صور الصفحة
PDF
النشر الإلكتروني

feat of engineering, in the presence of Louis Philippe and 150,000 persons. The removal of this obelisk, which is 74 feet high and weighs 500,000 pounds, employed 800 men, and cost, including its elevation, £80,000. It was brought to France in a vessel especially built for the purpose.

Obelisk of Orsotasen. One of

the earliest and finest of the Egyptian obelisks, still standing at Heliopolis. It is inscribed with the name of Orsotasen, one of the greatest rulers of the twelfth (lynasty.

|y" It is 67 feet 4inches In height, without the pyramldion which crowns it, ami is a splendid block of granite, weighing 217 tons. It must have required Immense skill to quarry it, to transport it from Syene, and Anally, after Hnishlnu It, to erect it where it now stands and has stood for 4,500 years." Fergusson.

Obelisk of St. Peter's, or of the Vatican. A celebrated Egyptian column of red granite, brought from Heliopolis to Rome by the Emperor Caligula, and now standing in front of St. Peter's Church. It is 133 feet in height, and its weight is 360 tons. Pliny says that the ship which brought the obelisk from Heliopolis was almost as long as "the loft side of the port of Ostia." It was successfully set up in its present, position by Domenico Fontana, and it is about the raising of this obelisk that the followingfarniliar story is told. The ceremony having been preceded by high mass in St. Peter's, and solemn benediction having been pronounced upon Fontana and the workmen, the Pope ordered that no one should speak, under penalty of death, while the obelisk was being raised. But, owing to the stretching of the ropes, the immense mass did not quite reach the required position, and the operation would have failed, had not a man in the crowd broken over the order of the Pope, and called to the workmen to " wet the ropes." This suggestion was immediately acted upon, and the

huge column slowly rose to its destined place. This story is not found in any writer of that period; and it is, according to Platner, one of those inventions which spring from a wish to disparage the triumphs of geuius, and to lower its claims.

Obelisk of the Lateran. An Egyptian monument of red granite, nearly 150 feet in height, originally belonging to the Temple of the Sun at Heliopolis. removed thence to Alexandria by Constantine, and subsequentlv brought to Rome, where it now stands in the centre of the Piazza di San Giovanni. It is the oldest object in Rome, being referred by antiquaries to the year 1740 B.C., when it was erected to the memory of Thotmes IV.

Obelisk of the Monte Cavallo. A famous Egyptian monument of red granite, heing a plain .shaft without hieroglyphics, which formerly stood in front of the Mausoleum of Augustus, and is now in the Piazza di Monte Cavallo, Rome. It was brought from Egypt by the Emperor Claudius, A D. 57.

Obelisk of the Piazza del Popolo.

An ancient Egyptian column, brought from Heliopolis to Rome bv the Emperor Augustus, and set up in the Piazza of the People in 1589. It is of the age of Moses.

ff "This red granite obelisk, oldest of things even in Rome, . . . with hardly a trace of decay upon it, is the first thing the traveller sees after entering the Flaminlan Gate." Ifaattonf.

Obelisk of the "Vatican. See Obelisk Of St. Peter's.

Ocean, The. An armor-plated ship of the British navy, launched March 19, 1803.

Ocean Monarch. An American emigrant ship, burned off Liverpool, Aug. 24, 1848, with a loss oi neatly 200 lives.

October Club. A Parliamentary club in London, first formed about 1690, in the reign of William III. and Mary. Its meetings were first held at the Bell Tavern, and afterwards at the Crown, in King Street, Westminster. The influence of Swift had much to do with the final breaking up of the October Club; the niore violent Jacobites seceding, and forming the '• March Club. A writer in "The National Review" thus describes the Octo"ber Club: "The high-flying Tory country gentleman anil country member drank the health of the king, — sometimes over the water-decanter, — and flustered himself with bumpers in honor of Dr. Sachevereli and the Church of England, with true-blue spirits of his own kidney, at the October Club, which, like the Beef-Steak Club, was named after the cheer for which it was famed, — October ale; or rather, on account of the quantities of the ale which the members drank. The 150 squires, Tories to the backbone, who, under the above name, met at the Bell Tavern in King Street, Westminster, were of opinion that the party to which they belonged were too backward in punishing and turning out the Whigs; and they gave infinite trouble to the Tory administration which came into office under the leadership of Harley, St. John, and Harcourt, in 1710. The Administration were for proceeding moderately with their rivals, and for generally replacing opponents with partisans. The October Club were for immediately impeaching every member of the Whig party, anil for turning out, without a* day's grace, every placeman who did not wear their colors, and shout their cries."

B3- " We #re plagued here with an October Club; that is. a set of above a hundred Parliament men of the country, who drink October beer at borne, and meet every evening at a tavern near the Parliament, to consult affairs, and drive thintrs on to extreme* against the Whigs, to call the old ministry to account, and get off five or six heads."

Swi/t (lo gttlla, February, 1710-11).

Odeon, Ii\ A well-known theatre

in Paris, originally Intended, as the name indicates, for music only, but used for regular dramatic performances. It has been several times destroyed by fire. Beaumarchais' "Marriage of Figaro" (Mariage de Figaro) was first produced here in 1764.

Odeum, A structure in ancient Athens, Greece, built by Pericles, and designed (as the name implies, i^ii) for musical performances. It was surmounted by a circular roof, constructed with the masts and yards of the Persian ships which were captured at Salamis. Nothing remains of the Odeum, but it has given its name to buildings in modern times designed for similar uses.

CEil de Bceuf. A famous anteroom in the palace at Versailles, the scene of many quarrels, intrigues, bon mvts. Here waited the courtiers in attendance upon Louis XIV.

Versailles, the (Eil de Ikeuf. and all men and things, are drowned in a sea or Ll^ht: Monseleneur and that high t>eeki>nmg H^ad arc alone, with each other, in ttio universe. Carlyle.

As experience in the river Is inrti«p"nsable to the ferryman, so is knowledge of bis Parliament* to the ltritlsh Peel or Chatham; so w»s knowledge of the (Eilde-Baitf to the French Choiseul. Ibid,

CEnone. A life-size statue by Harriet Hosmer (b. 1831). In the Mercantile Library building, St. Louis, Mo.

Olave's, St. See St. Olave's.

Old Bailey, The. 1. A street in London extending from Ludgatehill to Newgate Street. It has been the scene of many memorable executions.

2. The Old Bailey Sessions Court, or Central Criminal Court, at the bar of which upwards of 2,000 persons are annually tried, is located here, immediately adjoining the prison called Newgate.

A3- "But the jail waa a vile place, in which most kinds of debauchery and villany were practised, and where dire diseases were bred, that came into court with the prisoners, and sometimes rushed straight from the dock at my Lord Chief JuBtlce himself, nnd' pulled him off the bench. . . . For the rest, the Old Bailey was famous as a kind of deadly Inn-yard, from which pale travellers set out continually, ill carts and coaches, on a violent passage into the other world: traversing some two miles and a half of public street and road, and shaming few good cltixclis, if any. ... It was famous, too, for the pillory, R wise old institution, that inflicted a punishment of which no one could foresee the extent; also, for the whipping-post, another dear old institution, very humanizing and softening to behold in action; also, for extensive transactions In blood-money, auother fragment of ancestral wisdom, systematically leading to the most frightful mercenary crimes that could be committed under Heaven. . . . For, people then paid to see the play at the Old Bailey, juBt as they paid to see the play in Bedlam —only the former entertainment was much the dearer. Therefore, all the Old Bailey doors were well guarded —except, indeed, the social doors by which the criminals got there, and they wore always left wide open." Dlckttu.

In short, Jane House Was accused of witchcraft: and though she made the host defence she could. It was nil to no urposc: she was taken from her own „ar to the liar of the Old Bailey, condemned nnd executed accordingly. 1 liese wore times. Indeed, when even women could not scold hi safety. Goldsmith.

When will you pay m«)
Say the bells nt Old Bailey.

ilotlter Goose.

Old Cumberland Boad. See National Road.

Old Dutch Church. An ancient clmrcli-edifice in New York City, lmilt in 1723. It served as a prison for Americans during the British occupation of the city in the Revolution, and was used by the British cavalry as a ridingschool.

Old Elm, The. A venerable tree which stood on the Common in Boston, Mass., until Feb. 15,1870, when it was overthrown by a high wind. It is believed to have beeu standing before the settlement of the town. It is supposed to have been the oldest tree in New England. It was laid down upon a map engraved in 1722, and a computation of the rings of the branch broken off in I860

would carry the age of that limb to 1670. Old Ironsides. See ConstituTion.

Old Jewry. A street in London so named from the Jews who dwelt in and near it.

I nm sent for this morning by a friend in the Old Jewry to come to him.

Ben Jonsem.

Old Lady of Threadneedle Street. See Bank Of England.

Old Man of Hoy. A natural curiositv in the Orkney Islands, in

[ocr errors]

the shape of a solitary pillar, rising perpendicularly to the height of yOO feet, anil bearing the like

ness of the human form.

"See Boy's Old Man whose summit bare Pierces the dark blue fields ol air: Based In the sea, his fearful form tilows like Hie sulrit of the storm."

Old Man of Storr. A natural curiosity in the North of Scotland, near the town of Portree. It consists of a solitary black pillar of trap rock, 160 feet in height.

Old Man of the Mountain. See Profile, The.

Old Manse. An ancient house in Concord, Mass., built before the Revolution, which derives its present name from the celebrity given to it by Hawthorne's tales, the " Mosses from an Old Manse.' Here he lived and wrote, and in this house also Emerson was born and lived.

Old Protestant Cemetery. See Protestant Cemetery.

Old Shepherd's Chief Mourner. A picture by Sir Edwin Landseer (1804-187;!).

flS- " One of the most perfect poems or pictures (1 use the words a* synonymous) which modern times have seen. The close pressure of tbe dog's breast against the wood, the convulsive clinging of the paws, which M» dragged the blanket off the trestle, the total powerlcssness of the head, law close and motionless upon its folds, the fixed and tearful fall of tbe eye In Its utter hopelessness; ... these are ah thoughts by which the picture is separated at once from hundreds of equal merit, so far as mere painting goes, ■>)' which it ranks as a work of high nrt, and stamps its author not as the neat imitator of the texture of a skin, or the fold of a drapery, but as the Man of Mind." ltuikin.

Old South. An historic church in
Boston, Mass., identified with
the early struggles for indepen-
dence, and associated with many
interesting persons and events.
The present edifice was built in
17*29 on the site of an older church,
in which Benjamin Franklin had
l>een baptized. The famous as-
semblage of citizens known as
the Boston Tea Party marched
from this church to the attack
upon the ships in the harbor.
During the British occupation of
Boston, in 1775, the pews were
removed, and the church was
turned into a riding-school for
the cavalry. In 187K the church
■was sold, and passed into the
hands of an association which
aims to preserve it as an histori-
cal relic, and has converted it
into a museum of antiquities and
curiosities. The society upon
leaving their former place of wor-
ship built a new and fine church
edifice at the corner of Boylston
and Dartmouth Streets, costing
about 8500,000.
So long as Boston shall Boston be,

And her bay-tides rise and fall.
Shall freedom stand in the Old South
Church,

And plead for the rights of all.

Whttticr.

On the cross-beam nnder the Old South

bell,
The neat of a pigeon Is builded well.
In summer and winter that bird is thcro.
Out and in with the morning sir.

jr. P. wmit.

And while from mouth to mouth

Spread the tidings of dismay,
I stood in the Old South,
Saying humbly, " i*t us pray!"

Longfellow. Old State House. An ancient edifice in Boston, Mass., originally used for the sessions of the colonial legislature. It was built In 1748. In 1770 occurred the affair between the British guard stationed in this building and the citizens, which is known as the "Boston Massacre." The building is now used for business purposes.

Old Stone Face. See Profile.

Old Stone Mill. A circular stone tower at Newport, R.I., supported on round arches and overgrown with ivy. There has been much dispute among antiquarians with regard to the origin and purpose of this ancient tower. Some think it was built in the eleventh century by the Norsemen; others, that it was erected for a windmill, in the seventeenth century, by some colonial governor. It is not mentioned by Verrazzani, who, in 1524, spent 15 days iu the harbor, and explored the land. It is, on the other hand, different in architecture and construction from other works of the early colonists. Gov. Benedict Arnold (d. 1U78) bequeathed the structure in his will, calling it "my stone-built windmill." Cooper has laid the opening scenes of "The Spy" in this vicinity, and Longfellow has connected with it his poem of "The Skeleton in Armor."

*ar,,< On the ancient structure in Newport there are no ornaments re. mnining, which might possibly have served to guide us in assigning the probable date of its erection. . . .From such characteristics as remain, however, we can scarcely form any other Inference than one In which I am persuaded that all who are familiar with old Northern architecture will concur, — that this building was erected at a period decidedly not later than the twelfth century. . . . That this building could not have been erected for a windmill, is what an architect will easily discern." Professor Itafn.

*^*"Some thirty-five years ago, Professor Rafn, of the Koyal Society of Northern Antiquaries at Copenhagen, published a nook showing that the Northmen, or Scandinavians, undoubtedly visited the shoreB of North America about A.I). 1000, and that they probably entered Narragansett Bay. It then occurred to some American antiquaries that this old building at Newport might have been erected by those early voyagers. . . . As for the Old Stone Mill, it in found to be very much like some still standing in that very county of England from which Gov. Arnold came. So it Is not stall likelv that any of these memorials could date back as far as the time of the Northmen; and yet it in altogether probable that the Northmen visited America at a very early time." T. W. Higginson.

Kg-" I will not enter Into a discussion of the point. It is sufficiently well established for the purpose of a ballad; though doubtless many an holiest citizen of Newport, who has passed his days within sight of the Round Tower, will be ready to exclaim with Sanclio, ' God bless met did I not warn you to have a care of what you were doing, for that it was nothing but a windmill; and nobody could mistake it, but one who had the like in his head.'" Longfellow.

And who has not seen, 'mid the summer's

imy crowd, That old pillared tower of their fortallce

proud. How it stands solid proof of the sea chicf

tHins' relyn Ere csine with Columbus those ({alleys of

Spain? A. C. Coxe.

Old Swan. An old London tavern, Thames Street, in existence as early as 1323, burnt in the Great Fire of 1G06, and afterwards rebuilt.

Old Swedes* Church. An ancient and quaint church edifice in Wilmington, Del., founded in 11598, with contributions from William Penn, Queen Anne, and others.

Old Swedes' Church. An ancient, and venerable church edifice in Philadelphia, Pcnn. It was built in 1700, occupying the site of a still older log church, and was the place of worship of the Swedes

itrior to the arrival of William >enn. Old Temeraire. See Fighting Te

MEltAIKE.

Old Wagon. See United States.

Old Witch House. See Witch Hocse.

Oliveto, Monte. See Monte OliVetc

Oltr' Arno. A quarter in Florence, Italy, on the southern side of the river, the Arno, which divides the city.

Olympian Jupiter. A famous statue of antiquity, executed by Phidias (000 B.C.?), the Greek

sculptor, for the Temple of Jupiter at Elis.

Olympic, The. 1. A theatre near the Strand, London.

2. A vaudeville and varieties theatre in New York City.

Olympieum. A magnificent temple to the Olympian Zeus in Athens, Greece. The Athenians began this temple in the first period of their greatness, the Greek princes of Asia continued it, Augustus left it unfinished, and, 650 years after it was begun, Hadriau completed and dedicated it. During the Dark Ages it served as a quarrv of building-stone for tli« Athenians. Fifteen lofty Corinthian columns of Pentelic marble, rising to a height of more than 00 feet, are now standi tig as the remains of this colossal temple. Livy speaks of this temple as the only one in the world undertaken "upon a scale commensurate witli the majesty of the god."

49- "The charm of this stately group of columns is ull their own, for they boast no such fascinating associations as those which cluster around the ruins on the Acropolis. Berlin by the tyrant Pisistratus, and finished 700 years afterwards by the Roman Emperor Hadrian, the Olympieum, thouch one of the grandest temples in the world, seems hardly apart of the glory of Athens,— breathes not her peculiar spirit, nor is redolent with the aroraa of her soil." T. Chat.

Onoko, Glen. See Glen Onoko.

Ontario, Fort. See Fout OntaRio.

Ophelia. A picture by John Everett Millais (b. 1827), the English painter.

Or San Michele. A celebrated church in Florence, Italy, erected towards the close of the fourteenth century. The name if derived from the Horrenm, or granary of St. Michael, the firs' building on the site having bee" used as a storehouse for corn.

«3- "Or San Michele would h>« been a world's wonder, had it stoi«l alone, and not been companioned wiiu such wondrous rivals that its own ex

« السابقةمتابعة »