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On ihat Mad mountain slope whose ghostly dead,

T*nmlndful of the gray exorcist's ban.

Walk, unappcased, the chambered Vatican,

And draw the curtains of Napoleon's bed! Hhiuxer.

Vatican Library. This library, in the Vatican Palace, Rome, has been called the largest in the world, not because it has the most books, but because it occupies the largest space. It is really a small collection, though exceedingly rich in ancient and rare manuscripts, the number of which is said to be over 30,000. Among the precious treasures here preserved are a famous copy of Virgil of the age of Constantine, and early manuscripts of the Scriptures. The books in this library are invisible, being shut up in wooden presses.

Vatican, Obelisk of the. See ObeLisk Of St. Petek's.

Vaucluse, Fountain of. See FounTain Ok Vaucluse.

Vauxhall. The region on the bank of the Thames above Lambeth, London. See Vauxhall Gah


How, In a word. . . . shall it. at length, be made manifest, and kept continually manifest to the hearts of men, that the Good Is not properly the highest, hut the Beautiful; that the true Beautiful {differing from the false, as Heaven does from Vauxliall) comprehends In It the Good?


Vauxhall Bridge. An iron bridge across the Thames at London.

Vauxhall Gardens. A place of public amusement in London for nearly two centuries. It was so named from its site in the manor of " La Sale Faukes." The gardens were first laid out about 1661. They were finally closed July 25, 1830, and the property sold. Buildings have since been erected, and roads laid out upon their site. We are told in Rogers's "Table Talk" that the proprietors of Vauxhall and Ranelagh used to send fashionably dressed persons to walk among the ladies and gentlemen in the Mall, and to exclaim every

now and then, "What charming weather for Ranelagh!" or "for Vauxhall!" See Ranelagh GarDens.

The lights everywhere glimmering through scarcely moving trees; the full-bodied concert bursting on the stillness of night; the natural concert of the birds in the moro retired part of the grove, vying with that which was formed by art; the company gayly dressed, looking satisfied; and the tables spread with various delicacies, — all conspired to fill my Imagination with) the visionary happiness of the Arabian lawgiver, and lifted me into an ecstasy of admiration,"

Goldsmith, Citizen of the World.

Vauxhall and Ranelagh! I then had heard
Of your green grovOB, and wilderness of

Dimming the stars, and fireworks magical,
And gorgeous ladies, under splendid domes.
Floating in dance, or warbling blsh in air
The songs of spirits! • Wordsworth.

The narrow lanes [in Genoa] have great villas opening Into them, whose wails (outBide walls, I mean) are profusely painted with all sorts of subjects, grim and holy. But time and the sea-air have nearly obliterated them; and they look like the entrance to Vauxhall Gardens on a sunny day. Dickens.

It was a curious phenomenon, in the withered, unbelieving, second-hand Eighteenth C* ntury, that of a Hero starting up, among the artificial pasteboard figures and productions, in the guise of a Itobert Bums. Like a little well in the rocky desert places, — like a sudden splendor of Ilea veil in the artificial Vauxhall! Carlyle.

Vecchio, Palazzo. See Palazzo Vecchio.

Vecchio, Ponte. See Pontk VecChio.

Valour's. A noted restaurant in Paris.

We are not prepared to say what sums were expended upon the painting of Ve'ry's, Vtfour's, or of other placeB of pat> 11c resort in tho capital. Thackeray.

Veiled Image [at Sais]. A concealed or draped image said to have stood in the temple of Minerva at Sais, the ancient metropolis of Lower Egypt, and held in great veneration. It has been made the subject of many poetical allusions. Schiller hits a poem entitled Das veivchlekrte Bild xu Sais.

He tpikc and raised the veil! And ask ye

T'nto the gaze was there within revealed? I know not. Palo and senseless, at the

fuot Of the dread statue of Egyptian Ials, The priests beheld him fit the dawn of day; But what he saw, or what did there txlJill. Ills lips disclosed not. Ever from his heart Was fled the sweet serenity of life. And the deep anguish dug the early trrave: "Woe, woe to him,"—such were hla

wa-ninfi words. Answering some curious and Impetuous

brain,— "Woe —for she never shall delight him

more! Woe,—woo to him who treads through

guilt to Truth." Sclnller, Tram.

An awful statue, by a veil half hid.
At Sais stands. Ji. C. Trench.

Velabrum. In ancient Rome, a marsh, or fen,occupying the interval between the Capitoline and Palatine hills, caused by the overflow of the Tiber. Varro derives the name from vchcre, to carry, from the ferry which was used to carry travellers across. See San Giobqio-in-yelabbo.

Vend&me. See Colonne Vendome and Place Vendome.

Venetia. A well-known portrait of Venetia, wife of Sir Kenelm Digbv, by Anthony van Dyck (15y.MG41). In the Louvre, Paris.

Vengeance, La. A noted French frigate, attacked and put to flight by the United States man-ofwar the Constellation, Commodore Truxtun, Feb. 1,1800.

4ES" "The combatant* fought desperately at pistol-shot distance, until one o'efock in the morning. Suddenly the French frigate disappeared in tho gloom. Truxtun, after small repairs, bore away to Jamaica, and it was some .time before he knew that he hud fought the vessel he was searching for. La • Vengeance, 54 guns, with 400 men. The frigate, dreadfully crippled, had run away in the darkness, and escaped to Curacoa. This victory made the navy immensely popular. Congress gave Truxtun the thanks of the nation, and.voted him a gold medal." Lowing.

Venice. A picture by Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775-1851), the celebrated English painter.

Venice, Approach to. See ApPboach To Venice.

Vsniee paying Homage to Catherine Cornaro. See Catheeixe COKNAKO.

Venice, Queen of the Sea. A

picture by Jacopo Robusti, called Tintoretto (1512-15SH). In the Doge's Palace, Venice, Italy.

Venus. A renowned statue by the Greek sculptor Alcamenes (fl. 444-100 B.C.), iu which Phidias is supposed to have assisted.

Venus. A statue by Giovanni da Bologna, called II Fiammingo (1524-1608). At the Villa of Petrarca, Florence, Italy.

Venus. A well-known statue by Antonio Cauova (1757-1822). In the Pitti Palace, Florence, Italy. Jft3~ "Although undoubtedly a figure of great beauty, it by no means struck me as possessing that exquisite and classic perfection which has been ascribed to it." £ayard Taylor.

Venus. A well-known statue by Antonio Canova (1757-1822). In the gallery of Stafford House, London.

Venus a, la Coquille. [Venus of the Shell.] A mythological picture by Titian (1477-1570). 'A single figure rising from the sea, and drying her hair, a shell floatingnear her." In the Orleans Gallery.

Venus Anadyomene. [Gr. 'A$j»8<'r» circi.'von>i'>), Venus rising from the sea.] A celebrated statue of Venus in the Vatican Palace, Rome. The name Anadyomene is applied to several other statues of Venus, one or two of which are in the Museum at Naples, Italy.

There was in ancient times a delebrated picture bearing this name, by the Greek painter Apelles. It U said to have been executed for the temple of Asclepius at Cos, and to have been taken to Kome by the Em]»eror Augustus, and placed In the temple of Cawar.

Venus and Adonis. A statue by Antonio Canova (1757-1822), and regarded as one of the most beautiful of his works. Now in Naples, Italy.

Venus and Cupid. A mythological fresco in the Vatican, Rome, designed by Raphael (1483-1520), hut executed by his pupils.

Venus and Cupid. A picture by George Pencz (1500-1550), a German painter. In the Gallery at Munich, Bavaria.

Venus and Mercury teaching Cupid his Letters. A picture by Antonio Allegri, sumatned Correggio (141H-1534). In the National Gallery, London.

Venus at Cytherea. See Landing Of Venus At Cytherea.

Venus, Birth of. See Birth Of


Venus Callipyge. An admired statue found at Rome among the ruins of Nero's Golden House, and which has been attributed to Praxiteles. It is now in the Museum at Naples.

J*y"The Venus Calllpygis, apparently a boudoir ornament, reminding one of the pretty license of our eighteenth century." Taint, Tram.

Venus, The Cnidlan. See CniDian Venus.

Venus coming from the Bath. A well-known statue bv Antonio Canova (1757-1822), of which there are several repetitions. One is in the Palazzo Pitti, Florence, another in the possession of Lord Lansdowne.

Venus coming from the Bath. An admired statue by Giovanni da Bologna (1524-1608), " remarkable for delicacy and grace" [Flaxman].

Ve.nus de' Medici. A famous statue, and one of the most perfect remains of ancient art. Now in the Tribune of the Ufflzi Palace in Florence, and is supposed to be the work of the Greek sculptor Cleomenes (fi. 363? B.C.). It is a figure of the goddess, of small but beautiful proportions, regarded as an example of perfect art in its class. It was discovered in the villa of Hadrian, near Tivoli, about the year 1680. W'Her modest attitude Is partly

what unmakes her as the heathen goddess, and softens her into woman. On account of the skill with which the statue has been restored, she is just as whole as when Bhe left the hands of the sculptor. One cannot think of her as a senseless image, but as a being that lives to gladden the world, incapable of decay or death; as young and fair as she was three thousand years ago, and still to be young and fair as long as a beautiful thought shall require physical embodiment." Hawthorne.

fS""The Venus stands somewhat aside from the centre of the room, and is surrounded by an iron railing, a pace or two from her pedestal In front and less behind. I think she might safely be left to the reverence her womanhood would win, without nny other protection. She is very beautiful, very satisfactory, and has a fresh and new charm about her unreached by any cast or copy." Hawthorne.

There, too. the Ooddess loves In stone, and tills

The air around with beauty; we Inhale

The ambrosial aspect, which, beheld. Instils

Part of its immortality; the veil

Of heaven is half undrawn; within the pale

We stand, and in that form and face behold

What mind can make, when Nature's self would fall;

And to the fond idolaters of old

Envy the innate flash which such a soul could mould:

We gaze and turn away, and know not where.

Dazzled and drunk with beauty, till the heart

Reels with its fulness; there —forever there, —

Chain'd to thecharlotof triumphal Art,

We stand as capUves, and would not depart. Byron.

Why Is yonder slmprlng Venus de' Mediets to be our htmulurd of nt-aulv, or the (ireek tragedies to bound our notion of the sublime'! Thackeray.

Venus del Pardo. A picture by

Titian (1477-1576). In the Louvre,

Paris. Venus del Vasto. A picture by

Titian (1477-1576). In the Gallery

at Vienna, Austria.

Venus di Milo. See Venus Of Milo.

Venus lamenting over Adonis. A mythological picture by Giuseppe Ribera, called Lo Spagnoletto (1588-1656). In the Palazzo Corsini, Rome.

Venus of Quinipily. A singular granite statue in the garden of a ruined chateau near Baud in the Departmentof Morbihan, France. Its origin is wrapped in obscurity. It is thought bv some to be a statue of fiis. The name Venus is given to it from an inscription on the pedestal in 1689. It was worshipped as late as the seventeenth century, and is an object of superstitious veneration by the peasantry.

Venus of the Capitol. A celebrated statue of the goddess, of Pentelic marble, found in the Svbnrra of Rome, and now preserved in the Museum of the Capitol.

Venus, Toilet of. See Toilet Of Venus.

Venus, Townley. See Townley

Venus. Venus of Milo [or of Melos]. A celebrated statue, found in 1820 in the island of Milo. It is in the Louvre, Paris.

Jig- "This is a statue which Is so called from having been dug up piece, meal in the Island of Milos. There was quite a struggle for her between a French naval officer, the English, and the Turks. The French officer carried ber off like another Helen, and she was given to Paris, old Louis Philippe being bridegroom by proxy."


4S" "If we heard it said of a modern artist that he had even equalled the works of the Greek masters, the Venus of Milo would rise before us in her divine smiling beauty, In derision of all other statues we might try and place beside her." Grimm, Trans.

Yon bare-footed girl filling her pitcher at the fountain would have been a Venus of Milo In a higher social sphere.

Bayard Taylor. Venus triumphant I so serene and tender,

In thv calm after-bloom of life and love. More fair than when of old thy sea-born splendor

Surprised the senses of Olymplnn Jove. S. U. Whitman. O Goddess of that Grecian Isle

Whose shore the lilne ^t;e;m laves, Whose clitta repeat with answering smile

Thi'irfeaturcs In Its sun-kissed waves,—
An exile from thv native place.

We view thee In a northern clime.
Yet mark on thy majestic face

A glory still luidimmed by tjme.

I. Stoddard.

Venus Rising from the Sea. See Venus Anadyomenb.

Venus Victrix. [Venus Victorious.] An admired statue by Antonio Canova (1757-1822). In the Villa Borghese, Rome. It represents the Princess Pauline Borghese, sister of Napoleon I.

Vergine, Colonna della. See Co


Verhelst Family. A picture hv Gonzales Coques (1H18-1684), and his masterpiece. In the Queen's collection, Buckingham Palace, London.

Verlorenes Loch. [The Lost Gulf.] A celebrated gallery or tunnel in the so-called Via Mala, among the Swiss Alps. See Via Mala.

Vermont, The. An old line-ofbattle ship, now used as a receiving ship, moored off shore at the United States Navy Yard in Brooklyn, N.Y.

Vermont, University of. See UniVersity or Vermont.

Vernia, La. A celebrated Franciscan convent, near Bibieno, Italy, established by St. Francis of Assisi in the early part of the thirteenth century, and held in veneration on account of his residence in it.

1&- "This singular convent, which stands on the cliffs of a lofty Auennine, was built by St. Francis himself, and ia celebrated for the miracle which the motto records. Here reigns all the terrible of nature, — a rocky mountain, a ruin of the elements, broken, sawn, and piled in sublime confusion, — preciplces crowned with old, gloomy, visionary woods, — black chasma in the rock, where curiosity shudders to look down, — haunted caverns, sanctified by miraculous crosses, — long excavated stairs that restore you to daylight."


On the rude rock 'twlxt Tiber and the

A mo
From Christ did he receive the final

Which during two whole years his

members bore.

Dante, Paradiso, Lmgfcllou't Trans.

Vernon Gallery. A collection of paintings of the English school, consisting of 162 pictures presented to the nation by Mr. Robert Vernon (d. 1849), and now deposited in the South Kensington Museum, London.

Vernon, Mount. See Mount VbbNon.

Verona Amphitheatre. See AreNa.

Veronica, The. [The True Image.! A famous Catholic relic preserved in St. Peter's Church, Rome, said to be the impress of the countenance of the Saviour upon the handkerchief of Santa Veronica, ■with which he wiped his brow on the way to Calvary. [Sometimes called also Volto Santo, or Santo Volto (Holy Face).]

J83- "Properly speaking, the Vero nicn. {vera icon) is the true likeness of Our Lord; and the name name has been given to the holy woman who obtained it, because the name of this holy woman was uncertain. According to some, she was a pious Jewess, called Seraphia; according to others, she was Berenice, niece of Herod. It is impossible to decide between the different traditions, some of which make her a virgin, and others the wife of Zaccheus. . . . When ■he saw Our Lord pass, bearing his cross, covered with blood, spittle, sweat, and dust, Bhe ran to meet him, and, presenting her kerchief, tried to wipe his adorable face. Our Lord, leaving for an instant the burden of the cross to Simon the Cyrenian, took the kerchief, applied it to his face, and gave It back to the pious woman, marked with the exact imprint of his august countenance." — Collin de Ptancy. Longfellow, from whose notes on Dante this extract is taken, says: "Of the Veronica there are four copies In existence, each claiming to be the original; one at Rome, another at Paris, a third at Laon, and a fourth at Xaen in Andalusia."

VST "There Is nothing regarded with so much reverence as this: the people prostrate themselves on the earth before it, most of them with tears rolling down their cheeks, and all uttering cries of commiseration."

Montaigne, Tran«.

9W "In St. Peter's at Rome, one of the chapels under the dome is dedicated to St. Veronica. An ancient image of our Saviour, painted on linen, and styled the Vera Icon (whence It is supposed that the name of Veronica is derived) , is regarded by the people as the

veritable napkin of St. Veronica, and Is exhibited among the relics of the Church." Mrs. Jameson,

93f "To-day we gazed on the Veronica, — the holy impression left by our Saviour's face on the cloth Nta. Veronica presented to him to wipe hia brow, bowed under the weight of the cross. We had looked forward to this sight for days, for seven thousand years of Indulgence from penance are attached to it. But when the moment came we could see nothing but a black board hung with a cloth, before which another white cloth was held. In a few minutes this was withdrawn, and the great moment was over, the glimpse of the sacred thing on which hung the fate of seven thousand years."

E. R. Charles, Schonberg-Cotta

MS" "The strangest thing about the incident that has made her name so famous is, that, when she wiped the

f)erspiration away, the print of the Savour's face remained upon the handkerchief, a perfect portrait, and so remains unto this day. We knew this, because we saw this handkerchief in a cathedral in Paris, in another in Spain, and in two others in Italy. In the Milan cathedral it costs five francs to see it, and at St. Peter's at Rome it is almost impossible to see it at any price. Notradition is so amply verified as this of St. Veronica and her handkerchief."

Murk Twain, As he who peradventure from Croatia Cometh to gaze at our Veronica, Who through Its ancient fame Is never sated. But says In thought, the while it is dls

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v Lord, Christ Jesus, God of very God Now was your semblance made like

unto this?"

Danle. Paradito. Tran*. of Longfellow.

1644. 11 April. St. Veroniea'i handHer

cAi>/[with the impression of our.Saviour's

lace] was exposed, and the next day the

speare with a world of ceremonle.

John Evelyn.

Veronica, St. See St. Veronica.

Verplanck House. An old colonial mansion nearPishkill, N.Y., for a time the headquarters of. Baron Steuben, in the Revolutionary War. Here in 1783 the Society of the Cincinnati was instituted.

Versailles. A magnificent palace in the city of the same name, 10 miles from Paris. It was built by Louis XIV. in 1661. It became a royal residence in 1681. It was

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