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placed at irregular distances. In the centre are the remains of a sepulchral mound. Niobe. A celebrated group of ancient sculpture, now in the gallery of the Uffizi Palace in Florence, Italy, representing Niobe mourning the death of her children slain by Apollo and Diana. It was found at Rome in 1583.

M3~ "I saw nothing here Bo grand as the group of Niobe; if statues which are now disjointed and placed cqui-dislantly round a room may be so called. Niobe herself, clasped Dy the arm of her terrified child, is certainly a group, and, whether the head be original or not, the contrast of passion, of beauty, and even of dress, Is admirable." Forsyth.

"The Niobe of nation*! there she stands. Childless and crownle»a in her voiceless woe." Byron {on Rome).

V&- "Niobo ... Is true tragedy. Bhe is bending over her youngcBt child, who clings to her knees; ana while in an ngony of maternal love she encircles with her arm the most helpless of her devoted progeny, conscious despairing inability to save Is expressed in every litienmentof the living marble. The powerful pathos, and the deepseated expression of agonizing grief, which speaks in her countenance nnd gesture, find their way at once to the heart." Eaton.

&S- " I seemed to be in the presence of a touching domestic tragedy, told in marble. The artist appeurcd to be •wallowed up in his work. . . . The majesty of the subject seemed to brood over the chisel and guide Its edge. . . . The grief of Niobe is feminine, deep, overwhelming, and hopeless, but not fierce or struggling. This exquisite group is not very happily placed: the figures are arranged In tno form of on oval, the Niobe making the central point of interest, — a disposition which seems formal and unnatural."


£y- "No wonder the strength of that woo depicted on her countenance should change her into stone. One of her sons — a beautiful, boyish form — Is lying on bis back, just expiring, with the chill languor of death creeping over his limbs. We seem to hear the quick whistling of the arrows, and look Involuntarily into the nlr to see the hovering figure of the avenging god." Bayard Taylor.

Nivornais Ploughing;. Seo

Plouqhlnq IX NlVKBNAIS.

Noli me tangere. [Touch me not.] These words of Christ, spoken in the garden to Mary Magdalene (John xx. 17), make the subject of many pictures by the great painters of the Middle Ages. Of these compositions it will be sufficient to name as among the more celebrated, the following.

Noli me tangere. A great altarpiece by Federigo Baroccio (15281612), once very celebrated and well-known from the tine engraving by Raphael Morghen. Now in England.

Noli me tangere. A picture by Titian (1477-157(>), representing the Magdalene as kneeling, and bending forward with one hand extended to touch the Saviour, who, " drawing his linen garment round him, shrinks back from her touch — yet with the softest expression of pity." Formerly in the collection of Rogers, the poet. Now in the National Gallery, London.

Noli me tangere. A picture by Rembrandt (1C07-1669). In the Queen's Gallery, London.

Noli me tangere. A small picture by Mariotto Albertinelli (1474-1515), the Italian painter, and long attributed to Pcrugino. It is in the Louvre, Paris. Nonantum Hill. An eminence — so called in colonial times — near Newton Corner, Mass. Here the Apostle Eliot preached to the Indians.

Nonnenwerth. An old Benedictine nunnery on an island of the samo name in the Rhine.

Nonsuch House. A curious building that once stood upon London Bridge. According to Timbs, it was "so called because it was constructed in Holland entirely of wood, and, being brought over in pieces, was erected in this place with wooden pegs only, not a singlo nail being used in the wholo structure. Its situation is even yet pointed out by the seventh and eighth arches of the bridge being still called the Draw Lock and the Nonsuch Lock."

Nonsuch Palace. A royal mansion erected by Henry VIII. ill a little place called Codintone. The palace was so named in consequence of its then unequalled beauty. It was taken down in the seventeenth century.

Norfolk House. A noble house in St. James's Square, London, so called from the seventh Duke of Norfolk, who died here in 1701. George III. was born here in 1738.

Norfolk Street. A London street associated with Sir Roger de Coverley, and in which William Penn formerly lived.

Norman's Woo. A mass of rocks near the entrance of the harbor of Gloucester, Mass., familiar to manv through Longfellow's ballad of "The Wreck of the Hesperus."

It was the schooner nespcrus
That mailed tho wintry sea.

And fast through the midnight dark and
Through lhe whistling sleet and snow,
Llko a sheeted ghost the vessel swept
Towards the reef of Aorman's Woe.


North Star. An Arctic exploring ship employed in the expedition of Capt. Saunders in 184!l, and iu that of Capt. Pullen in 1852-54.

Northumberland House. The city residence of the Duke of Northumberland, Strand, London. It was built by Henry Howard, the Earl of Northarap"ton, who left it in 1014 to his nephew, Thomas Howard, Earl of Suffolk, when it received tlie name of Suffolk House. It was afterwards bought by Algernon Percy, Earl of Northumberland, from whom it received its present name. This mansion, called the finest great historical house in London, " commenced by a Howard, continued by a Fercy, and completed by a Seymour," has been recently destroyed.

&&• " One only of the great Strand palaces has survived entire to our own time. YV'c have all of us seen and mourned over Northumberland House, i

one of the noblest Jacobean buildings. In England, and the most picturesque feature of London. . . . Of all the barbarous and ridiculous injuries by which London baa been wantonly mutilated within the last few years, the destruction of Northumberland House has been the greatest." Safe.

Notch, The. [Known also as the Crawford Notch in distinction from the Pinkham and Francotiia Notches.] A grand and impressive valley between Willey Mountain and Mount Webster in the White Mountains, New Hampshire. It contains the famous Willey House. Bayard Taylor, speaking of the view looking down upon the tremendous gulf of the Notch from the top of Mount Willard (at the head of the Notch), says, "As a simple mountain pass, seen from above, it cannot be surpassed in Switzerland. Something like it I have seen in the Taurus, otherwise I can recall no view with which to compare it." See Willey Hocse.

JB&~ " I know nothing on the Rhine equal to the view from Mount Willard down the mountain pass called the Notch." Anthony Trollop.

He hesrs the echoes of a horn In a hill country. In the A'otch mountains. f"r example, which converts the nionnwlni Into an jEolisn harp, and this supernHUiral tiralira restores to him the Dorian mythology. Apollo, Diana, and all divine hunters and huntresses. R. W. £menon.

Notre Dame. [Our Lady.] A name commonly applied in France to churches dedicated to the Virgin Mary. When the name is used in literature, unaccompanied by any designation of place, reference is usually intended to the metropolitan cathedral of Paris. See infra.

Notre Dame. [Our Lady.] The most celebrated church in Paris. It was begun by Pope Alexander the Third, but was not completed for nearlv 300 years (not until 1420). It is built in the form of a Latin cross. The exterior is more imposing than the interior. The principal entrance is ornamented by nas-reliefs illustrative of the resurrection, and the seven cardinal virtues with their opposite vices. The interior is richly adorned with bas-reliefs, paintings, and sculptures, and magnificent rose-windows of stained flass, illustrating sacred history, he church is surrounded by 24 chapels. In one of the towers is a famous bell, weighing 32,000 pounds, which is rung only on very great occasions. This church has* been often referred to of late years in connection with Pere Hyacinthe, the distinguished monk and preacher, whose eloquence drew crowds within its walls until his independence and freedom of speech brought upon him the interdict of his superiors. The church has suffered from various alterations, and, in the time of the Revolution, from wanton desecration. It has, however, since l&i5, been restored as nearly as possible in accordance with the old design.

AS" u We had been much disappointed at first by the apparently narrow limits of the interior of thin famous church; but now, an we made our way round the choir, gazing into chapel after chapel, each wiih its painted window, Its crucifix, its pictures, its confessional, and afterwards came back into the nave, where arch rises above arch to the lofty roof, we caine to the conclusion that it was very sumptuous." Hawthorne.

My3~ "The cathedral of Paris was designed at a time when the architects had not obtained that confidence In their own skill which made them afterwards complete masters of the constructive difficulties of the design. . . . The cathedral has not internally the same grandeuras the other throe ftho^e at Amiens, Chartres, and Ithcims], though externally there is a very noble simplicity of outline and appearance of solidity in the whole design."


On Christmas dav I went to see the Cathedrall of Notre Dame. . . This is the . prime church of France for dignity, having Archdeacons, Vicnrs, Canons, Priests, and Chaplal cs in pood store to the number of 127- It is also the palace of the Archbishop. The young klni; Ononis XIV.) w is there with a great snd martial guard, ■who entered the Nave of the Church with drums and flfps, at the ceasing of which 1 was entertained with the church muniq. John Kwelyn, Diary.

In these far clfmos It was my lot

To meet the wondrous Michael Scott;

A wizard of such dreaded fame
That when. In Salamanca'* cave.
Him listed his ma^ic wand to wave.
The bells would ring la Notre Dame I

Next year as I, poor soul, by chance,

Through Paris strolled one day,
I saw him po to Notre Dame,
With all his court so gav.

Stranger, Trans. And when the morning sun was bright,

When wind and wave were calm, And mimed In thousand tinted tight The rose of Notre Dame. Holmes.

The very youth of the schools gave up their pipes and billiard* for some time and flocked in crowd* to Notre Dame.


Notre Dame [d'Amiens]. A magnificent Gothic church in Amiens, France, one of the finest church edifices in Europe. It was founded in 1220. It is larger than any cathedral in Europe except St. Peter's and Cologne. Its length is 4<>9 feet, and the height of its spire 422 feet. It is dedicated to the Virgin.

Jo~ " The interior is one of the most magnificent spectacles that architectural skill can ever have produced. The mind is filled and elevated by its enormous height, its lofty and many-colored clerestory, its grand proportions, its noble simplicity. . . . Such terms will not be considered extravagant when it is recollected that the vault is half as high again as Westminster Abbey." Whewell.

Notre Dame [de Rouen]. A fine Gothic church of the thirteenth century, in Rouen, France, dedicated to the Virgin. It abounds in profuse and elaborate ornamentation.

Notre Dame. An immense church in Montreal, Can., the largest in America. It was built in 1824. It is 255 feet long and 145 feet wide, with a seating capacity of 10,000. It has two Towers, in one of which hangs the largest bell on the continent. See Gkos BourDon.

Notre Dame de Lorette. A gorgeously decorated modern church in Paris, begun in 1823, and built in imitation of the smaller Roman basilicas.

Notre Same du Spasme [or du Pauioison]. See Spasimo, Lo.

Notre Dame des Victoires. [or Church of Petits Peres.] A church of the Austin friars in Paris, completed in 1739.

Notre Dame, Parvis. See Parvis Notre Dame.

Notte, La. [The Night] A celebrated picture of the Nativity by Antonio Allegri, surnamed Correggio (14it4-1534), remarkable for the striking effect produced by the light proceeding from the infant Saviour. This picture is in the Dresden Gallery.

49" " Correggio has been much admired for representing in bis famous Nativity tbe wbote picture as lighted by the glory which proceeds from the divine Infant, as if tbe idea bad been new and original. It occurs frequently before and since his time, and is found, ed upon the legendary story . . . which describes the cave or stable filled with dazzling and supernatural light." J/r*. Jameiton.

43* "All the powers of art are here united to make a perfect work. Here the simplicity of the drawing of the Virgin and Child is shown in con. trast with the foreshortening of the

frroup of angelH. The emitting the Ight from the body of the child, though a supernatural illusion, is eminently successful. The matchless beauty of the Virgin and Child, the group of angels overhead, the daybreak in the

sky, and the whole arrangement of light and shade, give it a right lo be considered, in conception at least, tbe greatest of his [Correggio's] works. ... 1 consider it one of the lirsl works the art of painting has to boast of."


Nozze Aldobrandini. See AldoBkandini Marriage.

Nozze di Cana. See Marriage At Cana.

Nuova Gerusalemme. See Monte Sacro.

Nuremberg Errs. The name by which are known two curious old watches in the Green Vault (Griine Gewolbe) in Dresden. They are so called from their form and from the place in whicli they were made, in 1500.

Nursery, The. A building in Golding Lane, London, erected during the reign of Charles U. as a school for tbe training of children for the stage. It was standing till the present century. Near these a Kurtery erects its head. Where queens are formed, and future heroes bred. Where unfledged actors leam to laugh

and cry, WTiere Infant punks their tender voices

try, And little Alaximins the gods defy.


Nymphenburg. A royal palace in the immediate neighborhood of Munich, Bavaria.

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Oak Hill. A beautiful cemetery in Georgetown, D.C. It contains the tombs of many eminent men.

Oak of Guernica. A venerable tree of Guernica, Spain, cut down by the French in 1808. According to Lal>orde, it was a very ancient natural monument. Under this oak Ferdinand and Isabella, in 1470, swore to maintain the municipal laws (Jueivs) of the Biscayans.

Oak of Guernica 1 Tree of holier power
Than that Lhlch In D..dona did enshrine
(So faith too fondly deemed) a voice di-
Heard from the depths of Its aerial bower.
How canst thou nourish at this blightlm;
hour? Wordnrorth.

Oak of Reformation. A tree in Norfolk County, England, associated with an insurrection in 1D4!), called Rett's Rebellion. Kett held a court, and assemblies of his adherents, around this tree; and after the rebellion was finally subdued, many of the insurgents were hung upon its branches.

Oatlands. An ancient royal residence near ITainpton Court, in England. It was built by Henry VIII., but is no longer standing.

Obelisk of Ainm. A remarkable monument at Axum in Nubia, Africa. It is the only one now standing of a group said to have consisted of 5o.

O" " The most exceptional monuments in the world, — the obelisks at Axum. ... Its height [that of the one now standing] Is 60 feet, its width at base nearly 10, and it is of one stone. The idea Is evidently Egyptian, but the details nrc Indian. It is, In fact, an Indian nine-storied pagoda, translated in Egyptian In the first century of the Christian era!" I"erguason.

Obelisk of Heliopolis. This obelisk—the oldest in Egvpt—which with some mounds is about all that remains of Heliopolis (that I

great seat of learning where Plato andEudoxus lived and studied), is between 60 and 70feet in height. Tradition speaks of another similar obelisk which stood opposite this, according to the Egyptian custom of placing them in pairs at the entrances of their temples.

*S°* " A class of monuments almost exclusively Egyptian, arc the obelisks, which form such striking objects in front of almost all the old temples of the country. . . . The two finest known to exist are, that now in the piazza of the Lnteran, originally set up bv Thotmes III., 105 feet in height, and that still existing at Karrmc, erected by Thotmes I., 93 feet. Those of Luxor, erected by Rhamscs the CJreat, one of which is now in Paris, are above 77 feet in height; and there are two others in Rome, each above 80 feet. Home, indeed, has 12 of these monument* within her walls,—a greater number than exist, erect at least, in the country whence they came. Their use seems to have been wholly that of monumental pillars recording the style and title of the king who erected them, his piety, and the proof he gave of it in dedicating these monoliths to the deity whom he especially wished to honor. With scarcely an exception ail the pyramids are on the weBt side of the Nile, all the obelisks on the east. With regnrd to the former, this probably arose from a law of their existence, the western side of the Nile being in all ages preferred for sepulture; but with regnrd to the latter it seems to be accidental."


Obelisk of Luxor. A magnificent monolith of red Egyptian granite in the Place de la Concorde, Paris. It was one of two obelisks of the same shape and size, erected in KMO B.C., by Ranicses the Great, at the entrance of the temple of Thebes (now Luxor). It was a gift to the French Government from Mohammed Ali, Pasha of Egypt; was removed witli much difficulty, at a great cost; and was raisedin its present position in 183<j, by a very skilful

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