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tions behind yon, and are alone with the Past." Bayard Taylor.

Proserpine. A well-known Ideal bust by Hiram Powers (b. 1805), the American sculptor.

tST " The popularity of this work has caused its incessant reproduction; few modern work* of the chisel are more exquisitely and gracefully ornamental to boudoir, salon, or library/* Tuckerman.

Proserpine, Rape of. See Rape Of Pkoskrpine.

Prospect Park. A fine pleasureground in Brooklyn, N.Y., covering nearly 600 acres, including hills, meadows, and groves, an'd a beautiful lake. The park was begun in 1860, and is said to have cost, together with two boulevards connected with it, nearly •512,000,000.

Protestant Cemetery. [At Rome.] The Protestant Burial-ground in Rome, near the Pyramid of Caius Cestius, containing the graves of many English and American travellers and other foreignresidents at Rome. The Old Protestant Cemetery, now closed, contains the grave of Keats, and in the New Burial-ground is a monument to Shelley.

J8sj- " It would almost make one in love with death to be buried in so sweet a place." Percy Bysshe Shelley.

Protomoteca. The name given to a suite of seven rooms in the Capitol of Rome, presented to the Arcadian Academy by Leo XII. They contain many busts of illustrious men, including some which were formerly in the Pantheon.

Province House. A noted mansion of colonial times, which formerly stood on Washington Street, Boston, Mass. It had a fine lawn in front. The building was of brick, three stories in height, with stone steps. It was erected in 1679. In 1715 it was purchased by the Province as a residence for the governors, who from a portico in front were in the habit of addressing the citizens. In the early part of the

present century it became private property, and a block of stores was erected in front of it, the old building degenerating into a hall for negro concerts. It was destroyed by fire in 1864, but the walls remain, and have been used as the exterior of a new building. Nathaniel Hawthorne has given a description of the Province House in his "TwiceTold Tales."

0 my God ! — for that free spirit, which

of old in Hoston town Smote the Province House with terror.

struck the crest of Andros down 1


Prytaneum. [Gr. irpvrftMro*, the President's Hall, or Town Hall] A public building in ancient Greek cities. In Athens, the hall in which the magistrates had their meals, and where they entertained at the public cost foreign ambassadors. Citizens also of high public merit, and the children of those who fell in battle, were often rewarded by a seat at this public table. Socrates, on his trial, when asked to name his punishment, adjudged himself entitled to be supported in the Prytaneum.

What, then, is suitable to a poor man, a benefactor, and who has need of leisure in order to (five vou good advice? There U nothing so suitable, O Athenians, ss that siuh a man should be maintained In the Prytaneum. ... If, therefore. I must award sentence according to niv just deserts, I award this, maintenance In tbe Prytaneum.

Plato, Apology of Socrata.

Psyche. A'beautiful relic of ancient sculpture, now in the museum at Naples, Italy, well known by the numerous reproductions of it in marble and plaster. It apparently represents her listening to a Cupid who may be supposed to stand on her right. This figure was found in the amphitheatre at Capua.

«S"" The charming Naples Psycht. This refined youthful torso, with its delicate distin'gui head, is likewise nut of the great epoch of sculpture."

Taine, Trans.

Psyche and the Butterfly. See Cupid Catcuxno A Butteeflv.

Ptarmigan Hill. A picture by Sir Edwin Landseer (1803-1873), the most celebrated modern painter of animals.

Pueelle, Place de la. See Place


Puck. 1. An admired picture by Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-171J2). 2. A work of sculpture by Harriet G. Hosmer (b. 1830).

Pudding Lane. A narrow street or lane in London. It was here that the Great Fire of 1660 began.

Puente de Alcantara. [The Bridge of Alcantara.] An interesting and impressive Roman ruin in the town of Alcantara, Spain. The bridge, built of immense stones, which here spans the Tagus, was built for the Emperor Trajan, A.D. 105. It consists of six arches, the central span being 110 feet. The bridge is about 670 feet in length, and 210 in height, and is constructed of granite without cement.

JO*4' One of the most remarkable of these [bridges] Is that which Trajan erected at Alcantara in Spain. The roadway is perfectly level, as is generally the case in Roman bridges, though the mode by which this is attained, of springing the arches from different levels, is perhaps not the most pleasing. To us, at least, it Is unfamiliar, and has never, I think, been adopted in modern times.'* Ferguaaon.

Puente del Diablo. [The Devil's Bridge.] A famous old Roman aqueduct —called by the Spaniards el Puente, the bridge — at Segovia in Spain.

OS- " The first thing we went to see was the cathedral; . . . the next, the RomanAqueduct, called by the people * Puente del Diabolo,' for they have no Idea such a stupendous work could be achieved by a personage of less authority and power. ... It begins outside of the city, and traverses the valley on 169 arches in the upper row, but not quite so many below. It is built of square-hewn stones, without cement or chimps, and is nevertheless so perfectly preserved, that it still serves the purpose for which it was built as well as when it was new. ... It is certainly one of the most solid and mag

nificent monuments that have come down to us from antiquity."

George Ticknor.

Puerta de Alcala. [Gate of Alcala.] A grand triumphal gate affording an entrance to the city of Madrid, Spain, on the east. It consists of five arches, and was erected by Charles III. to commemorate his entrance to Madrid. &jF " It should not be forgotten that no city in Europe can boast within its walls so tine a walk as the Prado, that Rome alone, so far as I know, bas an entrance equal to that by the Gate of Alcala.'* George Ticknor.

Puerta del Sol. [Gate of the Sun.] A celebrated public square in Madrid, Spain. It is now in the middle of the capital, although it was once the east gate on which the rising sun shone. It is the centre of the busy life of the city, and at all times a crowded rendezvous of idlers.

Pullins, The. A natural curiosity in the county of Donegal, Ireland. It is an extraordinary ravine, presenting in succession a series of cascades, caves, wild cliffs, with a foaming river and a natural bridge.

.09- " A description can but faintly convey the extraordinary character of these lovely scenes."

Mr. and Mr*. Hall.

Pulpit [of Nicholas of Pisa]. In the cathedral of Siena, Italy. A celebrated and very elaborate work of sculpture. Another by the same artist, very similar, in the Duomo at Pisa.

t&" " I have no words to express the originality and richness of invention displayed in this pulpit. It is as peculiar as it is beautiful. ... On the panels a labyrinth of crowded figure*

— a long octagonal procession, the Nativity, the Passion, the Last Judgment

— envelops the marble with a murblo covering." Thine, Tram.

Purgatory t St. Patrick's. See St. Patrick's Cave And Puro Atokv.

Puritans going to Church. A picture by George H. Boughton, a painter of landscapes and genre.

Puttina, La. [The Girl.] An admired portrait by Titian (14771576). In the Palazzo Strozzi, Florence, Italy.

Pyladea and Orestes. A picture by Benjamin West (1738-1820). In the National Gallery, London.

Pyramids, The. A general name for the sepulchral monuments of ancient Egypt, in all about 60, but specially applied to the Pyramids of Gheezen, about 12 miles from Cairo, consisting of two large and several smaller pyramids.

4S~ "Let Ub now turn to the Pyramids— the oldest, largest, ami most mysterious of all the monuments of man's art now existing. All those In Egypt are situated on the left bank of the Nile, Just beyond the cultivated ground, and on the edge of the desert, and all the principal examples within what may fairly be called the Necropolis of Memphis. Sixty or seventy of these have been discovered and explored, all of which appear to be royal sepulchres. This alone, if true, would suffice to justify us in assigning a duration of l,t)00 years at least to the dynasties of the pyramid builders. . . . The three great pyramids of Qizeh are the best known and the most remarkable of all those in Egypt. Of these the first, erected by Cheops, or as he is now more correctly named, Suphis, is the Inrgest; but the next by Chepheren, his successor, is scarcely inferior in dimensions; the third, that of Mycerinus, is very much Bmaller. . . . All the pyramids (with one exception) face exactly north, and have their entrance on that side. . . . The small residuum we get from all these pyramid discusslons is, that they were built by the kings of the early dynasties of the old kingdom of Egypt as their tombs. The leading Idea that governed their forms was thnt of durability. By concealment of the entrance, the difficulties of the passages, and the complicated but most ingenious arrangement of portcullises, theBC ancient kings Jioped to be allowed to rest in undisturbed security for at least 3,000 years. Perhaps they were successful, though their tombs have been since •o shamefully profaned." Ftrgwtaon. jfcjr "Nothing can express the variety of sensations which they provoke. The height of their summit, the steepness of th*'lr slope, the vastn**ss of their surface, their tremendous weight, the memory of the times they have outlived, and above all the reflection that

these mountains of masonry have been reared by petty and insignificant man who creeps at their feet — alt impress the beholder, and fill at once the heart and the mind with astonishment, terror, humiliation, admiration, and respect." Yolney. The Pyramids themselves, dot in e with age. have forgotten the names of their founders. Thomas Falter.

And Morning opes with haste her Uds.

To gaze upon the Pyramids. Emenoh.

Pyramid of Abooroash. A ruined pyramid about rive miles distant from the Pyramids of Gheezeh in Egypt.

Pyramids of Abooseer. A group of four pyramids, a few miles distant from the Pyramids of Gheezen, in Egypt.

Pyramid of Caius Cestius. A sepulchral pyramid — the only one in Rome —situated near the Porta di San Paolo, and immediately adjoining the Protestant Burial-ground. It was erected to Caius Cestius, a tribune of the . people. The pyramid is over 100 feet in height, and contains in the centre a small sepulchral chamber.

jfcS- "This pyramid, of more tbui 100 feet in height, is entirely built of marble, hut time has changed Its color and defaced lt« polish. Tbe gray lichen has crept over It, and wild evergreens hang from its crevices. But what ft has lost in splendor, it has gained in picturesque beauty; and there are few remains of antiquity within the bounds of the Eternal City, that the eye rests upon with sueh unwearyingodmiration, as this gray pyramid." £alon.

JfcS* "It is the most imperishable of the antiquities, a beautiful pyramid,113 feet high, built into the ancient wall of Home, as perfect after 1,800 years as if It were built but yesterday."

jr. p. wiiiu.

JtSf "From one part of the city, looking out beyond the walls, A squat and stunted pyramid (the burial-place of Caius Cestius) makes an opnqne triangle in the moonlight. But, to an English traveller, it servos to mark the grave of Shelley too, whose ashes lie beneath a little garden near it. Nearer still, almost within lis shadow, He the bones of Keats, 'whose name is writ in water,' that shines brightly in tbe landscape of a calm Italian night."


*y "When I am Inclined to be serioum I love to wander up and down before the tomb of Cuius Cesttus. The Protestant burial-ground is there. . . . It la a quiet and sheltered nook, . . . and the pyramid that overshadows It gives It a classic and singularly solemn air." Roger:

Eastward hence.
Nigh where the Cestianpyramtd divides
The mouldering wall, heboid yon fabric
huge. 'John Dyer.

Within the shadow of the Pyramid
Of Cairn Cesttus was the Dalny found.
White a.-* the soul of Keats in Paradine.
T. B. Aldrich.

Pyramid of Cheops. See Great

Pyramid of Cholula. A celebrated

ruined pyramid constructed of clay and brick, at Cholula, an Indian town, near Pueblo, in Mexico. It was built by the ancient inhabitants of Mexico. It is over 1,400 feet square at the base, and 177 feet in height, and is ascended by a flight of steps, 120 in number. On the summit is a chapel erected by the Spaniards.

The fact teaches him how Belus was worshipped, and how the Pyramids were built, better than the discovery by Champollion of the names of all the workmen and the cost of every tile. He finds Assyria and the Mounds of Cholula at his door, and himself has laid the courses.


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Quadrant, The. See Regent St.

You will observe a town ilan.lv petting fldgetty after bis second turn In the Quadrant, while you win met-t the wrnie Frenchman there from noon till dusk, bounding his walk by thodo columns, as if they were the bars of a cage.

X P. Willi!.

Quarr Abbey. A famous monastic establishment upon the Isle of Wight, erected in the twelfth century, of which the ruins only now remain.

Quarters of the World. See Four Quarters Of The World.

Quartier Latin. [Latin Quarter.] A large district in Paris, on the south of the Seine. Here tho principal colleges and schools nave been situated for many centuries, and here the numerous students have lived; whence this quarter derives its name.

8&~ "Though the colleges are now converted Into private houses or into

fiublic schools, tho Pays Latin is still nhahited by many thousand students in letters, science, law, and medicine, leading a life of gayety and freedom from restraint which is hardly to be understood by an Englishman. They and their associates, male and female, form the staple of a large portion of the well-known novels of Paul de Kock." Murray') Handbook,

to- "The life of the young artist here is the easiest, merriest, dirtiest existence possible. He comes to Paris, probably at sixteen, from his province; his parents settle forty pounds a year on him, and pay his master; he establishes himself in the Pays Latin; . . . he arrives at his atelier at a tolerably early hour, and labors among a score of companions as merry and as poor as himself." Thackeray.

Quatre Fils Aymon. A ruined castle near Spa in Belgium, associated with historic and romantic traditions.

Quebec Citadel. A vast fortress, from its lofty commanding situation one of the strongest in the

world, is the principal defence of the city of Quebec, Can. It covers 40 acres.

Queen Anne's Farthing. The belief generally obtains in England that a Queen Anne's farthing is a very rare possession: indeed, it is supposed that there are but three, of which two are in the public keeping, and that one which is missing would bring a fabulous price; but the fact is, that it is no more rare than any other coinage of the mint of equal antiquity, and that the poor country people who occasionally take long journeys to London to dispose of so great a curiosity which lias fallen into their hands, find that the numismatist to whom they apply is already the possessor of several.

Queen Elizabeth. See Death or Queen Elizabeth.

Queen Elizabeth's Pocket PistoL The popular name of an ancient piece of brass ordnance, 24 feet in length, cast in 1514, and presented by the States General of Holland to Queen Elizabeth. It is preserved in Dover Castle.

Queen of Sheba. See EmbarkaTion Of The Queen Of Sheba.

Queen of the West. A powerful United States " ram," in the War of the Rebellion. She was sent down the Mississippi, and, running the batteries at Vicksburg, destroyed several transport vessels on the Lower Mississippi and on the Red River, but was finally lost on the latter river through the treachery of a pilot.

Queen's Arms. A tavern in St Paul's Churchyard, London.

Queen's Bench. See King's Bench And Queen's Bench.

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