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niggc, though scarcely better than a ditch. The House of Bagnigge was at one time inhabited by Nell Gwynn. On an inscription on the front of it stood: 'T. S. This is Ragnigge House near the Pindar a Wakefeilde, 1680.'" W. JIoxoM.

Baiae, Bay of. See Bay Of Bale.

Bailey, Old. See Old Bailey.

Baker Street. A well-known stieet in London, leading north from Portman Square, lu Baker Street is Madame Tussauds celebrated exhibition of wax-work figures. See Madame TcsSai'd's Exhibition.

What wmild th<>y nay in Baker Street to some sights with which our new mends Tavored us? Thackeray

Balbi Palace. [Ital. Palazzo Balbi.] A well-known palace in Genoa, Italy, containing some treasures of art. •

Balbi. See Strada Balbi.

Baldacchino. [The Canopy.] The bronze canopy which covers the high altar in St. Peter's Church, Rome. It was cast after designs by Bernini in lG3;i, and made chiefly from the bronze taken from the Pantheon, and partly from metal which Pope Urban VIII. procured from Venice.

«S- "It is difficult to imagine on what ground, or for what purpose, this costly fabric was placed here. It has neither beauty nor grandeur, and" resembles nothing so much as a colossal four-post bedstead without the curtains. ... it is a pursuing and intrusive presence. . . . Wo wish it anywhere but where H is, under the dome, rearing its tawdry commonplace into that majestic spnee, and scrawling upon the air its feeble and affected lines of spiral." Hitlard.

&ir "It only looked like a considcrably magnified bedstead — nothing more. Vet I knew it was a good deal more than half as high as Niagara Falls. It was overshadowed by a dome so mighty that its own height was snubbed." Mark Twain.

Balduinstein. A feudal fortress on the river Lahn, near Dietz, in Germany. It was built in 1335.

Balgownie, Bridge of. See Brio o' Balgownle.

Baliol College. A noted college in Oxford, England, being one of the nineteen colleges included in the University, ft was founded about the year 1263.

16.17. 10 Jlay, I was admitted a fellow coinmuner uf Baliot College. . . . The fellow communers wore no more exempt from exercise than the meanest commoners there. John Brelyn. Diary.

BaU's Cave. A natural curiosity in Schoharie County, N.Y. It is traversed in boats 'which follow the course of a subterranean river at a depth of one hundred feet below the surface of the ground.

Ballybunian. A series of noted caves which are among the most remarkable of the natural wonders of Ireland. They are situated not far from Tralee, in the county of Kerry, Ireland.

Balmoral Castle. A castle in Scotland, on the river Dee, about 40 miles south-west of Aberdeen, belonging to the Queen of England, nnil occupied by her as a Highland residence.

Baltimore Street. A main avenue in Baltimore, Md., and a favorite promenade.

Baltony. A Druidical temple in the county of Donegal, Ireland, somewhat resembling that at Stonehenge in size and structure.

Bambino Santissimo. [The Holy Infant 1 A wooden figure of the infant Saviour, preserved in the church of Ara Coeli at Home, whose miraculous powers in curing the sick have caused it to be held in wonderful repute. According to the legend it was carved by a Franciscan pilgrim out of a tree from the Mount of Olives, and was painted by St. Luke while the pilgrim was sleeping over his work. The image is extremely rich in gems and jewelry, and is held in such esteem in cases of severe sickness that it has been said by the Italians to receive more fees than any physician in Rome. The festival of the Bambino, which occurs at the Epiphany, attracts crowds of peasantry from all parts of the surrounding country.

*5~ "On the 6th of January, the lofty steps of Am Co>!i looked like an ant-hill, Bo thronged were they with people. ... II Bambino, a painted image of wood, covered with jewels, was carried by a monk in white gloves, and exhibited to the people. Everybody dropped down upon their knee*." Frederika Bremer.

<Eff-"The disposition of the group and the arrangement of the lightB are managed with considerable skill. On this occasion the church Is always thronged, especially by peasants from the country.1' G. S. Hitlard.

£-tf'*"The miraculous Bambino is a paiuted doll, swaddled in a white dress, which is crusted over with magnificent diamonds, emeralds, and rubles. The Virgin also wears In her ears superb diamond pendants. The general effect of the scenic show is admirable, and crowds flock to it and press about It all day long.'* W. W. Story.

Garnished from throat to foot with rings
And brooches and precious offerings.
And its little nose kissed quite away
Bv dying lips. . - ■

. . . for you must know
It has ItJ* minions to come and go,
Its perfumed chamber, remote unit still,
Its silken couch, and its jewelled throne,
And a special carriage ot its owu
To take the air in, when it will.

T. B. Aldrich.

Banbury Cross. In Oxfordshire, England. The place was famous for its cakes and ale, and also for its Puritanic zeal. In the latter part of Elizabeth's reign an attempt was made to revive the shows and pageants of the Catholic Church in Banbury; but when the performers reached the high cross in Banbury, a collision occurred between them and the Puritans, in which the latter were victorious. The high cross, and three smaller ones, were cut down and hacked in pieces. The magnificent church met with a similar fate.

Ride a cock-horse to Banbury Cross,
To see a fine lady ride on a while horse.
Rings on her fingers, and bells on her tors.
That she may make music wherever she
goes. Mother Goose.

Bangor House. An old ecclesiastical mansion in London — the residence of the Bishops of Bangor— which stood until 1838.

Banias. A noble deserted castle in Syria, of very high antiquity, one of the finest examples of

Phoenician architecture. Portions of the building are of the period of the Middle Ages. It was occupied by the Christians at the time of the Crusades, after which it fell into the hands of the Moslems, and in the seventeenth century was allowed to go to ruin. [Called also Castle of Subeibeh.] Bank of England. The great national moneyed institution of England, and the principal bank of deposit and circulation in the world, situated in Threadneedle Street, London. It is sometimes jocularly styled " The Old Lady of Threadneedle Street." It was founded in 1094. The process of weighing gold and printing banknotes is one of the most wonderful results of mechanical invention. The chief halls of the Bank are open to the public.

The finished plaze of life in Paris is less invariable, ami the full title of trade round the Bant of England is not so inexorably powerful. Anthony Trollope.

Bank of Ireland. A noble building — formerly the Houses of Parliament— in Dublin.

*j*- " The Bank of Ireland is universally classed among the most perfect examples of British architecture In the kingdom; and indeed is, perhaps, unsurpassed In .Europe. Yet, strange to say, little or nothing la known of the architect —the history of the graceful and beautiful structure being wrapt in obscurity almost approaching to mystery. It is built entirely of" Portland stone, nnd is remarkable for an absence of all meretricious ornament, attracting entirely by its pure, clusslc, and rigidly simple architecture. In ISO- it was purchased from government by the governors of the Bank of Iacland, who have since subjected it to some alterations, with a view to its better application to its present purpose. These changes, however, have oeen effected without Impairing Us beauty either externally or Internally; and it unquestionably merits its reputation as 'the grandest, most convenient, and most extensive edifice of the kind in Europe."* Mr. and Mrs. Hall.

Banks, The. A name familiarly given to the shoal, or submarine table-land, extending some 300 miles eastward of Newfoundland, and much frequented by fishing-craft. The depth of water varies from 25 to 60 fathoms.

The good ship darts through the water, all day,.all night, like a fish, Quivering with «perd, gliding through liquid leagues, sliding from horizon to horizon. She has passed Cape Sable; she has reached the Banks, the land-birds are led; no tishernien — and still wc fly for our lives.

R. W. Emerson.

Ban que de France. [Bank of France.] The Bank of France, in the Rue de la Vrillicre, Paris, ■was founded in 1803. Its capital is 182,500,000 francs, and the average amount of bullion in the large and carefully guarded vaults lias been of late vears about 300,000,000 francs (£"12,000,000). The Bank has branches in the chief large towns.

Banqueting House. A building in Whitehall, London, forming part of a magnificent design by Inigo Jones, but of which only this portion was completed. The ceiling is adorned with paintings by Rubens. Upon a scaffold erected in front of the Banqueting House, Charles I. was led forth to execution.

Baphomet. A small human figure which served among the Templars as an idol, or, more accurately, as a symbol. This figure, of which specimens are to be found in some Continental museums, was carved of stone, and had two heads, one male and the other female, while the body was that of a female. The image was covered with mysterious emblems. The name Baphomet is thought to be an accidental corruption of Mahomet.

Baptism of Christ. A picture by Giotto di Bondone (1276-1336). In the Accademia at Florence, Italy.

Baptism of Christ. A picture by Rogier van der Weyden (140014i>4). In the Museum at Berlin, Prussia.

Baptism of Christ. A fresco by PietroPerugino (1446-1524), in the Sistine Chapel, Rome.

Baptism of Christ. A well-known picture by Gheerardt David

(1484-1523), a Flemish painter. Now in the Academy of Bruges, Belgium.

Baptism of Christ. A picture by Francesco Albaui (1578-1660). In the church of S. Georgio, Bologna, Italy.

Baptism of Pocahontas. A picture in one of the panels of the Rotunda in the Capitol of Washington, representing the wellknown scene in the early history of Virginia, which is now regarded as destitute of truth, or mainly legendary. This painting was executed by John G. Chapman (b. 1808) under commissiou from Congress, and is not considered a work of merit. It has become very familiar to the general public by its reproduction as au engraving upon the back of the twenty-dollar note of the national currency.

Baptist. See St. John The BapTist.

Baptistery of Pisa. A wellknown building in Pisa, Italy, forming one of the beautiful and noted group of marble structures which includes the Cathedral, the Baptistery, the Leaning Tower, and the Campo Santo. See Pisa Cathrdral, Leaxinq Tower, Campo Santo.

tjg- In this building hangs the celebrated lamp whose measured swinging suggested to Galileo the theory of the pendulum.

Baptistery of San Giovanni. A

famous religious edifice in Florence, Italy, noted especially for its beautiful gates — the work of Andrea Pisano and of Lorenzo Ghiberti.

Barbara, St. See St. Barbara.

Barberi, Course des. See Course Des Barberi.

Barberini Faun. A celebrated work of ancient sculpture, so called from having once belonged to the Barberini family in Rome, but now preserved in the Glyptothek at Munich, Bavaria. See Faun, Sleeping Faun, Dancing Faun, etc.

49> " A colossal male figure of the Satyr class, sleeping, balf pitting, half reclining, on a rock. The peculiar merits of this work claim particular notice. It is essentially a work of character. The expression of heavy sleep is admirably given in the head and falling arm. . . . The precise date of this fine statue has not been determined ; but the style of form, and excellent technical treatment of the marble, leave little doubt of its having emanated from the best school of sculpture. If not from the hand even of ricopas or Praxiteles, it may without disparagement be considered the work of a scarcely Inferior scholar."

H. Wtstmacott.jun.

Barberini Juno. A colossal statue of the goddess. In the Vatican, Rome. See Juno.

Barberini Palace. rital. Palazzo Barberini.] One of the largest palaces in Rome, begun by Pope Urban VIII., and finished by Bernini in 1640. It contains a valuable library, museum, and gallery of paintings. Among the latter is the celebrated portrait of Beatrice Cenci, by Guido. See Beatrice Cenci.

Barberini Vase. See Pobtland Vase.

Barbican. A locality in London, so called, as the name indicates, from a former wateh-tower of which nothing now remains. Milton lived here in 1646-47, and here wrote some of his shorter poems.

Barcaccia, Fontana della. See


Barclay's Brewery. [Barclay, Perkins, and Co.] The largest and most famous brewery in London (Park Street, Southwark), extending over 11 acres, and in which 600 quarters of malt are brewed daily It is one of the sights of London. It is said to occupy the site of the Globe Theatre of Shakespeare's time.

Therefore. I freely acknowledge that when I sec a Jolly young Waterman tenresenting a cherubim, or a Barclay and Pa-tins i Drayman depicted as an hvangellat, I see nothing to commend or admire in the performance, however great Its reputed Painter. Dtckau.

Bardi.Viade'. See Via De' Bakdi.

Bargello. A palace in Florence, otherwise called the Palazzo del Podesta, the seat of the chief tribunal of justice, built in the year 1250. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the palace, no longer needed for the dwelling of the chief magistrate of a free city, was turned into a jail for common criminals, and what had been once a beautiful chapel was occupied as a larder or store-room. In this room, in 1840, some ancient and precious frescos by Giotto were discovered, among others the now famous portrait of Dante, the only one known to have been made of the poet during his life, and on that account of inestimable value. The palace also contains many treasures of sculpture.

«y "We went yesterday forenoon to see the Bargello. I do not know any thing in Florence more picturesque than the great Interior court of ibis ancient Palace of the Podesta with the lofty height of the edifice looking down into the enclosed space, dark and stem." Hawthorne.

Mo [Dante] has been down to hell, and come hack as the women in Verona saw him. scarred and singed: far otherwise, truly, than as (ilutto painted him on the wall of the Baiycllo. with the clear-cut features, and fresh look of early manhood, and pomegranates of peace In his hand.

Clir. Examiner.

Barnard Castle. A ruined fortress,

now the property of the Duke of

Cleveland, on the river Tees in

England. It gives- its name to

the town in which it stands.

While, as a livelier twilight falls.

Emerge from Barnard i bannered walls.


Barnard's Inn. A law establishment, one of the Inns of Chancery, in London.

gg- "I [Pip] was still looking sideways at his block of a face . . . when he TMr. Wemmick] aaid here we were at -Barnard's Inn.' My depression was not alleviated by the announcement, for I had supposed that establishment to be an hotel kept by Mr. Barnard, . . . whereas I now found Barnard to be a disembodied spirit or fiction, and his inn the dingiest collection of shabby buildings ever squeezed together in a rank corner as a club for Tom-cats. ... A frowsy mourning of soot and eraoke attired this forlorn creation of Barnard, and It bad strewed ashes on its bead, and was undergoing penance and humiliation as a mere dust-hole. Thus far my sense of sight; while dry rot, and wet rot, and all the silent rots that rot in neglected roof and cellar — rot of rat, and mouse, and bug, and coaching stables near at band besides — addressed themselves faintly to my sense of smell, and mouned, 1 Try Barnard's Mixture.'" Dicken*.

Barrack Bridge. An ancient and noted bridge over the Liffey in Dublin, Ireland. It was formerly called the Bloody Bridge, from a sanguinary conflict fought in its vicinity between the Irish and the English, A.D. 1408.

Barricades, lies. A picture by Ferdinand Victor Eugene Delacroix (179il-1863). In Paris.

He [the painterj is bound to be veracious and dramatic; If he shows us a battle, let It be the Ban-teat1* of Delacroix. Tame. Trans.

Barriere de Vincennes. See Baii


Barriere de Clichy. A noted picture by Horace Vernet (178!)18(i3). In the Luxembourg, Paris.

Barriere du Combat. An old barrier, corner of the Boulevard du Combat and the Boulevard de la Butte Chaumout, Paris It is on the line of the fortifications of old Paris.

One of them said of the dancers on the platform [at the Mabillc}: They turn like caged beasts, that 1* the Barriere du Combat. Taint, Trans.

Barriere du Trone. One of the old gates of Paris, so called from the throne used by Louis XIV. in HiflO, at the upper end of the Faubourg St. Autoine, on the road to Vincennes. It was formerly the Barriere de Vincennes.

As I wished to sec every thing. 1 went over to the bai Perron at the Barriere da Trone. Taine, Trans.

Burrogill Castle. A seat of the Earl of Caithness, in the North of Scotland, not far from Wick.

Bartholomew Close. A passage in London, where for a time Milton was secreted.

Bartholomew Fair. A famous fair formerly held at Smithtield, Lon

don. It was one of the leading fairs of England, and was estal>lished under a grant from Henry I. to the priory of St. Bartholomew. The original grant was for the eve of St. Bartholomew, and the two succeeding days (N. S. Sept. 3 to Sept. 0), but the duration of the fair was afterwards extended to H days. Bartholomew Fair was proclaimed for the last time in 1855, and for a long period previous to its abolition was a scene of much license. Many of its customs and abuses are pictured in Ben Jonsou's comedy of "Bartholomew Fair." Morley's "Memoirs of Bartholomew Fair" contains many details upon the subject. See Smithfield.

Doll. V faith, and thou followed*! him Use a church. Thou whoreson little tidy Bartholomew boar-pig. when wilt thou leave lighting <■' dat s, and foinlni.' o' nights, and begin to patch up thine old body for heaven 7

Shakespeare, Henry IV. Not that of pasteboard which men shew For groats at Fair of Barthol'mew.


A countryman coming one day to Smithfield, In order to take a slice of Bartholomew Fair, found a perfect show before every booth. The drummer, the fire-eater, the wire-walker, and the saltb.'x were all employed to invite hint In.


To J.-hnson Li't was as a Prison, to be endured with heroic faith: to Hume It was little more than a foolish Bartholomewf.jir Show-booth, with the foolish, crowdings and elboalng* of which it was not worth while to quarrel; the whole would break up, and be at liberty. -•. soon. Carlyte.

Bartholomew's Hospital. See St. Baktholomew's Hospital.

Bartolomeo Colieoni. A celebrated equestrian statue in Venice, Italy, designed by Andrea Verrocchio (HS!-1488).

4SS* " I do not believe that there Is a more glorious work of sculpture existing in the world." Ruskin.

Basil, St. See St. Basil.

Bass Bock. A fortress on the Frith of Forth, near EdinburghIt is celebrated as the prison in which the Covenanters were immured.

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