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Belvedere Antinous. See AnttnOis.

Belvedere Palace. A celebrated palace in Vienna, Austria, consisting of two buildings, an upper and a lower, with a public garden between them. The upper Belvedere contains a gallery of pictures, filling 35 halls; the lower, an armory and museum of sculptures.

Belvidere Apollo. See Apollo Belvideke.

Belvidere, or Cortile del Belvidere. [Court of the Beautiful View.] A famous octagonal court in the palace of the Vatican, Rome, built by Bramante, out of which open several cabinets containing some of the most precious remains of ancient art, as the Antinous, the Laocoon, and the Apollo.

t£5~ The name Belvidere (Belvedere) is frequently applied to apartments in palaces and galleries of art.

t&"'1 The view from the balcony in front of the windows is that which (rave the name of Bflvidere to this MuDOiim, and in consequence to the Apollo, and some of Its finest pieces of sculpture. It commands a prospect over the vale of the Tiber to the pinecovered heiijht of Monte Mario, but the noes which the brilliant sky of Italy sheds over it mitrt be seen before its beauty can be imagined." Eaton.

Belvidere Torso. See Torso BelVidere.

Belvoir Castle. An ancient and noble mansion, the seat of the Duke of Rutland, near Grantham, Leicestershire, England. It contains one of the best collections of pictures in England.

Till Belrotr's lordly terraces

The sl^n to Lincoln sent.
And Lincoln sprd the message on
O'er the wide vale of Trent


The lord of Belvoir then his castle viewed.

Strong without form, and dignified hut

rude, George Crabbe.

Belzoni's Tomb. The common appellation, from its discoverer, of the tomb of Sethi I., in Thebes, Egypt. This tomh is regarded as the most noteworthy in Thebes for its sculpture and preservation.

Bema. [Gr. B^mo-] A tribune or raised platform in ancient Greek buildings, from which speeches were made before a court of law. Especially applied to a place of this kind "in the Pnyx, at Athens.

Bemerside. A mansion in Scotland, near the town of Dry burgh, memorable for the fact that it lias been for 700 years the seat of the family of Haig, in verification of a prophecy of Thomas of Ercildoune, called Thomas the Rhymer.

"BetJde. betide, whate'er betide.
Haig shall be Haig of Bemertide."1

Ben, Big. See Bio Bex.

Bench. See King's Bench And Queen's Bench.

Bengal, Little. See Little BenGal.

Beni Hassan, Caves or Tombs of. These ancient tombs excavated in the rock on the shore of the Nile are the oldest known monuments in Egypt> excepting the Pyramids. They are numerous and spacious, and some of them are exceedingly interesting. The sculptures and paintings are of great variety, representing the occupations and amusements of the people, and throwing much light on their modes of life. The paintings are of various and very brilliant coloring. [Written also £enee Hasan.]

*S" " The character of the sculptures which adorn their wnlls approaches that found in the tombs surrounding the Pyramids, but the architecture differs widely. They are all cheerfullooking hafls open to the light of dny, many of them with pillared porches, and all possessing pretensions to architectural ornament, either internal or external." Ferywaion.

Benjamin West. A portrait by Washington Allston (177!>-184:i), the American painter. It was placed in the Boston Athenaeum, but is now in the Museum of Fine Arts in that city.

Bentivoglio, Cardinal. A wellknown portrait by Anthony van Dyck (1590-1641). In the Pitti Palace, Florence, Italy.

Bergstrasse. [Mountain Road.] A famous post-road from Darmstadt to Heidelberg, Germany, now superseded in great part by the railway, but formerly very celebrated for its beautiful views of mountains and of the river Rhine, and for the rich cultivation of the district it overlooks.

Berguner Stein. A deep and narrow ravine in Switzerland, in which is a carriage-road GOO feet above the Albula. This road is a triumph of engineering skill.

Berkeley Castle. A noted Norman fortress and baronial mansion, the former residence of the Berkeley family, near the river Severn, in England, between Bristol and Gloucester. It was founded soon after the Conquest, and has been the scene of many historical events, including the murder of Edward II. It is regarded as one of the finest feudal structures in Great Britain.

JtST "The room shown for the murder of Edward II., I verily believe to be genuine. It it* a dismal chamber, almost at the top of the bouse, almost detached, and to be approached only by a kind of footbridge/'

Horace Walpole. Mart the year, and mark the nisht. When Severn shall re-echo wilb affright The shrieks of death through Berkeley'!

roof that ring.— Shrieks of an agnizing king. Gray.

Berkeley Square. A well-known public square in London.

Bermondsey. A district in the borough of Southwark, London, a great seat of the tanning trade.

Bermudas, The. A name given to some narrow and intricate alleys in London. These passages, which are thought to have been north of the Strand, near Covent Garden, are no longer in existence.

Pirates here at land Have their Bermudas and their Stretghts In the Strand. Ben Jcmson.

Bernard, St. See Hospice Of The St. Bernakd and Vision Of St. Beknaiuj.

Berne, Bears of. See Beabs Of Bebne.

Bethesda, Pool of. See Pool Op Bethesda.

Bethlem (Bethlehem) Hospital. A lunatic hospital, founded iu 1547, in the reign of Henry VIII., and popularly called Bedlam. It has been situated at the junction of Kensington and Lambeth Roads, London, since 1810-'15,but was formerly in Moorfields, near Bishopsgate. Until 1770 it was one of the sights of the city. The patients, before 1815, were kept chained to the walls; but now their treatment is all that could be wished. The entrancehall contains the famous statues of Melancholy and Madness by Caius Gabriel Cibber (father of Colley Cibber). See MelanCholy.

He [Fox] was then a youth of pure morals and grave deportment, with a perverse temper, with the education of a laboring man, and with an intellect in tho must unhappy of all states, that is to say, too much disordered for liberty, and not sufficiently disordered for Bedlam.

Maeaulay. Why, there are passions still preat enouyh to replenish Bedlam, for it never wants tenants: to suspend men front bedposts, front Improved-drops at the west ettd of Newgate. Carlyle.

The river proudly bridged: the dizzy

ton And whispering Gallery of St. Paul's;

the tombs Of Westminster; the giants of Guildhall; Bedlam, and those carved maniacs at the

gntes Perpetually recumbent. Wordsworth,

Bethnal Green. A district in London to the east of Suitalfields, celebrated in the old English ballad of Bednall-Green. Great numbers of silk-weavers reside in this quarter. It was made a parish in 1743.

tW " Numerous blind courts and alleys form a densely crowded district in Bethnal Green. Among its inhabitants may be found street venders of every kind of produce, travellers to fairs, tramps, dog-fanciers, dog-stcalers, men and women sharpers, shoplifters, and pickpockets. It abounds with the young Arabs of the streets, and its outward moral degradation is at once apparent to any one who passes that way." Athenomm.

«ff-Dickens, in "Oliver Twist," places the home of Bill Bikes In one of a "maze of mean and dirty streets, which abound in the close and densely populated quarter of Bethnal Green." 26 June. 1663. By coach to Bednallgreen, to Sir W. Kider's to dinner. A flue merry walk with the ladies alone alter dinner in the garden; the greatest quantity of strawberries I ever saw, and good. Pepys' Diary. My father, shee said. Is scone to be seene: The seely blind beggar of Bednall-greene, That daylye sits begging for charitie. He 1* the good father of pretty Bessce.

The Beggar's Daughter of Bednall- GreenPercy's Rehqttes. [ According to Percy, this popular old ballad was written in the reign of Elizabeth.]

Twas August, and the fierce sun overhead Smote on the squalid streets of Bethnal

Oreett, And the pale weaver, through Ms windows seen In Spitalfields, looked thrice dispirited.

Matthew Arnold.

Bevis Marks. A thoroughfare in London, near Houndsditch. A part of the scene of Dickens's '•Old Curiosity Shop" is laid here.

I intended calling on you this morning on my way back from Bevis Marts, whither I went to look at a house for Sampson Brass. Charles Dickens to Mr. Forster.

Bezetha. A hill in Jerusalem mentioned by Josephus, but not mentioned in the Bible. It is identified with a broad uneven ridge which extends north from the Haram, and descends into the Valley of Jehoshapliat. At the present time it is cultivated and covered with olive-trees.

Bibiena, Cardinal. A portrait by Raphael Sanzio (1483-1520). In the Pitti Palace, Florence, Italy.

Biblioteca Ambrosiana. See Am


Biblioteca Casanatense. [Casanatense Library.] The largest lihrarv in Rome, next to that of the Vatican, named after its founder Cardinal Casanate, and kept in the Dominican convent of the Minerva, Sta. Maria sopra Minerva. It contains more than 1l'0,(k)0 bound volumes and 4,500 MSS.

Bibliotheque de l'Arsenal. One of the principal public libraries of Paris.

Bibliotheque Mazarine. [Mazariu Library.] One of the principal

public libraries of Paris, situated in the Palais de l'lnstitut. Its foundation was the library of Cardinal Mazarin, bequeathed by him to the city of Paris.

Bibliotheque Rationale. [It has been known as the Bibliotheque du roi, Bibliotheque royulc, luitionale, impiriale, according to tho changes of government.] A pul>lic library in Paris, perhajw the richest and most extensive in the world. The collection is supposed to include 1,000,000 printed books, 1,300,000 engravings, 300,000 maps and charts, 150,000 MSS. The Palais Mazarin, originally the palace of the Cardinal Mazarin, was purchased for the library in 1724.

Bicetre. An ancient hospital near Paris, founded in 1364, was destroyed in the fifteenth century, but afterwards restored and converted into a hospital for old men and those afflicted with mental diseases. The name is a corruption of Winchester, a Bishop of Winchester having lived here in 1290. The word Bicetre has passed into common language to express a notion of folly or extravagance. Thus the French say of one who gives himself up to acts of folly: " He has escaped from Bicetre. Compare Bedlam.

Bielshohle. A cave in the Harz Mountains, Germany, very interesting in a geological regard on account of the fossil remains found in it.

Big Ben. This is the largest bell in England. It hangs in the clock-tower of the new Houses of Parliament, in London. The first bell of this name was cast in 1856, but was cracked by being struck for amusement before it was raised to its place in the tower. The weight of this bell, which was broken up and re-cast, was more than 16 tons, its height 7 feet 10i inches, and its diameter at the mouth 9 feet 5J inches; the thickness of the metal at the sound bow was 9f inches. The

Jiresent " Big Ben" was cast in 857, and is slightly cracked. Its weight is more than 13 tons. See Great Tom (2).

Big Bonanza. See Consolidated Virginia.

Big Trees of California. See


Biga, Sala della. See Sala Della Biga.

Billingsgate. The noted fish-market of London, near London Bridge, long famous for the coarse language indulged in by the venders. According to Geoffrey of Monmouth, the name Billingsgate was derived from Belin, king of the Britons about 400 B.C., who, says Geoffrey, built here a water-gate, with an immense tower above it, and a haven for ships beneath. The market was destroyed by fire in 1715, and rebuilt. A new market was erected in 1852, and it has been since rebuilt in 1856.

That strength of body is often equal to the courage of mind Implanted In the t'ulr sex. will not be denied by those who have seen the water-women of Plymouth; the female drudges ot Ireland. Wales, and Scotland; the Ilsbcrwomen of Hillingsgale. Goldsmith.

One may term Billingsgate the Escullne gate of London. Fuller.

There stript, fair Rhetoric languish'don

the ground;

Her blunted arms by Sophistry are borne.

And shameless Billingsgate her robes

adorn. Pope.

Some less fastidious Scotchman shall be


As bold in Billingsgate, though less re

nown'd. Byron.

No sonp is heard, save, haply, the strain

of some siren from Billingsgate, chanting

the eulogy of deceased mackerel.

Irving. While Lady Thrifty scolds in French. And Cis In Billingsgate. Praed.

Bilton Hall. A noted mansion near Rugby, England, once the residence of Addison.

Birds of America. A series of drawings of American birds, of the size and color of life, by John James Audubon (1782-1851). Cuvier is said to have pronounced it (the book containing them) " the most gigantic and most magnificent monument that had ever been erected to Nature."

Birkenhead, The. An English steamer employed to carry troops to South Africa, and wrecked off the Cape of Good Hope, Feb. 26, 1852. Less than 200 were saved out of more than 600 who were on board.

O-" ' The women and children to the boats,' says the captain of the Birkenhead; and, with the troops formed on the deck, and the crew obedient to the word of glorious command, . the immortal ship goes down."

Thackeray. But courage like this, or let us say the ever-memorable noble behavior of the soldiers on the sinking Birkei.ln.o, was not greater than was exhibited by those 20 poor nuns who, ill the French devolution, stood together on the scaffold chanting the Te Deum, till one by one the sweet voices dropped in silence beneath the axe of the guillotine. Frances Power Cobbe.

Birmingham Tower. The ancient keep or ballium of the Castle of Dublin, Ireland, and the only part which now bears a character of antiquity. It is associated with many romantic histories. It is now used as the State Paper Office.

Birnarn Hill and Wood. An eminence about 1,500 feet high, near the town of Dunkeld, and about 16 miles from Perth, Scotland. It is famous from its association with Shakespeare's tragedy of "Macbeth."

jfcff-" Birnam hill is at present almost bare of trees, though un attempt is being made to clothe ~it again with fir saplings taken from the original • Birnam wood.' In the rear of the hotel arc two trees, an oak and a plane, which arc believed to be a remnant of this famous forest." W. J. Bolfe.

I pull In resolution, and begin
To doubt the equivocation of the fiend
That liesliko truth: 'Fear not till Bir-
nam wood
Do come to Dunsinane; * and now a

Comes toward Dunsinane.

Shakespeare. Before I can sit down in my own chamber, and think It of the dampest, the door opens, and the Brave conies moving In. In the middle of such n quantltv of fuel that he looks like Birnam Wood taking a winter walk. Dickens.

Biron. A large and well-preserved feudal fortress insouthern France, not far from Cahors. It is of the eleventh century.

Birs Nimrood. A ruin in the neighborhood of ancient Babylon, thought to lie the same as the Tower of Bal>el, or the Temple of Belus mentioned by Herodotus. This tower is over 2,000 feet in • circumference at the base. The existing remaius are of brick laid in beautiful masonry, and are some 28 feet in width. See Toweb Of Babel.

tg- "The tower of the great temple of Belus was amongst the most remarkable monuments of Babylon. Eight gradually diminishing stories gave it the look of a pyramid with enormous gradients. Upon the summit stood tiie temple, surmounted by a platform, where the priests assiduously devoted themselves to the study of the celestial bodies. They believed that science was the supreme aim of man, and was the crown of religion. This temple was still in existence in the second century of our era."

Ltfevre, Trans, tfy- " It is true that as It now stands, every brick bears the stamp of Ncbochadnassar, by whom it was repaired, perhaps nearly rebuilt; but there is no reason for supposing that lie changed the original plan, or that the sacred form of these temples bad altered in the interval. It owes its more perfect preservation to the fact of the upper story having been vitritied after erection by some process we do not quite understand. This now forms a mass of slag which has to a great extent protected the lower stories from ntmos. pheric influences." Ftrgutnon.

Kav, the whole Encyclopedic that world's wonder of the eighteenth century, the Brlus' Toirer of an aire of relined Illumination, what has It become! Curlyle.

Birth of Venus. 1. A mythological fresco in the Vatican, Rome, designed by Raphael (1483-1520), and executed by his scholars.

2. A picture by Alexandre Cabanel (b. 1823). In the collection of H. C. Gibson, Philadelphia, Penn.

Bishopsgate. An old and quaint
street in London.

Black Brunswicker. A picture by
John Everett Millais (b. 1829).

Black Butte. A natural curiosity
in Wyoming Territory, being a
mound of rock and earth stand-
ing on the level plain, one of the
more celebrated of the huge

monumental mountains which are found along the line of the Union I'acitic Railroad in this part of its course. Black Forest. An extensive wooded district in Germany, sloping down to the banks of the Rhine, and containing the most varied and beautiful scenery. The heights are covered with forests, and vegetation is most luxuriant in the valleys.

Black Foretli, and the glories of I.ul>herlaud; sensuality and horror, the spectre nun. and the charmed moonshine, shall not be wanting. Carlyle

And vou. with braided queues so neat,

Black-Foretl maidens, slim and hrown.
How careful on the stoop's given sent

You set your pails and pitchers down.
Ferdinand Freihgrath, Tram.

Black Hole. A small dungeon, so called, in Fort William, Calcutta. When Calcutta was captured by Surajah Dowlah, in June, 175(i, he shut up at night in this confined and ill-ventilated space the British garrison of 14(i men. The Black Hole was only 18 feet square; and the sufferings from heat, want of air, and thirst, were so terrible that but 23 of the prisoners were found alive in the morning. The Black Hole now serves as a warehouse. Mr. Holwell, one of those imprisoned, gives a narrative of the excruciating sufferings of the unfortunate garrison, in the "Annual Register " for 1758.

Must the Indomitable millions, full of old Saxon energy and tire, lie cooped up in this Western Nook, choking one another, as in a Blackhale of Calcutta, while n whole fertile untenanted Earth, desolate forwantof the plounh*hiire,crie»: Come and till me, come and reap me? Carlyle.

Black Maria. A name popularly applied to the covered van in which criminals are conveyed to and from the court-house and the jail in cities. It is often painted black.

Black Prince. An armor-plated ship of the British navy, launched Feb. 27, 1861.

Black Rod. The title of a gentleman-usher who bears a black rod surmounted with a gold lion, and who iu the time of a parliament

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