl:t their* from three, if it will improve them, but the difference lies elsewhere." Mendetstohn'ti Letter*.
£g- " The God of Day is floated on his chariot, surrounded by a choir of dancing Hour*, preceded by the early morning? Hour, scattering flowers. The deep blue of the sea, still obscure, Is charming. There is a joyousness, a complete pagan amplitude, about these blooming goddesses, with their hands interlinked, and all dancing as If at an antique festival." Taint, Trans.
Whnt I* Outdo's Rosplalloai Aurora but a morning thought, as the horses In it are only a morning cloud. Emerson.
2. A well-known fresco-painting by Giovanni Francesco Barbieri, called Guercino (1590-1000). In the Villa Ludovisi, Rome.
MS" *' The Aurora of Guercino fills the ceiling and its curves. She is a young, vigorous woman, her vigor almost Inclining to coarseness. Before her are three female figures on a cloud, all large and ample, and much more original and natural than those of the Aurora of Guido ... A rny of morning light half traverses their faces, and the contrast between the Illuminated and shadowed portions is charming. . . , Guercino did not, like Guido, copy antiques ■ he studied living models, like Caravaggio, always observing the details of actual life, the changes of Impression from grave to gay, and all that Is capricious in the passion and expression of the face." Tain*, Tran*.
#3"" "The work of Guido [see supra] is more poetic than that of Guercino, and luminous and soft and harmonious." Forsyth.
An Aurora by Jean-Louis-Hamon (1821-1874) is known through reproductions.
Aurora, The [of Michael Angelo]. See Mornino, The.
Aurungzebe Mausoleum. A celebrated tomb erected by Anrtingzebe to his daughter, in Aurungabad, Hindostan. It has clustering domes of white marble similar to those of the Taj Mahal, but inferior to the latter in size and splendor. See Taj Mahal.
Austerlitz, Battle of. See BatTle Of Austerlitz.
Austin Friars. The name given to a court or place in London, in which formerly stood a celebrated Augustinian convent, now converted into a Dutch church.
Austria, The. A screw steamer sailing from Hamburg, Germany, destroyed by fire on the open sea in 1858, with a loss of nearly 400 persons, for the most part Germans.
Auto da Fe. A noted picture by Francisco Rizi (1008-1085). In the gallery at Madrid, Spain.
Avalon. The poetical name of
Of Avalon's green hill.
Ave-Ctesar-Imperator. A picture by Jean Leon Gerome (b. 1824), the French painter.
Aventine Mount. [Lat. Mont Arentimm] One of the seven hills of Rome. Under the kings two orders had been established at Rome, the Patricians and Plebeians. The revolution which substituted the consular republic for royalty destroyed the equilibrium "between these two orders. The plebeians, revolting against the severity of the poor-laws, broke the peace of the city, B.C. 4'M, by an armed secession to the Aventine Mount. Ancus Martius addeil the hill to Rome, and peopled it with captives from neighboring Latin villages, thus originating the order of plebn. Of the many temples and buildings which once covered the Mount, but very little remains, and its summit'is now crowned by the three churches of Sant' Alessio, II Priorato, and Santa Sabina. The name of the hill is said to be derived from Aventinus, a king of Alba; but some regard it as taken from Avens, a Sabine river; while others give it a more legendary derivation from the story of Romulus and Remus watching the auspices after the foundation of the city. A cliff of the Aventino is famed as the supposed place where tho giant Cacus had his cave. The story of his robbery of the oxen of Hercules, and of his subsequent destruction by that hero, is told bv Virgil in tho eighth book of the -<Eneid. The poets Ennius, Gallus, and Livius Andronicus lived upon the Aventine.
*S- " Mount Aventinus Indemnifies the mind for all the painful recollections the other hills awake; am I Its nspect Is as beauteous as Its memories are sweet. Tho banks at its foot were called the Lovely Strand (pulchrum litttta). Poetry also has embellished this spot: It was there that Virgil placed the cave I of Cacus; and Home, so great iu his. tory, is still greater by the heroic fictions with which her fabulous origin has been decked." Madame de Stael.
Abelard had his school, his camp as he called It, upon the mountain, then almost deserted, where now rises the temple of St. Genevisve. This was the Avmtine
Mount of a nation of disciples leavins the ancient schools In order to listen to the fresh and strong words of Abelard
Lamartine Tram. Amidst these scenes. O pilgrim! scek'st
dead. Francitco de Quevedo. Tram.
Avoca. A beautiful valley in the county of Wicklow, Ireland, celebrated iu the verse of Moore. The name signifies the " meeting of the waters."
There Is not in the wide world a valley so
sweet. As that vale In whose bosom the bright
Axum. See Obelisk Of Axum.
Ayoon Moosa. See Fountains Of
Ayr, Twa Brigs of. See Twa Brigs Of Ayr.
Azhar, Mosque of. See Mosque
Babel, Tower of. See Birb Nim
Rood and Tower Op Babel. Babele, Tor di. See Tor Di Ba
Babi Humayon. See Sublime Portk.
Babuino, Via. See Via Babuino.
Bacchanal, The. 1. A picture by Dosso Dossi (1474-1558), the Italian painter. In the Pitti Palace, Florence, Italy.
2. A picture by Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), now at Blenheim, England.
Bacchante. A famous picture by Annibale Caracci (1500-1600). In the Tribune at Florence, Italy.
Bacchus. 1. A famous relic of ancient sculpture, a masterpiece by some attributed to Phidias. In the Museum at Naples, Italy. [Also called the Torso Farnese.]
2. A celebrated colossal statue in the Vatican, Rome.
MS-"The same personality [Antinous], idealized It Is true, but rather •uttering than gaining by the process, is powerfully impressed upon the colossal Dionysus [Bacchus] of the Vatican. What distinguishes this great work is the inbreathed spirit of divinity."
J. A. Symonda.
3. A Btatun by Jacopo Sansovino (1477-1570). pronounced " one of the finest, statues conceived by any modern in the style of the antique." It is in the Ufflzi Gallery, Florence, Italy.
Bacchus. See Drunken Bacchus and Narcissus.
Bacchus and Ariadne. An admired mythological picture by Titian (1477-1576), now in the National Gallery, London.
tW " The creation of the Bacchus and Ariadne may be said to make a third with that of Shakespeare's Midsummer Night's Dream and Milton's Comus; each given in their own proper language." Sastlakt.
K3~"U there any thing In modern art in any way analogous to what Tltinn has effected in the wonderful bringing together of two times in the Ariadne of the National Gallery?"
Back Bay. An expansion of Charles River, the principal stream flowing into Boston Harbor. On the new made land in this region of the city (to which quarter the name Back Bay is commonly applied) are some of the finest streets and buildings.
The crowds tilled the decorous streets, and the trim pathways of the Common and the Public Garden, and flowed in an ortlerlv course towards the vast edifice on thei Back Ban, presenting the interesting points which always distinguish a crowd come to towu from a city crowd.
W. D. Hovcellt.
Bacon's Brazen Head. See Friar Bacon's Brazen Head.
Badia, La. A celebrated abbey church in Florence, Italy. It was founded in the middle of the thirteenth century. In the immediate neighborhood of Florence is another church built by the Medici, in the fifteenth century, known as La Badia di Fiesole.
Badminton. The seat of the Duke of Beuufort, 10 miles from Chippenham, England.
Bagnigrge Wells. Formerly a noted mineral spring in Islington, London. It was much visited by Londoners in the latter part of the eighteenth and first part of the nineteenth century. Its gardens were extensive, and laid out in the fashion of the times; but its mineral springs were the principal attraction. Miss Edgeworth alludes to it as a place of popular resort, and it is often spoken of by authors of the last century. It has ceased to exist.
49- " Bagnlgge Wells were situated on a little stream called the River Bag