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of every century. . . . But It Wm found no lucrative to the Holy See from the heaps of gold the piety of wealthy pilgrims poured on the altars, that instead of one the number was gradually multiplied to four jubilees or holy years in every age. Thus after the holy doors have been walled up, and the" brazen cross upon them devoutly

J>resscd by the lips and rubbed by the orchcads and chins of the pious for five and twenty vears, they are thrown open, and the Pope, followed by every good Christian, walks into the four churches through them, but always walks out by some door not holy." Eaton.

JEsT"" After preliminary prayers from Scripture, singularly apt, the pope goes clown from his throne, and, armed with a silver hammer, strikes the wall In the doorway, which, having been cut round from its jambs and lintel, falls at once inwards, and Is cleared away in a moment by the San Pictrinl. The pope then, bareheaded and torch in ham), first enters the door, and is followed by his cardinals and other attendants to the high altar, where the first vespers of Christmas Day are chanted as usual. The other doors of the church are then flung open, and the great queen of churches is filled." Cardinal WUcman.

Porta Westphalica. [The Westphalian Gate.] A pass in the mountain range called the Wiehengebirge near Minden, Germany.

Portage Bridge. A famous wooden bridge at Portage, N.Y., 800 feet long, and 234 feet high. It is said to have been the largest wooden structure of the kind in the world. It is now replaced by an iron structure.

Portamento della Croce. [Bearing of the Cross.] A fine picture by Gaudenzio Ferrari (14S4-1550).

Porte St. Denis. A triumphal arch, 70 feet in height, in Paris, built in 1072 in honor of the victories of Louis XIV. The walls ot Paris at that time ran where the Boulevards now are, and this arch was one of the gates of the city. The tops of this arch and of the Porte St. Martin were occupied and held by the insurgents in 18,'SO.

<S""Itcommemorates tome of the

wonderful feats of arms of Ludovlcus Magnus, and abounds in ponderous allegories — nymphs and river-gods, and pyramids crowned witli fleurs-delis; Louis passing over the Khine in triumph, and the Duteli lion giving up the ghost, iu the year of our Lord 1672." Thackeray.

He [Voltaire] Is properly their pod,— such god iis ihey are tit for. Accordingly all persons, from the Queen Antulnettc to the Douanier at the Porte at. Denis, do they not worship him? Carlyle.

Porte St. Martin. A triumphal arch in Paris, 57 feet high and 57 feet wide, erected in 1075 in honor of the victories of Louis XIV. See Pokte St. Denis.

Portland Vase. This beautiful work of art was found in a sarcophagus in a sepulchre near Rome about the year 1500. It was formerly the principal ornament of the Barbcrini palace in Route, but afterwards became the property of tho Duchess of Portland, and after her death was deposited in the British Museum. It is composed of glass and enamel, out of which figures arc cut. iu the manner of a cameo. There are different opinions as to thedesigns of these figures, but all agree as to the value and beauty of tho work. Copies of it were executed by Wedgwood, one of which may be seen in the British Museum. The original vase was broken in 1845, but the pieces were so skilfully put together that scarcely a blemish can bo detected. It is kept iu the medalroom of the museum.

Portman Square. A well-known public square in London.

Portsmouth, The. A vessel of the United States navy, with which, aided by the Levant, Admiral Foote attacked and took the four Barrier-forts in Canton, China, in 1850.

Portugal Street. A street in London which has acquired considerable notoriety from the court for the relief of insolvent debtors being held there.

Posilipo, Grotta di. See Gbotta Di Posilipo.

Fotiphar's Wife accusing Joseph. A picture by Rembrandt van Ryn (MJOT-Hxi'J), the Dutch painter. It is now in the Hermitage at St. Petersburg, Russia.

Potomac, The. A noted frigate of the United States navy, in service in the war of 1812. She was built at Washington.

Potter's Field. An ancient burial place for strangers at Jerusalem. It is on a hill overlooking the Valley of ninnom.

Poulterer's Shop. A picture by Gerard Dow (1G1:S-1080), the Dutch '/flit-painter. In the National Gallery, London.

Poultry. A well-known street in London anciently occupied by poulterers, whence the name.

Poverty. A picture by Hans Holbein the Younger (14'J8 ?-15M), well known by engravings. The original perished at Whitehall in 1098.

Powderham Castle. A noble mansion, the seat of the Earl of Devon, near Kenton, England.

Fozzi. See Wells, The.

Fraea do Commercio. A large and handsome public square in Lisbon, Portugal.

Prado, El. [The Meadow.] The grandboulevard of Mad rid, Spain, converted by Charles III. from a meadow, as the name indicates, into a delightful promenade.

j®- "The Interior of the city of Madrid, taken as a whole, Is far from handsome. It should not, however, be forgotten that no city In Europe can boast within its walls so line a walk as the Pradu." George Ticknor.

&&• "To me the Prado is an inexhaustible source of amusement. In the first place, it is in itself the fincBt public walk I have ever seen within the walls of any city. . . . Anciently it was nn uneven meadow of little beauty, but famous for being the scene of the plots, murders, duels, and Intrigues of the city and court. It was not, however, until the middle of the last century that Charles III. levelled It, and made it the beautiful walk it

now Is. . . . During the forenoon, and nearly all the afternoon, no part of the city in summer is so silent and deserted as this. At five o'clock the whole Prado is watered, to prevent the duct which would otherwise be intolerable. Just before sundown the carriages and crowd begin to appear, and about half an hour the exhibition is in Its greatest splendor. On your left hand are two rows of carriages slowly moving up and down on each side, while the king and the infanta* dash up and down in the middle with all the privileges of royalty, and compel everybody on fool to take off bis hat as he passes, and everybody In a carriage to stop and stand up. Every time 1 see this sinjraIarly picturesque crowd mingled with the great number of the officers of tbe guard that are always there in splendid uniforms, and contrasted with the sdil greater number of priests and monks in their dark, severe costumes, I feel persuaded anew that it is the most striking moving panorama the world can afford." George Ticknor^

Prairie Avenue. A well-known and prominent street in Chicago, 111.

Prarie de Lacken. A landscape picture by Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640;, now in Buckingham Palace, London.

Prater, The. A celebrated promenade in Vienna, Austria, consisting of avenues nearly four miles in length, and greatly frequented.

flcj" "In the afternoon we drove oat to the Prater—the famous Prater. It is a great public garden and drive, intersected with many pleasant walks and ruads, ornamented with fine old trees, and parts of it enlivened with large numbers of deer, while other parts are rendered still more lively with coffee-houses, puppet-shows, and shows of animals, liut we enjoyed very much tbe drive into the more picturesque parts, where the deer were browsing undisturbed, and oaks athousand years old cast their shade upon us, as they had perchance In their youth upon the court of Charlemagne." George Tichtor.

Prato della Valle. A well-known public square in Padua, Italy, containing a large number of colossal statues.

Pratt Btreet. A street in Baltimore, Md. It was while passing alone this street on the 19th of April, 1861, that the 6th Massachusetts regiment was attacked, having three of their number killed, and eighteen wounded.

Praxiteles, Faun of. See Faun.

Praying Boy. See Boy Praying.

Pre" aux Clercs. A district near St. Germain des Pre's, Paris, now occupied by houses, but once, owing to the disputed ownership of the land, a place for lawlessness and debauchery, rioting and duels.

Pre" Catelan. A prettily-laid-out garden in the Bois de Boulogne, Paris. The Pre" Catelan is patronized by the upper classes, and concerts are given here several times a week.

Prebischthor. A remarkable natural arch, 90 feet high, in the region known as the Saxon Switzerland.

Preble, Fort. See Fort Preble.

Presentation of the Virgin. [Ital. La Presentaziortc] A favorite subject of representation by the great painters of • the Middle Ages, based upon a legendary incident, in which the Virgin, as a child, is consecrated to the service of the Temple. Among the more noted compositions which treat of this subject the following may be mentioned: —

Presentation of the Virgin. A picture by Gh'irlandaio' (14491498), "a composition full of life and character, . . . with luxury of accessories and accompaniments." In the church of S. Maria Novella, Florence, Italy.

Presentation in the Temple. A picture by Rembrandt van Ryn (1606-Ui69),theDutchpainter. In the Gallery of the Hague, Holland.

Presentation of the Virr/in. A picture by Gmdo Reni'(1574?1642). In the Louvre, Paris.

Presentation of the Virgin. A picture by Titian (1477-1576). In the Accademia delle Belle Arti, Venice, Italy.

Presentation in the Temple. A picture by Jacopo Robusti, called , Tintoretto (1512-1594). In the church of S. Maria del Orto, Venice, Italy.

Presentation in the Temple. A picture by Fra Bartolommeo (1469-1517), the Italian painter. Now at Venice, Italy.

Presentation in the Temple. A picture by Stephan Lochner, called Meister Stephan (d. 1451), a German painter of rare merit. It is now in the Museum at Darmstadt, Germany.

Presentation of the Virgin. A large altar-picture by Titian (14771576). It is now in the Accademia delle Belle Arti, in Venice, Italy.

49- "This famous picture is so well known through the numerous engravings that 1 have not thought it necessary to reproduce it here. In the general arrangement Titian seems to have been indebted to Carpacclo, but all that is simple and poetical in the latter becomes in Titian's version sumptuous and dramatic. The number of portrait-heads adds to the value and interest of the picture."

Mrs. Jameson.

Presentation of the Virr/in. A picture by Taddeo Gadd'i (13001352 ?). In the church of Santa Croce, Florence, Italy.

Presepio, II. [The Manger.] A chapel in the church of Ara-Coeli at Rome, which contains the famous image of the Bambino. See Bambino.

President, The. 1. A war-vessel of the old United States navy. She was built in 17!» at New York, and carried 44 guns.

So off he goes and tclis his crew;

The sails were quicklv bent, sir;
A better ship you never knew,
She's called the Presi-dent. sir.

Old Song.

2. An American steamer which

left New York for Liverpool in

April, 1841. She was never heard

from afterwards.

There is another passenger very much wrapped up, who has been frowned dow u by the rest, and morally trampled upon and crushed, for presuming to Inquire with a timid interest how long It Is since the poor Prtxident went down. Itickens.

Primrose Hill. An elevation near

Regent's Park, London, which has been converted into a public garden, and commands an exten-^ sive view. It is so called from the primroses which once grew upon it in great abundance.

As I was going up Primrose Mil,
Primrose Hill was dirty, —

There I met a pretty miss.
And she dropped me a courtesy.

Little miss, pretty miss,

Blessings light upon you I
If I had tiair-a-crown a day,

I'd spend it all upon you.

Mother Goose.

I shall not omit to speak of one genius, in drab breeches and gaiters, and an Arcadian hat, who had a violent propensity to tlie pastoral, but whose rural wanderings had beon confined to the classic haunts or Primrose Hill and the solitudes or Uio Kegent's Park. Irving.

Prince Adolphus. See Samson

THREATENING HIS FATHEB.

Prince Albert. 1. An Arctic exploring ship which sailed from England under Commander Kennedy, in 1851, Lady Franklin having equipped the expedition. 2. An armor-plated ship of the British navy, launched May 23, 1804.

Prince Consort. An armor-plated ship of the British navy, launched June 20, 1862.

Prince Eugene, Boulevart de. See Voltaire, Boulevart De.

Prince of Orange landing at Torbay. A picture by Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775-1851). In the National Gallery, London.

Prince of Wales's Theatre. A well-known place of entertainment in London, formerly known as the Queen's Theatre.

Princes Street. A noted street in the New Town of Edinburgh, Scotland, regarded as almost unrivalled for the magnificent view it commands of the Old Town (the street being only built upon on the north side), and constituting one of the finest promenades to oe found in any city.

Princess's Theatre. A theatre in Oxford Street, London, celebrate ed for the reproduction, under

the management of Mr. Charles Kean, of Shakespeare's historic plays. It was opened to the public Sept. 30, 1841.

Princeton, The. A United States frigate. By the bursting of a gun during an experimental firing, while a distinguished party of visitors were on board, the Secretary of State, A. P. Upshur, and others, were killed, in February, 1844.

Printing House Square. 1. A retired court in London. It derives its name from the office of the King's Printer, which stood here till nearly the close of tho last century, and was marked by the royal arms over the doorway.

I went one day with a good friend to the "Times" office, which was entered through a pretty garden-yard, in PristmcBouse Square. Eotenm.

2. A noted square in the city of New York, the centre of the great news-purveying industry of the United States, where are assembled the offices of the chief metropolitan journals, the Tribune, the Herald, the Times, the World, the Sun, and others, some of which occupy costly and imposing buildings.

Prison of Socrates. This name Is applied to one of three chambers hewn in the rock at the base of the hill Museum, at Athens, Greece. The dome of the inner chamber is funnel-shaped, with an aperture to let in the light from the top. These excavations are sometimes called ancient baths.

Prisoner of Chillon. A picture by Ferdinand Victor Eugene Delacroix (1799-1863), the celebrated French historical painter.

Procuratie Nuove. The new or modern palace of the Procurators. In Venice, Italy, fronting on the Piazza of St. Mark.

Procuratie Veccbie. The ancient palace of the Procurators. In Venice, Italy, fronting upon the Square of St. Mark.

Prodigal Son. A noted picture by

Bartolome' Esteban Murillo (16181682). Now in the Gallery of Stafford House, Loudon.

Prodigal Son. A picture by David Teniers the Younger (HUO-ltiftL?), the Belgian </c;i)'c-painter. It is now in the Louvre, in Paris.

Profile, The. A huge and very interesting rock-conforrnation upon the side of Profile Mountain in the Franconia range (White Mountains), New Hampshire. From a certain point of view at a distance, it bears a wonderful resemblance to the outline of a human face. This remarkably complete and distinct profile is nearly 1,500 feet above the little lake below it, and is from GO to 80 feet in length. It is also popularly known as the Old Man Op The Mountain. Hawthorne refers to it in "The Great Stone Face." Beyond them, like a sun.rimmed cloud.

The great Notch mountains shone, Watched over by the solemn-browed

And awful face of stone! Whitticr

Tls the musical Pemlgewoaact,
That sings to the hemlock-trees

Of the pines on the Profile Mountain,
Of the stony Face that sees.

Far down In the vast rock-hollows
The waterfall of the Flume.

Lucy Larcom. Propaganda. ptal. Coller/lo di Propaganda Fede.] A religious establishment at Rome, founded by Gregory XV. in 1632, to educate young foreigners from heretical countries, in order that they might afterward return as missionaries and spread the Catholic faith among the people of their different nations. The annual examination of the pupils takes place in January. At the time of the French Revolution, the name Propaganda was given to the secret societies which aimed to disseminate democratic ideas, and it is often used at the present day to denote any institution or organization which seeks to promote special schemes either in politics or religion.

8W "The origin of the Propaganda is properly to be sought in an edict of Gregory XIII., by which the direction of Eastern missions was confided to a certain number of cardinals, who were

commanded to promote the printing of catechisms in the lcBs.known tongues. ... It was at the suggestion of the great preacher Glrolamo da Narni that the Idea was llrst conceived of extend, ing the above-named institution. At his suggestion a congregation was established in all due form, and by this body regular meetings were to be held for the guidance and conduct of missions in every part of the world."

Itanke. 83- "We may with equal justice call Propaganda an universal academy, or a Noah's Ark, just as we feel din. posed. Young men from all parts of the world are educated here for missionaries. Here are children from Call, fornia to China, from Ireland to the Cape of Good Hope : every one of them repeats a poem by rote in his native tongue. But a man must be a Mezzofunti to profit by this Babcl-likc anthology. . . . The less the audience [at the Feast of Languages in the Propaganda] understand of these poems, the more they applaud: it was so at least on this occasion, when I heard them cheer loudest an Ethiopian and two Chinese, their languages Hounding most like gibberish and awaking the loudest laughter." Uant Christian Andemtn.

Propylasa. This structure, at Athens, Greece, the Vestibule of the citadel, built of Pentelic marble, was begun in the year 437 B.C., and was completed by the architect Mnesicles five years later, or about the time of the beginning of the Peloponnesian war. It covered the whole of the western end of the Acropolis. The Greeks admired the Propyltea more than any other of their buildings. Some walls and a few columns are still standing, and the entrance has been recently cleared.

«B-"Thc grand flight of the Propylasum is on the right. A high rampart serves as the basement for the little temple of the Wingless Victory, demolfshed In 1687 by the Turks, and afterward built up again, stone by stone, by two German architects. Athens dedicated it to her divine protectress Athena. The friezes represented the combats in which this goddess assured victory to her people, and upon the balustrade, the Victories, tier winged messengers, seemed to await her orders." Ltfecrt, Trans.

£3-"The Prnpylara still form a

f>ortal which divides two worlds. You cave modern and mediaeval asaocia*

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