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to have been abandoned through the confusion of tongues then occasioned by the Divine displeasure. This tower has been thought to be identified with the ruin known as Birs Niuirood. See Bibs Nimkood.

His Sicilian-Italian, and Laquals-deFlacu French, uarnishid with shrvdB from all European dialects, was wholly intelligible to no mortal; a Totcer-of-Liulxl Jargon, which made many tnink him [Count CagliustroJ a kind of Jew. Variyle.

The press, that giant machine, pours forth incCBsuntly new materials for lu work — the entire human race is upon the scall'oldiug, every spirit is mason, every day a new course Is raised, . . . then- is al:*o a confusion of languages. Incessant acting,— a refuj.0 secured to Intelligence against a new delude; it Is the second Tuwer o/ BaUl of the human race.

Vtetor Iiuqo.

Tower of Babel. A well-known painting by Wilhelra von Kaulbach (1S05-1874). Iu the Museum at Berlin, Prussia.

Tower of David. This name is generally applied to a massive tower of the citadel of Jerusalem. A " Castle of David " is referred to here in the thirteenth century, and the historians of the crusades mention a " Tower of David" built of immense hewn stones. The structure now known as the Tower of David is thought to be identical with the ancient "Tower of Hippicus," frequently referred to by Joseplnis.

«y "The no-called Tower of David appears to be the oldest portion of the citadel: it has a sloping escarp of masonry. . . . Above which the tower rises in a solid mass to the height of 29 feet. . . . The whole, when perfect, must have presented a smooth surface diftlcult to escalade, and, from the solidity of the mass, unassailable by the batterlng-rara." Capt. WiUon.

Tower of Drusus. See Dbusds,

Toweb or. Tower of Famine. See Tobbe

Della Fame.

Tower of Hollows. A Border tower, 70 feet in height, in Scotland, near Canobie.

Tower of the Ape. See Tobbe Della Scimia.

Tower of the Conti. See Tobbe Dei Costi.

Tower of the Winds. An octagonal tower of marble — the Horologe of Andronicus Cyrrhestes— built at Athens, Greece, about 100 years before our era. Its sides face the eight principal points of the compass, and are marked by figures of the winds from each of those points. It was surmounted by a Triton for a weathercock, and contained a clepsydra in the interior. It served as a town-clock, and was a double measure of time with its sun-dials on the outside, and its clepsydra within. The Horologium is called by Delaiubre "the most curious existing monument of the practical gnomonics of antiquity."

^S* "At the end of the broad street, there is an extensive place, uneven from its tom-down clay huts and ruined walls. The Tower of the Winds rises, half dug out of the earth and grass, where the dervishes lived iu the lime of the Turks. Two tall cypresses point mournfully towards heaven."

//. C. Anderten.

Townley Collection [or Townley Marbles]. A large collection of remains of Greek and Roman art, gathered by Mr. Charles Townley, at Rome, between 1765 and 1772, and afterwards purchased by the British Museum, where they are now deposited.

Townley Venus. A beautiful Greek statue, now in the British Museum. One of the so-called Townley Marbles, q.v.

Trafalgar Square. A place in London so named from the last victory of Nelson, to whom a column is erected in the square. See Nelson Column.

tg- " ' The finest site In Europe,' as Trafalgar Square has been called by some obstinau- British optimist, is disfigured by trophies, fountains, columns, and statues, so puerile, disorderly, and hideous, that a lover of the arts must hang the head of shame as be passes, to see our dear old queen city arraying herself so absurdly.''


Traitors' Gate. A gate in the Tower of London, through which state prisoners were introduced.

Old London Bridge was soon paused, and old Billingsgate Market, with Its oyster-boats and Dutchmen, and the White Tower, and Traitor's (rare, and we were In among the tiers of shipping. Dickens.

On through that gate through which be-
Went Sidney, Russell, Raleigh, Cranmer.
More. Rogers,

Trajan, Arch of. See Arch Of

Trajan. Trajan's Column. [Ital. La Colnnna Trajana.] An interesting relic of ancient Rome, and the most beautiful historical column in the world. It was dedicated to the Emperor Trajan, as the inscription says, by the Senate and Roman people, A.D. 114. On the summit formerly stood a lofty statue of Trajan holding in his hand a gilded globe. This globe is now in the Museum of the Capitol. Towards the end of the sixteenth century Pope Sixtus V. erected a statue of St. Peter upon the column in place of that of Trajan, which had fallen to the ground. The ashes of the emperor rest under this column. Whose arch or pillar meets me in the face, Titus, or Trajan1*? No — 'tis that of Time: Triumph, an-h, pillar, all be doth illsolaco 8cofhng; and apostolic statues climb To cru*h tho imperial urn, whose ashes

slept sublime. Burled In air, the deep blue sky of Rome, And looking to the stars. Byron.

Historic figures round the shaft embost A»cend, with lineaments In air not lost: 8tlll as he turns, the charmed spectator

sees Group winding after group, with dreamlike ease.

Memorial pillar! 'mid the wrecks of time, Preserve thy charge with confidence sul>

llme.— The exultations, pomps, and cares of

Rome. Whence half the breathing world received

its doom- Wordsworth.

Trajan's Forum. See Forum Of Trajan.

Tramontane. [Across the mountains.] A name given in Italy to a prevailing north wind, which sweeps over the Alps.

A chilling tramontana . . . was blowing; and the barren, rocky, desolate shore suggested Norway rather than Greece.

Bayard Taylor.

Transfiguration, The. 1. A painting by Raphael Sanzio(1483-1520), in the gallery of the Vatican in Rome, executed for the cathedral of Narbonne in France. It is considered the first picture in the world. Raphael was engaged in painting this picture when he was seized with his last illness, and after his death it was suspended over his body as he lay in state. The lower part, which he left unfinished, was completed by his pupil Giulio Romano. It was carried to Paris in 17117, but afterwards restored to the Vatican. The picture is divided into two parts; the upper part representing the three disciples lying prostrate upon Mount Tabor, while atK)ve them is the figure of Christ in glory with Moses and Elijah on each side. The lower

Eart represents a crowd of people earing along a boy possessed with an evil spirit. The two parts of the picture are united by the uplifted look anil appealing gesture of some of the figures in the crowd below, who seem to point for help to the Saviour on the Mount. This picture is well known through the engraving by Raphael Morghen (1758-1833).

MS" "All great actions have been simple, and all great pictures arc. The Transfiguration, by Raphael, Is an eminent exnmple of this peculiar merit. A calm, benignant beauty shines over all this picture, and goes directly to the heart. It seems almost to call you by name. The sweet and sublime face of Jesus is bevond praise, yet how it disappoints nfl florid expectations) This familiar, simple, home-speaking countenance is as it one should meet a friend." Emernon.

Glances we do seem to find of that ethereal glory, which looks on us in its full brightness from the Transfiguration of Rufaeilc, from the Tempest of Slutkespeare. Carlule.

The real value of the Iliad, or the Transfiguration. Is as sltm of power; blllnws or ripples thev arc of 1 he stream oi'tendency; tokens of ihe everlasting effort to produce, which even in Its worst estate ihe snui betrays. Emerson.

2. A picture by Hans Holbein the Elder (d. 1524). In the Gallery of Augsburg, Germany.

Trappe, La. A famous monastery near Mortagne in Normandy, France. It owes its celebrity to the rigid asceticism practised by its inmates in obedience to.the rules of the order. The abbey ■was suppressed in 1790 by the National Assembly, but the monks were afterwards allowed to return.

Endowments, faculties, enough we have: it l» her [Nature's] wise will too that no faculty Imparted to us shall rust from disuse; the miraculous faculty of Speech, once given, becomes not more a gill than a necessity; the Tongue, with or without much meaning, will keep In motion, and only In some La Trappe. by unspeakable self-restraint, forbear wagging. Varlyle.

Trastevere. [Lat. Regio Tranztiberiaa, the region on the other side of the Tiber.] The largest of the Rtoni, or quarters, into which modern Rome is divided. It extends along the foot of Mount Janiculura, and is inhabited by a peculiar and in many respects a distinct race, said to be the direct descendants of the ancient Romans.

K0- " In Trastevere there are no remains of antiquity, but abundance of monument* of superstitions,—churches full of the shrines of saints, and convents full of imprisoned sinners, — plenty of houses, but few inhabitants. These inhabitants, however, boast of being descended from the ancient Romans, and look on the upstart race on the other side of the river with sovereign contempt." Eaton.

Traunstein Profile. A remarkable freak of nature on the hill called the Traunstein, near Lambach in Austria.

ts- " The rough back of the mountain forms the exact profile of the human countenance, ns if regularly hewn out of the rock. What is still more singular, it is said to be a correct portrait of the unfortunate Louis XVI. The landlord said it was immediately recognized by all Frenchmen."

Jlayard Taylor.

Travellers' Club. A celebrated club in London, founded in 1815. According to one of the rules no person can be considered eligible to the Travellers' Club " who shall not have travelled out of the British Islands to a distance of at least 500 miles from London in

a direct line." The present clubhouse, adjoining the Athena?um in Pall Mall, was built in 1832 from designs by Barry.

&$- " Close- at hand is another place, — the Travellers' Club, — how well they know how to organize comfort!"

Taine. Trans.

Not a cab stands yet at the Travellers, whose members, noble or fashionable, ire probably at this hour In their dressinggowns of brocade, or shawl ol the Orient, smoking a hookah over Balzac's last romance. M- P- *"'"•*

Not to know Brown was. at the West End, simply to be unknown. Brookes was proud of him, and without him lbs Travellers would not have been such a Travellers as It is. Anthony Trollops.

To call a hill aristocratic seems affected or absurd; but the difference between these hills and the others is the difference bi-tween Newgate Prison and the " Travellers' Clue,'' lor instance: both are buildings; but the one stern, dark, and coarse; tho other rich, elegant, and festive.


Tre Fontane. [The Three Fountains.] A locality anciently called Aqua Salvias, about two miles from Rome, outside the Ostian Gate, where, according to the Church tradition, St. Paul was beheaded by the sword.

Kg- " In all the melancholy vicinity of Rome, there is not a more melancholy'spot than the Tre Fontane. A splendid monastery, rich with the offerings of all Christendom, once existed there. The ravages of the malaria have rendered it a desert; yet there is a sort of dead beauty about the place, something hallowed, as well as sail, which seizes ou the fancy."

Mrs. Jameson.

Treaty Elm. The famous tree in the environs of Philadelphia, Penn., under which William Penn negotiated the treaty with the Indian chiefs, of which it has been said that it is " the only one ever made without an oath, and the only one never broken." The tree is ho longer standing, but a monument marks its place.

Treaty Stone. An object of curiosity in Limerick (the " city of the violated treaty "), Ireland. It is the stone upon which the celebrated treaty-document of the 3d of October, 1091, was signed, whereby Limerick and other fortresses in the hands of the Irish were surrendered, with the proviso that the garrisons should be allowed to march out with the honors of war, and conveyed to France, or elsewhere, at the cost of the British Government, and granting certain privileges and immunities to Roman Catholics.

$&• " That both the letter and the spirit of this solemn compact were broken, no unprejudiced mind can entertain a doubt; and It in the merest aophistry to contend that the king had no power to ratify the bargain he had made by his agents, and subsequently confirmed under the great seal of England.'' Mr. and Mrs. S. C. Hall.

Tremont Street. A well-known street in Boston, Mass. It is called after the original name of Boston, Tremont, which was given to the city on account of the three hills on which it is built.

Tremont Temple. A well-known building on Tremont Street, Boston, Mass., used as a place of worship on Sundays, and at other times <or lectures, public meetings, and various gatherings.

Trenc-le-mer. The flag-ship of Richard I., Cceur-de-Lion (11571199).

Ah. never braver bark and crew,

Nor bolder flag, a foe to ilare.
Bail left a wake on ocean blue

Since Liun-Heart sailed Trenc-le-mer!
H. U. Bromell.

Trent, The. A vessel, under command of Franklin, sent, in comSany with the Dorothea, under iui'liai), on an expedition to the Arctic regions in 1818.

Trent, The. A British mail-steamer, noted as being the vessel from which the Confederate emissaries, Mason and Slidell, were forcibly taken, Nov. 8, 1861, by Capt. Wilkes of the U.S. frigate San Jacinto.

Treves. See Electors or Treves, Castle Of The.

Trevi, Fountain of. See Fontana Di Trevi.

Trianon. See Grand Trianon and Petit Trianon.

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Tribune, The. A name given to an apartment in the Uilizi Palace in Florence, Italy, appropriated to works of art, and containing some of the most celebrated specimens of sculpture and painting, such as the Venus de Medici, the Dancing Faun, the Fornarina, and others. See Uffizi.

They then led us into a larjte square room. In the middle ol" which stood a Cabinet of an octangular form, Bo adorned and furnish'd with ehrystnls, sculptures, and so forth, as excreds anv description. This cabinet Is called the Tribttna, and In it is a pearle as big Sb a hazel nut.

John Evelyn. 1644. *3- " With feelings of high-wrought expectation, we entered the presence, chamber; a crimson, octagonal hall of the gallery called the Tribune, where, bright In eternal youth and matchless beauty, 'stands the statue that enchants the world.'" Eaton.

JKg-" The Tribune, that noble room unsurpassed by any in the world for the number and value of the gems it contains." Bayard Taylor.

Tribute Money. A picture by Ma8accio(TommasoGuidi)(1402?1443?). In the church of S. M. del Carmine, Florence, Italy.

Tribute Money. See Christ With The Tribl-te Money.

Trient, Gorges du. See Gorges Du Trient.

Trifels. A castle and ruined mediaeval fortress in the neighborhood of Heidelberg, Germany, famous as the place where Richard Ccevr de Lion was imprisoned by the Duke of Austria, and beneath the walls of which the minstrel Blondel, by his song and the response it awakened, discovered his royal master.

Trimurti. See Elephanta, CaveTemples Of.

Trlnita de' Monti. A church in Rome, well known from its conspicuous position above the Piazza di Spagna. It contains the celebrated painting of the Descent from the Cross by Volterra.

1B44, 22, Feb. I went to Trinila del Monte, a monastery of French, n nuhle Church, built by Lewis XL and Charles VIII.; the Chapctls well painted, especially that by Zuccari, Volterra, and the clorster with th« miracles of their St. Francis dl Paulo and the heads of the French kings . . This convent, so eminently situated on Mons Pincius, has the intlre prospect of Campus Martius, ami has a faire garden. John Evelyn.

ig- " This church, formerly belonging to the Franciscan monks, suffered severely from the destructive propensities of the French soldiers who were quartered in the adjoining convent duriug the French occupation of Home in the first revolution. Many of the pictures were destroyed or irreparably Injured, and the building itself was abandoned and closed from 1798 to 1818, when it was restored by Louis XVIII., after the designs of a > rench architect. The old pictures which had disappeared were replaced by new onus, painted by students of the French Academy In Koine; a compensation which will remind the classical reader of the old Joke of Lucius Mummius." HUlard.

tg- " From the height of Trinita de' Monti, the bell-lowers and the distant edifices appear like the effaced sketches of a painter, or like the lne

Jualitlcs of a seacoast dimly discerned rom the deck of an anchored vessel. Home is aBlcep in the midst of these ruins." Chateaubriand t Trane.

JES- "Ascending the Spanish Stairs, we behold the church Trinita del Monti: a crowd of strangers flock here everv Sunday morning to hear the singiug and music of the holy sisters. It seems to be the weeping of angels dissolved in harmony.'*

Hans Chri»tian Andersen.

A convent like the Trinili del Monte with the air of a closed fortress, a fountain like that of Trevl, a palace massive and monumental like those of the Corto and of the great square of Venice, denote brings and tastes not of the ordinary stamp Took, Irani.

Trinita, Ponte SS. See Ponte SS. Trinita.

TrinitS, La. This church in Paris is a tine example of the modern Renaissance style. It is in the Rue St. Lazare.

Trinity, The. A large altar-piece representing the Trinity between the Virgin and the Baptist, by Jean Bellegambe, the Flemish painter. It was originally placed (1511-1319) on the high altar of the abbey church of Aflchin, but is now in the sacristy of Notre Dame at Douai, France.

Trinity, The. A wood-cut by Albert Diirer (1471-1528), the Ger

man painter and engraver. "K well-known and grand composition."

Trinity, The. A picture hy Roger van der Vfeyden (d. 1464), the Flemish painter, and one of his later works. It is now in the Stadel Institute at Frankiort-onthe-Main, Germany.

Trinity, Adoration of the. See Adoration Of The Trinity.

Trinity Church. A noted ecclesiastical editiee in New York, of Gothic architecture, with a steeple 284 feet in height. It is reputed to be the wealthiest church in America (the societv is said to be worth over $10,000,000); its revenues accruing from a large tract of land on Manhattan island, given to it by Queeu Anne in 1705. Trinity Church is situated on Broadway, a short distance above the Battery. Its lofty spire, 284 feet high, is a popular place of ascent for the sake of the magnificent view'over the city and surroundings. The first church on the present site was built in 1696. In the graveyard are buried a number of noted men, among others Alexander Hamilton.

Trinity Church. A fine modern church in Boston, Mass.

Trinity College. A foundation of the University of Cambridge, England. Established in 1546. Also well-known institutions at Dublin, Ireland, founded in 1591, and at Hartford, Conn., founded in 1823.

Trinity House. A public huilding on the north side of Tower Hill, in London, erected in 1793 for the ancient guild or fraternity of mariners, established for the encouragement of the science of navigation, etc. The office of Master of the Corporation has been at various times held by princes and statesmen. The Corporation has in charge the light-houses, licensing of pilots, etc. Its arms are a cross between four ships under sail. It was founded by charter of Henry VIII., the document

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