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Well speed thy mission, bold Iconoclast! Yet all unworthy of its trust thou art. If, with dry eye, and cold, unloving heart.
Thou tread'st the solemn Pantheon of the past,
Bv the great Future's dazzling hope made blind
To all the beauty, power, and truth behind. Whittier.
3»o, great Pome of Agrippa, thou art not
Christian. Canst not. Strip And replaeter and daub and do what
they will with thee, be so. Clough.
2. A church in Paris now called St. Genevieve. The corner-stone of this building was laid by Louis XV. in 171H. In 1791 the Assembly decreed that it should be used as a place of sepulture for the illustrious dead of France. Mlrabeau, Voltaire, and Uousseau were interred here, and also many distinguished generals of Napoleon's army. In 1851 the temple was presented to the Roman Catholic Church. The church is in the form of a Greek cross, and is very imposing from its great size and the magnificence of its dome. It is adorned with statues and paintings of the great kings ana queens, military heroes, and literary men of France. It is situated on the south of the river, upon the highest ground in Paris. It is called the largest and finest church of the Italian style in the city. It was changed into a pantheon, in 1792, inscribed "Aux Grands Hommes la Patrie reconnaissante," restored to a church in 1822, in 1831 again changed to a pantheon, and in 1853 re-converted into a church.
47*"The object of this splendid pile — for it Is not a church — is Bufficiently explained by a series of figures In relief Dy David, representing, on the triangular pediment of the portico, France, a figure 15 feet high, attended by Liberty and History, surrounded by, and dispensing honor to, Voltaire, Lafayette, Fenelon, Rousseau, Mirabcau, Manuel, Carnot, David, and. of course, Napoleon, and the principal heroes of the republican and imperial armies." Sir Francis B. Head.
AJ-" Begun as a church, in the Revolution its destination was altered, and it was to be a temple to the manes of great men; and accordingly Rousseau, Voltaire, and many more are
burled here. "Welt, after the Revolution, the Bourbons said it should not be a temple for great men, it should be a church. The next popular upset tipped it back to the great men, and It stayed under their Jurisdiction until Louis Napoleon, who Is very pious, restored it to the Church. . . . This Pantheon Is, as one might suppose from Its history, a hybrid between a church and a theatre, and of course good for neither — purposeless and aimless." C. Beecher.
O- " The present superb church of St. Genevieve was the Pantheon of the Revolution. The painting of the dome, which is in the worst possible taste, represents St. Genevieve in glory, receiving the homage of Clovls, Charlemagne, St. Louis, and Louis XVIII. An rente, the classic magnificence of the whole structure is as little in harmony with the character of the peasant fmtroness, as the church of the Madecine with that of the Syrian penitent and castaway." Mrs. Jameson.
as*"" On arriving at the object of our ambition — the small balustrade surrounding the lantern which forms the summit of the Pantheon — there burst upon us all a magnificent panorama it would be utterly impossible to describe. The whole of Paris —every window, every chimney, were distinguishable." Sir Francis B. Head. The church of St. Genevieve Is a place of greate devotion, dedicate to another of their Amazons sayd to have delivered the Citty from the English, for which she is rsteemed the tutelary saint of Paris. It stands on a stecpe eminence, having a very high spire, and is governed by Canons Regular.
John Evelyn, Diary, Feb. 7, 1«4. Allko the better-seeing shade will smile On the rude cavern of the rocky i.sle. As if his ashes found their latest home In Rome's Pantheon or Gaul's mimic dome. Byron.
3. A well-known building in London, at first Imilt for a theatre and public promenade, and opened in 1772. The Pantheon was burned in 1792, and rebuilt; afterwards taken down and reconstructed in 1812, and in 1834 turned into a bazaar.
I saw Hood once as a young man, at a dinner which seems almost a* ghostly now as that imi»<|ucrade at the Pantheon of which we were speaking anon.
Faoli, San. See San Paoli Fcobi
Le Muka. Paoline Chapel. See Capella
Paolo, San. See Porta Di San Paolo.
Paraclete. This celebrated abbey, founded by Abelard, stood at the village of St. Aubin, on the stream Ardusson, in France. Here was the retreat of Heloise, and her final resting-place as well as that of Abelard.
Sometimes I prleve for the loss of the house of Paraclete, and wish to see It again. Ah. l'hlllntua, does not the love of HcloiBc still burn in mv heart?
Abelard, leflert of Abelard and Heloise. To the gray walla of fallen Paraclete,
To Juliet's urn. Fair A mo and Sorrento's orange-grove. Where Tasso sang, let young Romance and Love Like brother pilgrims turn. Whittier. God's love, — unchanging, pure, and
true, — The Paraclete whlte-shlning through His peace, — the full of Hermon's dew!
Whittier. With all mv sorrows trembling still.
Fate, vufnly lenient, bade us meet.
L. S. Costello.
Paradiso, II. A famous picture by Jacopo Robusti, called II Tintoretto (15HM594). It is an oilpainting, 84 feet long and 34 feet high. In the Doge's Palace, at Venice, Italy.
&$- "In the Paradise of Tintoret, the angel is seen In the distance driving Adam and Eve out of the Garden. . . . Full speed they fly, the angel and the human creatures; the angel wrapt in an orb of light floats on, and does not touch the ground; the chastised creatures rush before him in abandoned terror. All this might have been invented by another, . . . but ono circumstance which completes the story could have been thought of by none hut Tintoret. The angel casts a shadow before him towards Adam nnd Eve." Huskin (Jfodern Painters).
ms~ "At first this Paradise of Tintoret Is so strange that no wonder the lovely world outside, the beautiful court-yard, the flying birds, and drifting Venetians seem more like Heaven to those who are basking In their sweetness. But it Is well worth while by degrees, with some pain and self-denial, to climb in spirit to that strange crowded place towards which old Tintoret's mignty soul was bent."
ParadiBO, Orto del. See Obto Del Paradiso.
Parcee. See Three Fates.
Parc-aux-Cerfs. [Deer-park.] A park or preserve at Versailles, France.
The true conduct and position tor a French Sovereign towards French Literature. In that country, might have been, though perhaps of all things the most important, one of the most difficult U* discover and accomplish. What chanee fsms there that a thick-blooded Louis yuinze. from his Pare am Cer/s. should discover It, should have the faintest Inkling of it? Cari&leMeanwhile Louis the well-beloved has left (forever) his Parcaur-eerf*. and, amid the st* arc-sup pressed hoot intra of tb« world, taken up his last lodging at St. Denis. Cariyie
Parian Chronicle. One of the socalled Arundelian marbles at Oxford, England. It is a chronological register or compendium of the historv of Greece froni B.C. 1582 to B.C. 355. It is so called because thought to have been made in the island of Paros. See Arundelian MarBles.
Paris Garden. A region in London, so called from Robert de Paris, who had a house ami grounds there in the reign of Richard II., now built upon and occupied with public works.
Paris, Judgment of. See JudgMent or Paris.
Park Lane. A street of aristocratic residences in London, England.
Fifth Avenue Is the Belprave Square, the Park Lane, and the Pall Mall of »w York. Anthony Trvfiope.
Park Square. A well-known public square in London, England.
Park-Street Church. A wellknown religious edifice in Boston, Mass. It has a lofty spire.
I tell you what, —the Idea of the professions digging a moat round their close corporations, like that Japanese one at Jcddo, which you could put Park-Street Church on the bottom of and look over the vane from Its side, and try to stretch another such spire across it without spanning the chasm. — that idea, I say, is pretty nearly worn out. Holmes.
Parliament House. 1. A building in Edinburgh, Scotland, of the Italian style of architecture, used for Courts of Justice. The old Parliament House, of which only a portion remains, is used by lawyers and their clients.
2. An imposing pile of buildings in Ottawa, Can., containing the halls of Parliament of the Dominion of Canada, and the Department offices. It was begun in I860.
Parliament Houses. See 'westMinster Palace.
Parliament Oak. An ancient and famous tree in what was once Sherwood Forest. It derived its name from the tradition of a parliament having been held there by Edward the First.
Parnasse, Boulevard du Mont. See Mont Pabnasse.
Parnassus. A celebrated fresco by Raphael Sanzio (1483-1520), representing Apollo and the Muses, under laurel-trees, on the heights of Parnassus. On either side and below are ranged the poets of antiquity and of modern Italy. This picture is one of the series of four, entitled respectively, Theology, Poetry (or the Parnassus), Philosophy, and Jurisprudence, which were intended to exhibit the lofty subjects of thought with which the human mind is occupied. They are all in the Camera della Segnatura of the Vatican, Rome.
Parnassus. An allegorical picture by Andrea Mantegna (1431-1501;), the Italian painter. In the Gallery of the Louvre, Paris.
Parnassus. A celebrated fresco in the Villa Albani, Rome, by Anton Rafael Mengs (1728-1779). It has been engraved by Raphael Morgben. [Called also Apollo and the Muset.]
Parthenon, The. This structure, — the glory of the Acropolis at Athens, Greece, — " the finest edifice on the finest site in the world, hallowed by the noblest recollections that can stimnlate the human heart," — was so called from
being the temple of Athena Parthenos ('AO^ki iiipfokoO. The time at which the Parthenon was begun is not definitely known; but it was built under the administration of Pericles, and finished 4:38 B.C. The architects were Ictinus and Callierates, and the general supervision of the work was intrusted to Phidias. This most perfect product of Grecian architecture was of the Doric order, was built of Pentelic marble, and stood upon the highest part of the Acropolis. The Parthenon was beautifully adorned, both without and within, with exquisite works of sculpture, some of which have been removed and deposited in the British Museum. The Parthenon was sometimes called Hecatompedos or Heeatompedon (i.e., the Temple of One Hundred Feet), a name derived from its breadth. This temple beautifully illustrates the architectural principle known to tho ancient Greeks by which they prevented the apparent sagging of horizontal and the bending of perpendicular lines in a structure. By substituting very slight and delicate curves for the ordinary right lines, this common optical illusion was entirely avoided. The perpendicular lines also slightly incline inwards, thus preventing any appearance — as for example in the columns, which incline three inches in their height — of leaning outwards. The most celebrated of the sculptures of the Parthenon was a colossal statue of the Virgin Goddess, by Phidias. It was made of ivory for the nndraped parts, while solid gold was used for the dress and ornaments, — a kind of work , which the Greeks called chryselephantine. The Parthenon was turned into a Greek church dedicated to the Virgin Mother, prol>ably in the sixth century. It was badly damaged by a shell during the siege of Athens by the Venetians in 1687, and also received additional injury during the bombardment of the city in 1827.
#3-"Such was the simple structure of this magnificent building, which, by its united excellences of materials, design, and decorations, was the moat perfect ever executed. Its dimensions of 228 feet by 101, with a height of 60 feet to the top of the pediment, were sufficiently great to give an appearance of grandeur and sublimity; and this impression was not disturbed by any obtrusive subdivision of parts, such as is found to diminish the effect of many larger modern buildings, where the same singleness of design is not apparent. In the Parthenon there was nothing to divert the spectator's contemplation from the simplicity and majesty of mass and outline, which forms the first and most remarkable object of admiration in a Greek temple." Leake.
tST"Down to the year 1637, the Parthenon remained entire. The Christians converted it first into a church, and the Turks, jealous of the Christians, afterward converted it into a mosque. Then came the Venetians in the highly civilized seventeenth century, and cannonaded the monuments of Pericles. They shot their balls upon the Propyleeum and the Temple of Minerva; a bomb sunk into the roof set fire to a number of barrels of gunpowder inside, and demolished in part a building that did less honor to the false gods of Greece than to the genius of man. The town being taken, Morosini, with the design of embellishing Vt-nice with the spoils of Athens, wished to take down the statues of the pediment of the Parthenon, and broke them. A modern succeeded in achieving (in the interest of the arts) the destruction which the Venetians bad begun. Lord Elgin lost the merit** of his commendable enterprises in ravaging the Par*enon. He wished to lake away the bussi-relievi of the frieze; in order to do so, he employed Turkish workmen, who broke the architrave, threw down the capitals, and smashed the cornice." Chateaubriand, Trans.
jjgr*"The last of the portals is passed: you are on the summit alone with the Parthenon. Over heaps of ruin, over a plain buried under huge fragments of hewn and sculptured marble —drums of pillars, pedestals, capitals, cornices, friezes, triglyphs, and sunken panel-work —a wilderness of mutilated art — It rises between you and the sky, which forms Its only background, and against which every scar left by the infidel generations shows its gash. Broken down in the middle, like a ship which has struck and parted, with the roof, cornices, and friezes most*
ly gone, and not a column nnrautllated, and yet with the tawny gold of 2,000 years staining its once spotless marble, sparkling with snow-white marks of shot and shell, and with 1U soaring pillars embedded in the dark-blue ether (and here the sky seems blue only because they need such a background), you doubt for a moment whether the melancholy of its ruin, or the perfect and majeBtic loveliness which shines through that ruin, is the most powerful." Bayard Tagkrr.
%&• "The appearance of the Parthenon testifies more loudly than history itself to the greatness of this peopie [the Greeks]. Pericles will never die. What a civilization was that which found a great man to decree, an architect to conceive, a sculptor to adorn, statuaries to execute, workmen to carve, and a people to pay for and maintain, such an edifice! In the midst of the ruins which once were Athens, and which the cannon of the Greeks and Turks have pulverized and scattered throughout the valley, and upon the two hills upon which extends the city of Minerva, a mountain is seen towering up perpendicularly upon all sides. Enormous ramparts surround It; built at their base with fragments of white marble, higher up with the de'brit of friezes and antique columns, they terminate in some parts with Venetian battlements. This mountain seems to be a magnificent pedestal cut by the gods themselves whereon to seat their altars."
Jt&*" Of all the great temples, the best and most celebrated is the Parthenon, the only octastyle Boric temple In Greece, and in its own class undoubtedly the most beautiful building in the world. It is true, it has neither the dimensions nor the wondrous expression of power and eternity inherent in Egyptian temples, nor has it the \-ariety and poetry of the Gothic cathedral; but for intellectual beauty, for perfection of proportion, for beauty of detail, and for the exquisite perception of the highest and most recondite principles of art ever applied to architecture, It stands utterly and entirely alone and unrivalled —the glory of Greece and a reproach to the rest of the world." Ferpu**on.
Earth proudly wears the Parthenon.
As the best gem upon her zone.
Parthenon, The. A London club, dissolved in 1862. The Erecthcum Club was joined with it in 1854.
Parvis Notre Dame. This name, a corruption of Paradisus, is applied to the open space in front of the cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris.
Fas Perdus, Salle des. A large hall, from which open different law-courts, in the Palais de Justice, Paris.
Pasquino. A celebrated mutilated statue in Rome, so called from a witty tailor of that name who kept a shop near by, and was given to entertaining his customers with the gossip and scandal of the day. upon the pedestal of this statue were affixed pungent criticisms on passing events, squibs, and sarcasms, from which the term Pasquinade is derived.
BEJ1- "The public opinion of Rome has only one traditional organ. It is that mutilated block of marble called Pasquin's statue, on which are mysteriously affixed by unknown hands the frequent squibs of Roman motherwit on the event* of tbc day."
The Timet, 1870.
Passaic, The. A United States monitor in the war of the Rebellion (1861-65). She took part, in connection with the land batteries, in the attack upon Fort Sumter, July 11, 1863. On the 24th, Gen Gilmore wrote to Gen. Halleck, " Fort Sumter is to-day a shapeless mass of ruins."
Passion, The. A picture by Hans Memling (d. 1495), the Flemish painter, representing all the scenes of the Passion of Christ in a number of separate groups with figures of small size. It is now in the Royal Gallery at Turin, Italy.
Passion, The Greater and the Lesser. A series of wood-cuts by Albert Diirer (1471-1528), the German painter and engraver, and considered to be among the best of his works which have descended to us.
Passion. See Lyversbcrq PasSiok.
Passion Play. See Passionsfiel.
PasBionspiel. [Passion Play] A famous dramatic representation of the scenes of the Passion and Death of Christ, exhibited at the village of Ober-Ammergau, in Bavaria. The acting takes place in the day-time, and under the open sky. The play was first performed in 1033, under a religious vow offered by the inhabitants of the village, that they would enact it at regular periods, if delivered from the inliiction of the plague.
JKg- " The decadal period was chosen for 1880, and the Passion Play has been enacted, with various interruptions, every tenth year since that time. The Passion Play is, however, of much older date than this. It Is not probable that simple villagers would make a vow to perform a play totally unknown to them, and, even in its rudest form, demanding such capacity and preparatory study. Tbc vow speaks of the Passion Tragedy as something already well known; only the period of performing the play every ten years is positively stated. The oldest known text-bock of the play bears the date 1662, and it refers to a still older book. Since the year 1634 the Passion Play has undergone great change and improvements. Such figures as Lucifer, Prince of Hell, who, with bis retinue used to play a great part in the Ammergau performance, nave been banished. Up to the year 1830, the play was performed in the village churchyard in the open air. In the first decades of the present century the text of the ploy was thoroughly revised by Father Ottmar Weiss of Jesewang (d. 1843), who removed unsuitable and inharmonious passages, substituting prose for doggerel verse. The improvements then commenced have been carried on up to the present time by the former pastor of the village, the Geistlicher-Rath Daisenberger, who is still active in promoting the success of the play."
J. P. Jackson.
Patapsco, The. A United States monitor in the war of the Rebellion (1861-65). She took part, in connection with the land batteries, in the attack upon Fort Suiuter, July 11, 1863, and within a few days it was reduced to a shapeless mass of ruins.
Paternoster Row. A street in London said to be so named from