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opening with the statement that "Out of the sincere and complete love and devotion which we have for the very glorious and indivisible Trinity, and also for Saint Clement the Confessor, His Majesty grants and gives license for the establishment of a corporation, or perpetual brotherhood, to certain of his subjects and their associates." The general oversight of the merchant marine (and of the royal fleet, under certain conditions) was given to them by charters which they received from Elizabeth, James I., Charles II., and James II.

Triornphe, Arc de. See Arc De L'£toile.

Triumph of Death. A celebrated fresco in the Campo Santo, Pisa, Italy, usually ascribed to Andrea di Cione, called Orcagna(d. 13K>); though recently some have claimed the authorship of it for the Sienese brothers Giovanni and Pietro Lorenzetti.

Triumph of Galatea. See GalaTea.

Triumph of Religion in the Arts. See INFU'EXCE Of Christianity


Triumph of Riches. A large picture in distemper by Hans Holbein the Younger (14!)8-]54.'i), the German painter, executed at the request of the company of German merchants in London. There was also a companion picture, the " Triumph of Poverty," both of which were greatly admired, and by some placed on a level with the works of Raphael. Their subsequent history cannot be traced later than the year 1616, and it is thought that they mav have perished' in the fire at Whitehall in 10U7.

Triumph of the Church. Sec Fount Of Salvation.

Triumph of Trajan. A celebrated picture by Anton Rafael Mengs (1728-177U). In Madrid, Spain.

Triumphal March of Alexander. A work of sculpture executed by

Albert Bertcl Thorwaldsen (17701M-I) for the Emperor Napoleon.

Triumphs of Julius Ctesar. A series of nine colored designs by Andrea Mantegna (14:>l-l.">0<i), the Italian painter, representing the different parts of a Roman triumphal procession. They were executed as decorations for the theatre at Mantua, Italy. They are now at Hampton Court, England.

Trocadero. This elevation, opposite the Champ de Mars, Paris, is a popular resort of the botirf/eolsie on Sundays. From its top a fine view of the city is obtained. It was so called from a French victory in Spain.

Trois Freres Provencaux. [The Three Brothers of Provence.] A celebrated restaurant in Paris, France.

— Ohoys— that were—actunl papas and posslhle crandnapas —some of you with crowns like billiard-balls — Mine in locks of sable silvered,and some of silver sabled — do yon remember, as you doze over tills, those after-dinners at the 7voiji Freres, when the Scotcli-plaldrd smin-box went round, and the dry Lundy-Foot tickled Its way along into our happy sensorla?


Here we are. however, at the Trois Freret; and there coes my unconscious model delll>eratelv upstairs. We'll follow him, and double his orders; and, if we dlue uot well, there Id no eating in Friince.

S. P. Willis.

One does not dine at the TVoii Frrres without contracting a tendinitis for the very name of Burgundy. JV./\ Willis.

Tr6ne, Barriere du. See IJAUHIEltE DU TllUNE.

Trfine, Place du. See Place Du Tbone.

Trophonius' Cave. See Cave Of


TroudeHan. [The Hole of Han.] A singular cavern in #be region of the Ardennes, in Belgium.

Troy House. A seat of the Duke of Beaufort, near Monmouth, England.

True Cross. See Ciioss, Thb True.

TrumbuU, Fort. See Fort Trum


Trustees of the Staalhof. A well-known picture by Rembrandt van Ryn (lUOO-HiG'J). In the Gallery at Amsterdam, Holland.

Tuckerman's Ravine. A tremendous gulf in the White Mountains, New Hampshire. It is in the southerly side of Mount Washington, and receives its name from Edward Tuckerman, an enthusiastic explorer of the White Hills. It contains nearly every year a beautiful "Snow Arch," or cave of snow, which does not disappear uutil the last of August.

Tufts College. This institution at Medford, Mass., under the care of the Universalist Church, was founded in 1852.

Tuileries, The. A royal palace of France, now destroyed. It was commenced in 15IU, as a residence for Catherine de' Medicis, and was completed by Henry IV. After the restoration it was habitually the residence of the royal family. It was situated on the banks of the river Seine; anil on the spot where it stood were formerly tile-fields, whence the name is derived, the word Tuilerie signifying a tile-kiln. These fields were con verted into gardens in 1H65, containing about 67 acres, beautifully laid out, ornamented with Dowers, trees, and statuary, open to the public, and much resorted to by the people. This palace was sacked by the Revolutionary mob of 17112, and was again attacked and taken in the insurrection of 18:K>, and in that of 1848. It was partially burned by the leaders of the Commune, prior to the entrance into the city of the German army in May, 1871, and has never been rebuilt.

Truly, this same world may be seen In Mossgi'-l and Tarboltoti. If we louk well, as clearly us It ever came tolltht in Crockford's, or the Tutleries itself. Carlyle.

In the Chateau of the Tuileries, for Instance, I perceive the same Jumble of contrarieties that marksLlH! .French character; the same whimsical mixture of the great and the little, the spleniiid and the paltry, the sublime and the grotesque, Jrving.

A sMtttn' t^bneker ez proud ex Ton pleaw On Victory's bes' carpets, orloann' at ease In Uio TooVries front-parlor, discussin'

affair! With our heels on the backs o' Napoleon's

new chairs.

Lowell, Biglov Papers. An' tumln' quite faint In the midst of bis

fooleries. Sneaks down stairs to bolt the front-door

o' the Tooteries.

Loteell, Biglov Papers. The TTenriade. a* we see it completed. Is a polished, square-built Trttleries; Hamlet is a mvsterlnus, star-paved Valhalla, und dwelling of the gods. Carlyle.

— Ah. the old Tuileries Is pulling its Iiilii cap down on its eyea. Confounded, conscience • atricken,* and

amazed Hy the apparition of a new fair face hi those devouring mirror.'.

Mrs. Brvtenimg. No house, though It were the Tuileries or the Escurial, is good for any thing without a master. Emerson. To me. the Prado Is an Inexhaustible source of amusement. In the flist place, it is In itself the finest public w alk I have ever seen within the walla of any city, not excepting either the Tuileries or the t'biaja. tievrae Tielnor. I finished this day with a walk in the great garden of the Thuillerits. which is rarely contrived for privacy, shade, or company, bv groves, plantations of toll tr- es. especially that In the middle being of elmes, another of mulberyc . . . I rom a terrace in this place we saw so many Coaches as one would hardly think could be maintained In the whole C'ltty. going, lute as It was in the year, towards the Course, which Is a place ndjoyning, of near an English nttic long, planted with 4 rows of trees.

John Evelyn, Diary, 1644, Feb.i.

Tullamore Park. The seat of the Earl of Roden, near Newcastle, in the county of Down, Ireland.

Tullian Prison. See MAmkutine Pkisons.

Tullius. See Agger or Sebvtcs Tullics.

Tulp, Nicholas, and his pupils. See Anatomical Lectlius.

Tun of Heidelberg. This huge reservoir is in a cellar of the Castle of Heidelberg, which, " next to the Alhambra of Granada," says Longfellow, "is the most magnificent ruin of the Middle Ages." The original tun was begun in the vear 15811, and finished jn 15!U; it held 528 hogsheads of wine. The present tun wasmade in 1751. It is of copper, bound with iron hoops, and is 36 feet long by 24 in neight. Its capacity is 49,000 gallons, or 283,000 bottles. For nearly 20 years it was kept full of the best Rhenish wine, and its annual replenishment at the time of vintage was celebrated by dances on the platform that covered the top. Notwithstanding its large proportions, it is much smaller than some of the beer-vats of the British brewers, one of which, in the establishment of the Messrs. Barclay and Perkins of London, holds 108,000 gallons, or more than twice as much as the Tun of Heidelberg.

zta- " It is as high as a common twostory house; on the top is a platform upon which people used to dance after It was filled, to which one ascends by two flights of steps. I forget exactly how many casks it holds, but I believe 800. It has been empty for 60 years." Bayard Taylor.

The kitchen was crowded with pood cheer: the cellars had yielded ui> whole oceans of llhein-wein iimf Ferne-wein; and even the great Heidelberg tan had lieen laid under cuntrilmtioii. Irving.

Tunnel, The. See Thames TunNel.

Tuolumne Grove. A noted group of mammoth trees in the Yosemite Valley, California, 24 in number, the largest being 36 feet in diameter. See Calavebas and also Mariposa.

Turk's Head. Several coffeehouses in London have borne this name. One situated in Change Alley was opened about 1662. Another house of the same name in the Strand was frequented by Dr. Johnson and Boswell. In Soho was a Turk's Head, at which the Literary Club was founded. The Rota Club met at another house of this name in "Westminster.

«*?-" We concluded the day at the Turk's Ueatl Coffee-house [Strand] very socially." Bottwell.

&&•" At this time of year the Society of the Turk'* Head [Huho] can no longer be addressed as a corporute body, and most of tho Individual members are probably dispersed: Adam Smith, iu

Scotland; Burke in tho shades of Beaconsfleld; Fox, tho Lord or the devil knows where."

Gibbon, Auguit, 1777. 1: .>• " Ah! I would have liked a night at the Turk's Head, even though bad news had arrived from the colonies, and Doctor Johnson was growling against the rebels, to have sal with him and Goldy; and to have heard Burke — the finest talker in the world, and to have had Garrick flashing In with a story from his theatre!"


Turk's Head Club. A club founded by Edmund Burke, in connection with Johnson and Reynolds in 1763, at the "Turk's Head" in Gerard Street, London. The chief meu of the day belonged to it. Also called the Literary Club.

«S* "' I believe Mr. Fox will allow me to say,' remarked the Bishop of SL Asaph, ' that the honor of being elected into the Turk's Head Club is not inferior to that of being the representative of Westminster or Surrey.'"


Turner's Gap. A pass in the South Mountain about five miles from Harper's Ferry, Va. It was the scene of a great battle between the National ami Confederate troops on the 14th of September, 1862.

Tuscaloosa, The. A Confederate

Erivateer in the War of the Reellion. She was originally a United States trading vessel, named the Conrad, which had l)een captured by Capt. Raphael Semmes iu the Alubama.

Tushielaw Castle. An old mediaeval mansion, on the bank of the river Ettriek, in Scotland, once the finest castle in that region.

Tussaud, Mme., Wax Works of. See Madame Tussaud's ExhibiTion.

Twa Brigs [of Ayr]. Two bridges across the river Ayr in Scotland, connecting the town of Ayr with its suburbs, and immortalized by Burns in his famous metrical dialogue, the "Twa Brigs of Ayr."

Twelve Apostles. Figures executed iu chiaroscuro, after de signs by Raphael, in an apartment of the Vatican, Rome. Some of thein were destroyed by alterations in the apartment, and others have been repainted.

Twelve Apostles. See Rose, The.

Two Ambassadors, The. A picture by Hans Holbein the Younger (1498-1341!), the German painter, and considered one of his most important works. It is in the collection of Lord Radnor at Longford Castle, England.

Two Boxers. A well-known statue by Antonio Cunova (1757-1822). In the Vatican, Rome.

A3-" The Two Boxers arc carefully executed in anatomical details, but they are wanting in refinement. . . . A Greek sculptor in executing a statue of an athlete would have made him first a man, and secondly an athlete. But In Canovn's Boxers wo see only an accurate transcript of brute animal force." Hillard.

290. See Alabama, The.

Two Misers. A celebrated picture by Quentin Massys (140(>-1530), the Flemish painter. It is now in Windsor Castle, England.

Two Philosophers. A picture so called, by Rembrandt van Ryn (1006-lfi6!(), the Dutch painter. Now in the Louvre, Paris.

Tyburn. An ancient place of execution for felons in London, used for this purpose as early as the reign of Henry IV. It derived its name from a brook called Tyburn, which flowed into the Thames. The bodies of Crom

. well, Ireton, and Bradshaw, were exposed at Tyburn, Jan. 30, 1661. The last execution here took place Nov. 7, 1783. Tyburn road is the modern Oxford Street. The criminals were carried," thief and parson in a Tyburn cart," from Newgate. The famous triangle on three legs, where the executions took place, was known as the " Tyburn Tree," and sometimes as the "Three-Legged Mare." See Tybuknia.

flEj- "The manor of Tyburn was formerly held by Iiicbard Jaquett,

where felons were for a long time executed; from whence we have Jack Ketch."

A icriterin " Xoteaand Queriei" quoting from Lloyd'* MS. Collection* in the British Museum.

If, in calculating the numbers of the people, we take in the multitudes that emigrate to the plantations, from whence they never return, those that die at sea and make their exit at Tyburn, together with the consumption of the present war by sea and land, in the Atlantic, Mediterranean, . . ■ we may fairtv *taie the loss of men during the war at lOO.OOO.

Goldsmith (1762).

Cloaks and fur-pelisses avail little against the January-cold; "time and hours" are, once more, the only hope: but lo, at the tenth mile, this Tyburncoach breaks down! Carlyle.

The history of those gods and saints which the world has wr.tten. and then worshipped, are documents of character. The ages have exulted in the manners of a youth who owed nothing to fortune, and who was banged at the Tyburn of his nation. JCmenm.

Tyburn-Tree. The name given to the famous gibbet erected in Tyburn, from which so many memorable executions have taken place. See Tyburn and Ty


Tyburnia. The Latinized name given to a district of London, once occupied by the Tyburn, or place of execution for criminals. It is now one of the most reputable quarters of the city. It has been built up between 1839 and 1850. See Tyburn.

43- "How the times have changed! On the spot where Tom Idle made his exit from this wicked world, and where you see the hangman smoking his pipe as he reclines on the gibbet, and views the hills of Harrow or Hnmpetead beyond,—ft splendid marble arch, a vast and modem city, — the abodes of wealth and comfort, the elegant, the prosperous, the polite Tyburnia rises, the most respectable district in the habitable globe I" Thackeray.

That Is a source of prospective pleasure In which the Inhabitants of Bclgravia ;ind Tyburnia cannot indulge. Easttate.

Tyropceon. A valley in Jerusalem, mentioned by Josephns, but not alluded to in the Bible. It is generally understood as being the region which extended around

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