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tie is supposed to have been built upon this site. The Sainte Chapelle, the clock-tower, the kitchen of St. Louis, two circular towers, and some vaults, are all that remain of the ancient palace, the rest having been destroyed by fire. Here is the famous Conciergerie, orancient prison, where so many victims were confined during the Reign of Terror.
Palais de l'lndustrie. A building of stone and glass in the Champs Elysees, Paris, built in 1852 for the exhibition of objects of national industry. Here was held the exhibition of 1855, for the accommodation of which extensive additions were made to the permanent building.
Palais de l'Institut. A massive classical structure on the south bank of the Seine, opposite the Louvre, Paris. It was begun in 1W>2, and since 171)5 has been occupied by the Institut and the Biuliotheque Mazarine. See InStitut and also Bibliotheque Mazarine.
Palais de Luxembourg, or du Senat. [Palace of Luxembourg, or of the Senate.] A magnificent palace in Paris, whose architecture is particularly admired. It was built by Marie de Medicis, occupied successively by several Dukes of France, anil during the Revolution it was converted into a prison. Bonaparte made it the Palace of the Senate, afterwards the peers of the realm met there, and after the restoration the Senate again held its meetings there. It contains a very valuable library, and fine works of art, paintings, sculptures, Gobelin tapestry, etc. A palace was begun on the same site in the fifteenth century, and completed by the Duke de Luxembourg, hence the name of the present palace.
He had Versailles and St. Cloud for his country reports, and Hie shady alleys nf the Tuilerles and the Luxembourg for his town recreation. Irving.
Sir. — said he, — I am proud to say, that Nature has ao Car enriched me, that I can
not own ao mach as a duel wlthont seeing In it as pretty a Bwan as ever swam rbe basin in the garden of the Luxembourg.
Palais des Tournelles. A former large castle or palace of Paris, enlarged by the recent Duke of Bedford, inhabited by Charles VII. and a number of his successors. Nothing is now left of this palace, the destruction of which was begun by Catherine de Medicis. Its site is now occupied by the Place Royale and adjoining streets extending to the Rue St. Antoine.
Palais des Beaux Arts. A building in Paris, France, devoted to the Fine Arts.
83- " A word for the building of the 1'alain des Beaux Arts. It is beautiful and aa well finished and convenient as beautiful. With its light and elegant fabric, its pretty fountain, its archwny of the Renaissance and fragments of sculpture, you can hardly see, on a fine day, a place more riant and pleasing."" Thackeray.
Palais des Thermes. Ruins near the Hutel de Cluny, Paris, the chief part of which "is thought to have belonged to the baths built by the Emperor Constantius Chlcrus (250 ?-306).
Palais d'Orsay. See Oksat, PaLais u*.
Palais du Corps LSgislatif. [Palace of the Legislative Assembly.] A handsome building in Paris, begun in 1622 by the Duchess de Bourbon, completed in 178H by the Prince of Comic', and called at that time Palais Bourbon. Here the Council of Five Hundred held their sittings, after the confiscation of the building in 1792. Part of the palace was afterwards used by Napoleon's Corps Legislatif. The palace was restored to the Prince de Conde' at the Restoration, but finally liecame the property of the state. Here sat the Chamber of Deputies (1814 to 1848), the Constituent Assembly of 1848, the Corps Legislatif of the Second Empire. A fine portico was added to the building in 1807. The halls within are adorned with paintings and statuary.
In vain wilt thou go to Schonbrunn, to Downing Street, to the Palais Bourbon: thou Ti;Mi. -j nothing; there but brick or stone houses, and some bundles of Papers tied with tnpe. Carlyle.
Palais Elysee. See Elysee, PaLais.
Palais Royal. This palace, in Paris, was built by Cardinal Richelieu. It is associated with the political intrigues of France from the time of its founder down to the accession of Louis Philippe. Many of the most dramatic scenes of the party of the Fronde occurred here. Here many of the extreme measures of the Red Republicans were taken. In a cafe of the gardens belonging to the palace the Dantonists met, and in another the Girondists. It is now used as a royal residence. The gardens are prettily ornamented, and much frequented by men, women, and children during the warm weather. The Boulevards have now diminished the attractions of the Palais Royal — once the centre of life, gayety, and splendor in Paris.
From that first necessary assertion of Luther's, " You. self-slyled Pap*, 3"ou are no Father In (Jod at all; you are —a Chimera, whom I know not how to name in polite laneuape !" — from that onwards to the shout which ro*e round Canitlle Pesmoullns in the Palait■ Royal, "Aux amies! " when the people hod burst up against all manner of Chimeras, — J find a natural historical sequence. Carlyle.
John to the Palau-Royal came. Its splendor almost .-truck him dumb. '• I say, whose house is that there here?" "House! Je vous n'entends pas, Monsieur." C. Dibdin.
Palais Royal. A small theatre, noted for its light comedy and farces, in the Montpensier Gallery of the Palais Royal, Paris. It was opened in 1831, and has been called "la Parapluie des dineurs du Palais Royal."
Twice a week he poes to the theatre: he prefers the Palais Royal; perhaps twice more he takes upon his arm one of the ngurantes of the Theatre l.yrlque.
Palais Royal, Place du. See Place DC Palais Royal.
Palatine Library. A celebrated collection of ancient books and manuscripts, formerly in Heidelberg, Germany, afterwards carried to Rome and deposited in the Vatican, and during the present century in part restored to its original place.
Palatine MountorHill. [Lat. Mont Palatiniis.] One of the original seven hills of Rome, and the seat of the earliest settlement of the city. It is now covered with the ruins of the Palace of the Csesars. The history of the Palatine is an epitome of that of Rome. From the time when Romulus encircled it with a furrow, and raised his straw-roofed cottage, it was the site of the mansions of the highest nobility. These structures and palaces became successively more and more splendid and luxurious till they reached their limit of magnificence in the Golden House of Nero. From that time the buildings of the Palatine have degenerated to their present state of ruin.
ig- "The Palatine formed a trapezium of solid rock, two sides of which were about 300 yards in length, and others about 400; the area of Us summit, to compare it with a familiar object, was nearly equnl to the space between Pall-Mali and Piccadilly in London. . . . After the Etruscan fashion, he [Romulus] traced round the foot of the hill with a plough drawn by a bull and heifer, the furrow being carefully made to fill! inwards, and the heifer yoked to the near side, to signify that strength and courage were required without, obedience and fertility within, the city. . . . The locality thus enclosed was reserved for the temples of the gods, and the residence of the ruling class, the class of patricians or burghers, as Niebuhr has taught us to entitle them, which predominated over the dependent commons, and only Buffered them to crouch for security under the walls of Komulus. The Palatine was never occupied by the
filebs. In the last age of the republic, ong after the removal of tills partition, or of the civil distinction between the great classes of the state, here was still the chosen site of the mansions of the highest nobility." Merivale.
«s)- "Every step wo tread bero is big with recollections — for it was the scene of early glory, the spot where Home grr>w into greatness and fell into decay. . . . That spot which once comprised the whole of Koine; which, till the extinction of the republic, contained the dwelling* of her senators and the temples of her gods, but which, during the Empire, was found to be too circumscribed for the wants of one Individual,—is now heaped with the wlde-spreading ruins of that magnificent edifice, which was the abode of her tyrants, and the tomb of her liberties. Over the wide expanse of the Palatine, no human dwelling or habitation is now to be seen, except where one solitary convent shelters a few barefooted friars, and where, amid the ruined arches and buried halls of the Palace of the Caesars, the laborers of the vineyards and cabbage-gardens that now flourish over them have made their wretched abodes." C. A. Eaton.
The Palatine* proud Rome'* Imperial sent,
(An awful pile !) stands venerably great;
Thither the kingdoms mi i the nations come.
In supplicating crowds to learn their doom:
To Delphi less th' Inquiring worlds repair,
Jfor does a Kreater god inhabit there;
This sure the pompous mansion was design *d
To please the mighty rulers of mankind;
Inferior temples rise on eiiher hand.
And on the borders of the palnce stand,
While o'er the rest her head She proudly rears.
And lodged amidst her guardian gods appears.
Claudian (Addison'* Translation).
Cypress and ivy, weed and wall-flower grown
Matted and mass'd together, hillocks heap'd
On what were chambers, arch crush'd, columns strewn
In fragments, choked-up vaults, and frescos steep'd
In subterranean damps, where the owl
Deeming it midnight: —
Temples, baths, or balls? Pronounce who can; for all that Learning
reap'd From her research has been that these
are walls. Behold the Imperial Mount I Tf* thus
the mighty falls. Byron.
There the Capitol thou scest, Above the rest lifting his *tatclv head On the Tarpelan rock, her citadel Impregnable; an<l there Mount Palatine, The imperial palace, compass huge, and
The structure, skill of noblest architects,
Whh Killed iiattirments conspicuous far.
Turrets, and terrace*, and glittering snires.
Palazzo. For most names beginning with Palazzo, see the next
prominent word. For example, Palazzo Pitti, see Pitti Palace; Palazzo Dkcli Upfizi, see CffiZi, etc. See also infra.
Palazzo del Podesta.
Palazzo della Signoria. See PaLazzo Vegchio.
Palazzo Rosso. See Brigkolb Sale Palace.
Palazzo Vecchio (della Signoria V [The Old Palace (of the Signory).] The ancient residence of the Gonfaloniere, or superior magistracy of Florence, now used for government offices, and containing many works of art. It was erected in 1298.
8$~ " The prominent and central object is the Palazzo Vecchio, a massive and imposing structure, with enormous projecting battlements, and a lofty bell-tower stuck upon the walla in defiance of proportion, partly overhanging them, and disturbing the passers-by with a constant sense of Insecurity." I/iUard.
Palisades, The. A lofty columnar mass of basalt or trap-rock, nearly 500 feet in height and some 18 miles in length, extending along the right or western bank of the Hudson River in New York and New Jersey.
Pall Mall. A street in London, named from the French game of paille - maille, formerly played there. During the last century it contained many taverns, which are now replaced by club-houses. The street, at one time known as Catherine Street, was enclosed about 1690, and was a fashionable promenade. Palle-malle (from Patla, a ball, and Maylia, a mallet) is still played in old Italian cities.
We went to Wood's nt the Pell Jfrfl (our old tmuse for clubbing), and there we spent till ten at night
Pepys (26 July, 1660).
O bear me to the paths of fair Pall Mall! Safe are thy pavements, grateful Is th/ smell 1
At distance rolls alone the pilded conch, Hvr sturdy carmen on thy walks encroach; No lets would bar thy ways weru chairs
deny'd. The soft supports of laziness and pride; Shops breathe perfumes, through sashes
ribbons glow, The mutual arms of ladles and the beau. Gay.
In town let me live, then, In town let me
die; For in truth I can't relish the country,
not I. If one must have a villa in summer to
dwell, Oh! jiivc mc the sweet shady side of pall
Skill. Charles Morris.
I am lodged in the street called Pall Mall, the ordinary residence of all strangers, because tf its vicinity to the Queen's Palace, the Park, the Parliament House, the Theatres, and the Chocolate and Coffee-houses, where the bc-t cum puny frequent. Journey through England* 1714. I Indent the gayer flags of Pall Malt. It Is "change time, and 1 nm ►.tranjiely among the LI-in marbles. Charles Lamb. Have society, Pall Mall clubs, and a habit of sneering, so withered up our organs of veneration that we can admire no more 't Thackeray.
Mv little friend, so f mall and neat,
In Pall Malt dully;
Palladium. A celebrated statue of antiquity representing the goddess Pallas as seated, holding in one hand a spear, in the other a distaff. This statue, which was said to have fallen from heaven on the plain of Troy, was believed to have been the guardian or preserving genius of the city. Hence the modern signification of the word as a security or protection.
Pallas, The. An armor-plated ship of the British navy, launched March 14, 1865.
Pallas. See Minerva.
Pallione, II. [The Church Standard.] A celebrated votive picture by Guido Reni (1575-1(^2), painted by command of the Senate of Bologna after the cessation of the plague in KKJO. It represents "the Madonna in a glory of angels, with the patron saints of Bologna underneath." The picture derives its name from having been originally used in proces
sions. Now in the Gallery of Bologna, Italy.
Mxmt " Ouido, It Is said, had no time to prepare a canvas or cartoons, and painted the whole on a piece of white silk. It was carried in grand procession, and solemnly dedicated by the Senate, whence it obudncd the title by which it is celebrated In the history of art, ' II Pallione del Vote*"
Palsgrave Head. A former noted
they drive, But at St. Clement's eat out the back, And slipping through the palsgrave, bilkt
poor hack. Prior ana Montague.
Pamfili-Doria, Villa. See Villa Pamfili-doiua.
Pamffli Palace. [It*\. Palazzo PamJili.] A palace built in 1660 for Innocent X., in Piazza Navona, Rome. Here lived Olimpia Maldalchini Pamh'li, notorious for her ambition, vices, and political influence.
Pan. See Narcissus.
Panathenaic Frieze. The name often given to the frieze of the Parthenon at Athens, now among the Elgin marbles in the British Museum, London. It is so called from the subject represented, which is the procession which took place every rive years in honor of the goddess Minerva, to whom the temple was dedicated, and which was participated in by all the Athenian colonies.
XXW "We possess in England tho most precious examples of Athenian power in the sculpture of animals. Tho horses of the frieze, in tho Elgin collection, appear to live and move, to roll their eyes, to gallop, prance, nnd curvet; the veins of their faces and legs seem distended with circulation; in them are distinguished the hardness and decision of bony forms from the elasticity of tendon and the softness of flesh. T'he beholder is charmed with the deer-like lightness and elegance of their make, and although the relief Is not above an inch from the background, and they are so mucti smaller than nature, we can scarcely suffer reason to persuade us they arc not alive."
Flaxman. Pancras, St. See St. Pancras.
Fancrazio, San. See San PancbaZio.
Fanshanger House. The seat of Earl Cowper, in the county of Hertford, England. It contains a fine collection of paintings.
Pantheon. 1. [La Rotonda, Santa Maria di Botonda, Santa Maria ad Martyre*.] The best preserved monument of ancient Rome. It was built hy Marcus Agrippa, B.C. 27, as shown by the inscription upon the frieze. In A.D. 608 it was consecrated as a Christian church by Pope Boniface IV. under the name of Santa Maria ad Marti/res. The proportions of the beautiful portico nave long been regarded as faultless. The Interior is a rotunda surmounted by a dome, and lighted by a circular opening 28 feet in diameter iu the centre of the dome. The inside diameter of the rotunda is 142 feet. The Pantheon has been used as the burial-place of painters, Raphael, Annibale Caracci, and others being interred here beneath the pavement.
£5T"Thc world lias nothing else like the Pantheon. So grand it is, that the pasteboard statues over the lofty cornice do not disturb the effect, any more than the tin crowns and hearts, the dusty artificial flowers, and all manner of trumpery gewgaws hanginn? at the saintly shrines. The rust and dinginess that have dimmed the precious marbles on the walls; the pavement, with its great squares and rounds of porphyry ana granite, cracked crosswise, and in a hundred directions, showing how roughly the troublesome ages have trampled here; the gray dome above, with its opening to the sky, as if heaven were looking down into the interior of this place of worship; ... all these things make an impression of solemnity which tit. Peter's itself fails to produce."
4gr" Though plundered of all its brass, except the ring which was necessary to preserve the aperture above; though exposed to repeated fires; though sometimes flooded by the river, and always open to the rain, no monument of equal antiquity Is so well preserved as this rotunda. It passed with
little nlteration from the Pagan into the present worship; and so convenient were its niches for the Christian altar, that Michael Angelo, ever studious of ancient beauty, introduced their design as a model iu the C'athone church." rorvyth'g ltaty.
fl»-" Our Pantheon [at Paris] compared with this seems mean; and when, after a half-bour's contemplation of it. you abstract its mouldinosa and degradation, and divorce it from its modern dilapidated surroundings, when the imagination pictures to itself the white glittering edifice with its fresh marble, as it appeared in the time of Agrippa, when, after the establishment of universal peace, he dedicated it to ail the gods, then do you figure to yourself with admiration the triumph of Augustus which this fete completed, a reconciled, submissive universe, the splendor of a perfected empire."
JKS*,,The preservation and embellishment of the Pantheon have seemed to be dear to every mind of genius in every age. Raphael bequeathed a sura of money for its repair; so did Annibal Caracci, and many other distinguished artists; but it nppeurs to have all gone to the Madonna and the martyrs, to priests and masses."
C. A. Eaton.
4®**' The character of the architecture, and the sense of satisfaction which It leaves upon the mind, are proofs of the enduring charm of simplicity. . . . This charm is the result of form and proportion, and cannot be lost except by entire destruction." HUlard.
Simple, erect, severe, austere, sublime — Shrine of all saints and temple uf all ged* From Jove to Jesus — spared and bless'd
by time. Looking tranquillity, while falls or nods Arch, empire, eueh thing round thee, and
man plods His way through thorns to ashes — glorious dome! Shalt thou not last? Time's scythe and
tyrant*' rods Shiver upon thee, —sanctusry and home Of ait imd piety, — Pantheon! pride of
Rome! Relic of nobler days, and noblest arts! DespoilM yet perfect, with thy circle
spreads A holiness appealing to all henrts — To art a model; nnd io him who treads Rome for the sake of ages, (jlory s* eds Her light through thy sole aperture; to
those Who worship, here are altars for their
heads; And they who feel for genius mav repose Their eyes on honor'd forma, whose busts
around them close. Byron.