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«S-" This is the ultima Thule of Egyptian travellers.**

Murray's Handbook.

Rock of Cashel. A famous hill In Tipperary County, Ireland, surmounted by the most interesting and impressive ruins in the island.

4&-,g The rock, rising above the adjacent country, iB seen from a very long distance and from every direction by which it is approached; its summit crowned by the venerable remains that have excited the wonder and admiration of ages, and will continue to do for ages yet to come."

Mr. and Mrt. Uall.
«S-"That noble ruin, an emblem
as well as a memorial of Ireland, —at
once a temple and a fortress, the seat
of religion and nationality; where
councils were held; where princes as-
sembled; the scene of courts nnd of
synods; and on which It is impossible
to look without feeling the heart at
once elevated and touched by the no-
blest as well as the most solemn recol-
lections." R. L. Shiel.
Royal and saintly Cashel I I would gaze
Upon the wreck ofthy departed powers,
Not In the dewy light of matin hours,
Nor the meridian pomp of summer's

But at the close of dim autumnal days.

At such a time, methlnks

There breathes from thy lone courts and

voiceless aisles
A melancholy moral; such as sinks
On the lone traveller's heart, amid the

Of vast I'crsepolls on her mountain stand.
Or Thebes half-buried in the desert snnd.
Sir Aubrey de Vert.'

Bock of Dunamase. One of the most striking and interesting objects in Ireland, situated in Queen's County. It is a solitary rock in the midst of a fertile plain, covered from base to top with the ruins of an ancient and powerful fortress.

*sy-" Although from its great natural Btrength the castle would seem Impregnable, It was several times taken and retaken by the 'ferocious Irish,* and the English invaders.'*

Mr. and Mrs. Hall.

Bock (and Fortress) of Gibraltar. A fortification of immense strength, at the southern extremity of Spain, in Andalusia. It belongs to England, and is re

garded as an impregnable strongold. Vast sums of money have

been spent in adding to the natural defences of the situation. Numerous caverns and galleries several miles in length have been cut in the solid rock. The chief defences are upon the western side.

4*y* " The vast Rock rises on one side with its interminable works of defence; and Gibraltar Bay is shining on the other, out on which from the terraces immense cannon are perpetually looking, surrounded by plantations of cannon-balls and beds of bomb-shells, sufficient, one would think, to blow away the whole Peninsula. ... So we took leave of this famous Rock, — this great blunderbuss, — which we seized out of the hands of the natural owners 140 years ago, and which we have kept ever since tremendously loaded and cleaned and ready for use. Thackeray.

Bock of Horeb. A large granite block in the neighborhood of Mount Sinai, in Arabia Petriea, pointed out as the rock which Moses smote with his rod, and from which water poured forth. There are several seams in the rock, which by the faithful are believed to be the impressions of the rod.

Socket, The. A locomotive engine produced by the two Stephensons, and the first which proved a practical success. In October, 1829, the Eocket gained the prize offered by the directors of the Liverpool and Manchester Eailroad, and settled the question as to the superiority of the locomotive steam-engine as a motive-power.

Bocks of Fontalnebleau. A picture by Eosa Bonheur (h. 1822), the celebrated French painter of animals.

Hocky Mountains. A picture bv Albert Bierstadt (b. 1829), and considered one of his best works. In possession of Mr. James McHenry.

ktty " No more genuine and grand American work has been produced than Blerstadt*s Rocky Mountain*."


93-" Bierstadt's great picture of

the Rocky Mountains represents a vast plain, over which groups of Indians In their primitive condition, and their wigwams, are scattered; huge cottonwood trees, oaks and pines, occupy a portion of the foreground; beyond flows a river, on the opposite shore of which rise beetling cliffs, and lofty ■now-crowned mountains,— the highest peak Mount Lander. The picture made a great impression."

tfaraA Tytler.

Rodenstein. A ruined fortress of the Middle Ages, near Erbaeh in Germany, famous as being the seat of the legend of the Wild Huntsman.

Boderberg. An eminence overlooking the Rhine near Mehlem. It is an extinct volcano, with a crater 100 feet in depth.

Roger de Coverley. See Sir Roger Dk Coverley Going To Church.

Rokeby. A place on the Hudson, near Rhinebeck, belonging to the Astor family.

Roland. A famous tocsin-bell in the ancient Belfry-tower of Ghent, Belgium. Its tolling called the citizens together to arms or for debate. It bears the following inscription in Dutch: "Mynen naem is Roelant, als ick clippe dan ist brandt; als ick luyue, dan ist Storm im, Vlaenderlandt."

Toll! Roland, toll!
Bell never yet was hu iv-\
Hetwccn wnose lips there swunsr

So grand a tongue!

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Roland's Breach. See Bkeciie De Roland.

Rolandseck Castle. A wellknown ruined castle on the Rhine, near Obcrwinter. It is associated with a legendary story which Schiller has made the subject of his ballad of "The Knight of Toggenburg."

Rolls Chapel. A chapel in London, first erected in the time of Henry III., and rebuilt in 1617 by Iuigo Jones. Bishops Atterburv, Butler, and Burnet were preachers here. Tho chapel contains a noble and beautiful tomb by Torregiano.

Roman Forum. See Forum Bo


Roman Wall. See Hadrian's Wall.

Romans of the Decadence. A well-known picture by Thomas Couture (b. 1815). In the Luxembourg, Paris.

Rome. See Siege Of Roue Under Porsenna.

Romeo and Juliet. A picture by Wilhelm Kaulbach (1805-1S74), the eminent German painter.

Romer. An ancient and celebrated building in Frankfort-onthe-Main, Germany. It is the guild-hall, or town-house, of the city, and contains the room in which the electors met to choose a new emperor, and that in which he gave his first banquet. The building is thought to have derived its name from the Italians, commonly called Romer (Romans), who at the great fairs of the town lodged their goods in it.

Bbmerberg, The. A celebrated public square in Frankfort-on-the Main, where formerly the emperors were crowned. In this square is situated the ancient structure called the Romer or town-house.

Bondinini Faun. A relic of Greek sculpture formerly in the Rondinini Palace at Rome. Now in the British Museum, London. See Barbeiuni Faun, Faun, etc.

Bondinini Medusa. A celebrated work of ancient sculpture, so named after its former possessors, and now in the Glyptothek at Munich, Bavaria.

Rosamund's Tower (or Bower). In the park of Blenheim, England, near the place where the ancient palace of Woodstock was built, tt was a concealed labyrinth built by Henry II. as a residence for Rosamund. ndanffhtCTol Walter de Clifford, that she might escape the observation of his wife Queen Eleanor. It consisted of subterranean vaults of brick and stone. According to Holinshed, 'the Queene found Mr [Rosamond] out by a silken' thridde ■which the King had drawne after him out of liir chamber with his foote, and dealt with her in such sharpe and cruell wise that she lived not long after."

QST *' Rosamond's Labyrinth, whose ruins, together with her Well, being paved with squaro stones in the bottom, and also her Bower, from which the Labyrinth did run, are yet remaining, being vaults arched and walled with stone and brick, almost Inextricably wound within one another, by which, if at any time her lodging were laid about by the Queen, she might easily avoid peril Imminent, and, If need be, by secret issues, take the air abroad, many furlongs about Woodstock, in Oxfordshire." Jfichael Drayton.

Yea Rosamond?, fair Rosamonde,
Her name was called so,
To whom our queene. daine ElUnor,
Was known a deadlye foe.

The king therefore, for her defence
Against the furious queene.
At Woodstockc builcled such a bower.
The like was never seeue.

Most curiously that bower was built
Of stone and timber strong.
An hundercd and Hitv doon
Did to this bower belong:

And they so cunninglye contrlv'd
With turnings round about.
That none but with a clueof thread.
Could enter in or out. Percy's Reliques.

Roscommon Castle. An ancient fortress in Ireland, and one of the finest in the kingdom.

Rose, The. A celebrated cask, filled with fine hock, some of it a century and a half old, in the cellars underneath the Rathhaus in Bremen, Germany. A companion cask is called the Twelve Apostles.

This is the Rose of roses: The older she grows, the sweeter she blossoms. And her heavenly perfume has made me

happy. It has Inspired me, — has made me tipsy: And were 1 not held by the shoulder fast Bv the Town-Cellar Master of Bremen, I had gone rolling over I

Henrieh Heine, Trans.

Rose, The. A famous tavern in Covent Garden, London, frequented, in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, by persons from various classes of society.

It was near the Drury Lane Theatre, and was resorted to by dramatists, poets, courtiers, and persons of doubtful character.

Some sing Molly Mngg of the Rose,
And call hcrlhe OakinKham pcllc;

Whilst others does farces compose,
On peautlful Molle Lcpcllc.

Welsh ballad.

Rose, The. An old tavern which was situated inMarylebone, London, and was formerly much frequented. There was a Rose tavern in Tower Street before the Great Fire.

Rose, The. A place of amusement referred to by Knight as being, in 1853, one of the chief London theatres.

Scenery, dresses, and decorations such as would now be thought mean and absurd, but such as would have been thought Incredibly magnificent by those who, early in the seventeenth century, Bat on the filthy benches of the Hopo, or under the thatched roof of the Rose, dazzled the eyes of the multitude.


Rose, Golden. See Golden Rose. Rosemary Lane. A street in London.

You must understand that I have been these sixteen years Merry Andrew to a puppet *how: last Bartholomew Fair my master and I quarrelled, beat each other and parted; he to sell his puppets to the pincushion-makers in Rosemary f.wir,nntl I tostorve In St. James's Turk. Goldsmith.

Rosenborg. [Castle of the Roses.] A royal palace in Copenhagen, Denmark. Here are kept the regalia of the Danish kings.

Roseneath. A beautiful peninsula stretching out into the Clyde, Scotland. The Duke of Argyle has an elegant Italian mansion upon it, also called Roseneath.

Roses. See Feast or Roses and Miracle Of Roses Of St. Fran


Roses of Passtum. The roses of Pnestum (an ancient city in Southern Italy, now in ruins) were much celebrated by the Latin poets Virgil, Propertius, Ausonius, and others, for their beauty and fragrance. These roses have disappeared, though it is said a few may be found flowering in May near the ruins of the temples. The violets of Piestum, lauded hy Martial, were nearly as celebrated as its roses.

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9S~ " I suppose no 09c who baa read liiH Virgil at school crosses the plain between Salerno and Pawtum without those words of the Georgics ringing in his ears: bi/erique rosaria Pasti. . . . The poets of Rome seem to havo felt the magic of this phraae; for Ovid baa imitated the line in hU Metamorphoses; Martial sings of Paatant roncB. . . . Even Ausonius, at the very end of Latin literature, draws from the rosaries of Passtum a pretty picture of beauty doomed to a premature decline. • Vldl Pajstano guadere rosaria cultu Exorlente nova rosclda Luclfero.' (* I have watched the rose-beds that luxuriate on Pactum's well-tilled soil, all dewy in the young light of the rising dawn-star.')

"What a place this was, indeed, for a roae-garden, spreading far and wide along the fertile plain, with Its deep loam reclaimed from swamps, and irrigated by the passing of perpetual streams! But where arc tho roses now? As well ask, oil nont lea neigea d'anian t" John A. Symonda.

Rosctta Gate. The eastern entrance to a large circuit, near the modern town of Alexandria, Egypt, the walls of which enclose an area about 10,000 feet in length, and from 1,600 to 3,200 feet in breadth. This space, till recently uninhabited, is now being settled, and may be regarded as again a part of Alexandria.

Kosctta Stone. A piece of black basalt, the most valuable existing relic of Egyptian history, inscribed in hieroglyphics and in Greek. It was found by Boussard, a French officer, near Rosetta, in Egypt, in 1799. It is now in the British Museum, London. The stone is a trilingual llab or tablet, bearing an inscription in honor of one of the Ptolemies, written in Greek, hieroglyphic, and demotic characters. A comparison of the Greek letters with the other characters upon the stone enabled Dr. Young and Champollion to read the whole inscription, thus giving the clew to the deciphering of the ancient sacred writings of

the Egyptians. The Boset'j Stone is fragmentary.

Bosewell. A fine old mansion, now deserted, near the York River, above Yorktown, Ya., once the country-seat of Gov. Page, said to be the largest private house in the Old Dominion. Its materials were imported from England, and the cost of its erection ruined the owner.

Eoslin Castle. An ancient raised castle near Edinburgh, Scotland. It has under it a set of curious excavations, similar to those at Hawthornden. It was the seat of the St. Clair family, Lords of Eoslin.

O'er Rotlm, all that dreary night
A wondrous blaze waa seen 10 gleam:
"Twaa broader than the watchnrc's lifiht.
And redder than the bright moonbeam.

It glared on Roslin's castled rock,
It ruddled all tho copscwood glen;
'Twas seen from Deydcn's groves of oak.
And seen from cavcrned HawtliorEilfn.

Koslin Chapel. A beautiful ruin near Edinburgh, Scotland. The chapel was built by 'William St Clair in 1446, and was the burialplace of the Barons of Roslin, who were all laid hero in their armor, as described by Sir Walter Scott in his poem. It is noted for the profuseness of its decorations.

ao~ "This llttlo gem of florid architccture Is scarcely a ruin, so pcrfert are its arches and pillars, its fretted cornices and its painted windows."

X. P. Willi*.

tg- " It is the rival of Melrose, but more elaborate: in fact, it is a perfect cataract of architectural vivacity and ingenuity, as defiant of any rules of criUcism and art as the Icaf-cmbowerea arcades and arches of our American foreat cathedrals." Jfr«. II. B. SUxtt.

August and hoarv, o'er the slopin? dale
Tho Gothic abbey rears Its sculptured
Dull through the rooft resounds the waist-
ling gale;
Dark BOlltudc among the pillars l.iwen.

Rospigliosi Aurora. See Aitroka.

Eospigliosi Palace. [Ital. Palarx Roitpiqliofi.'] A palace in Rome, built' in 1603, chiefly remarkable

as possessing the celebrated fresco of Aurora by Guide

Boss Castle. An interesting ruin in the county of Kerry, Ireland, situated on a peninsula in the Lower Lake of Killarney. It is a tall, square embattled building, ■with machieolated defences, and is a verv conspicuous object in the landscape. It is celebrated for its exquisite views.

Rossmarkt, The. A public square in Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany. It contains a monument to Guttenberg, the inventor of printing.

Rosso Palace. See Brionole Sale Palace.

Kostellan. The seat of the Marquis of Thomond, near Cloyne, Ireland.

Rota, The. A political club in London, founded in 1659, and so called from a project for annually changing by rotation a certain number of members of Parliament. The Rota (or Coffee Club) was a sort of debating club for the spread of republican ideas. Aubrey, who became a member in 1659, says that here Milton and Marvell, Cyriac Skinner, Harrington (the author of "Oceana"), Nevill, and their friends, discussed abstract political questions, and that they had "a balloting box, and balloted how things should be carried, by way of Tentamens. The room was every evening as full as it could be crammed.' The Rota broke up after the Restoration.

But SIdrophel, a* full of tricks

As Sola-men of polities. Butler.

Rotello del Fico. A famous picture by Leonardo da Vinci (14521519), representing a horrid monster, said to have been composed by him after having collected ser

f>ents, lizards, and other obnoxous animals, with a view to producing the most horrid image possible.

Rotherhithe. A district in London, the headquarters of sailors.

Rotten Row. A road in Hyde Park, London, used only by equestrians, and greatly frequented by them during the London season. Its name is said by some to be derived from rotteran, to muster; but others pronounce it a corruption of Route de Hoi, King's Drive.

But yesterday a naked sod.

The dandies sneered from Rotten Row,

And sauntered o'er it to and Iro.

And see 'tis done! Thackeray.

Rotten Row, this half-mile to which the fashion of London confines Itself ns if the remainder of the bright green Park were forbidden ground, is now fuller thini ever.

s.p. wuiu.

I hope I'm fond of much that's good.
As well as much that's gay:

I'd like the country if 1 could,
I like the Parkin May;

And when I ride in Rotten Row,

I wonder why they called It so.

Frederick Locker.

Rotto, Ponte. See Ponte Rotto.

Rotonda, La. See Pantheon.

Rotunda, The. A circular hall in the centre of the Capitol at AVashington. It is 98 feet in diameter, and 180 feet high, and is overarched by the great dome. The rotunda contains eight large historical paintings.

Rotunda, The. A public enclosure and favorite resort in Dublin, Ireland.

Rotzberg Castle. An old fortress in Switzerland, on the shore of the Alpnach lake. It is the subject of legendary song.

Rouen Cathedral. See Notre Dame [de Rouen].

Round Hill School. A famous but short-lived classical school on a beautiful hill near Northampton, Mass., established in 1823 by George Bancroft and J. G. Cogswell.

8&~ "They aimed to found a private school with the character of a great public school, without any public foundation, and to supply its want* from its annual receipts. It waa a romantic enterprise, and carried on in a quixotic or poetical spirit; and it is even remarkable that the school survived its first lustre. There never waa before, and probably never will be again, such a school In America, or

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