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attacked by the mob at the outbreak of the Revolution in 1789. The palace is now used as an historical museum, and its immense galleries are adorned with paintings and statues arranged in chronological order. A grand park is connected with the palace.

4S- " Before us Ilea the palace dedicated to all the glories of France. Honored pile! Time was when tall musketeers and gilded body-guards allowed none to pass the gate. Fifty years ago, ten thousand drunken women from Paris broke through the charm; and now a tuttcred commissioner will conduct you through it for a penny, and lead you up to the sacred entrance of the palace. Let them disguise the place, however, as they will, and plaster the walls with bad pictures as tbey please, it will be hard to think of any family but one, as one traverses this vast, gloomy edifice. It has not been humbled to the ground, as a certain palace of Babel was of yore; but it is a monument of fallen pride, not less awful, and would afford matter for a whole library of sermons. The cheap defence of nations expended a thousand millions in the erection of this magnificent dwelling-place. Armies were employed, in the Intervals of their warlike labors, to level hills or pile them up; to turn rivers, and to build aqueducts, and transplant woods, and construct smooth terraces and long canals. A vast garden grew up in a wilderness, and a stupendous palace in the garden, and a stately city round the palace; the city was peopled with parasites who daily came to do worship before the creator of these wonders, — the Great King. 'Dieu seul est grand,' said courtly Massillon; but next to him, as the prelate thought, was certainly Louis, his vice-gerent here upon earth, — God's lieutenant, governor of the world, before whom courtiers used to fall upon their knees, and shade their eyes, as if the light of his countenance, like the sun, which shone supreme in heaven, the type of him, wan too dazzling to bear. * Thackeray.

ffS" "Versailles Is the most complete type of the classic style. That palace was the seat and tomb of the old dynasty of French monarchs. and has held u great place in the history of France. Louis XIII. built at Versailles a sort of feudal chateau, flanked by four large pavilions at the angles, encircled by ditches with drawbridges. Louis XIV. continued his father's labors, hut in his additions the feudal character is no longer seen. The mod

est hunting rendezvous of Louis AJU. presents towards the town a facade in stone and brick, the arrangement of which forms an agreeable perspective. The buildings were commenced a little after the death of Mazarin, in 1601, under the direction of Levan. and were continued by Mansart from 1670 to 16S4. They were severely criticised by court retainers. Saint-Simon declared that the place chosen was 'unpleasant, sad, without view, without wood, without water, without land, because the ground was sandy and marshy.* To this complaint the finished structures are a victorious answer, opening as they do upon beautiful gardens, with a thousand fine views and vistas, and numberless sheets of water. It is only fair to say that the architects themselves experienced a hundred difficulties in carrying out this undertaking. The chiel difficulty was to obtain funds. ■ 90,000,000 of francs (which at the present day would be worth 400,000,000) were sunk at Versailles under Louis XIV., and Mirabeau valued the total expense at 1,200,000,000. There is no doubt that these enormous expenses affected the economy of the public finances, and largely contributed to the embarrassments which resulted in the fall of the monarchy. The facade overlooking the garden was a repetition of the arrangements common to all the great buildings of the reigns of Louis XIV. and Louis XV. Seen at sunset from near the Swiss lake, the profile of the facade produces a grand impression of nobleness and simplicity. The Interior arrangement is imperfect; the vestibules arc ill-placed; and the stairs do not correspond with the richness and grandeur of the apartments. But these defects are more than compensated for by the splendid pictures of Lebrun, Audran, Coy pel, Jouvcnet, Lafosse, and Lemoyne. Ancient statues, the rarest marbles, fine specimens of the goldsmith's art, jewels, and curiosities of every description, were formerly lavished on these empty saloons. We may still judge of the former splendor of Versailles by the famous Mirror Gallery. It is 228 feet long by S3. Its 17 great crosses correspond with tho mirrors, which reflect the gardens and the lakes." Lefevrt, Trans. Donald.

He [Admiral Torrinplon] had long been In the habit of exacting the most abject homage from those who were under his command. His flagship was a little Versailles. Macaulay.

Versailles! Up the chestnn t alleys.
All in flower, so white ami pure.

Strut the red and yellow lacqueys
Of Uils Madame Pomnixlonr.

Waiter Thombury* I do not think that on this earth,

Mid Iti most notable plantations.

Has been a spot more praised, inure famed.

More choice, more cltied, oftener named,

Thau thy most tedious park, Versailles!

Alfred de Mussel, Trans. John saw Versailles from Maria's height. And cried, astonished at the Bight, "Whoso line estate Is that there here?" "State! Je vous n'entends pas. Monsieur." C.IHbdin.

Vfiry's. A noted restaurant in Paris.

I had eaten for a week at Vfry's before

I discovered thut since Pclham'sday that gentleman's reputation has gone uown. He Is a subject lor history at present

H. P. Willis.

We are not prepared to say what sums

were expended upon the painting of Very's

... or of other places 01 public resort in

the capital. Thackeray.

Vespasian, Temple of. See TemPle Of Vespasian.

Vesta, Temple of. See Temple Of Vesta."

Via Appia. [Appian Way.] One of the great avenues leadingfrom ancient Rome, and the principal line of communication with Southern Italy, Greece, and the East. It was begun by Appius Claudius Cjbcus, the Censor, B.C. 312, from whom it derived its name. Under Pone Pius IX. this ancient road was laid open in the most interesting part of its extent. The Appian Way is about

II Roman miles in length, and is remarkable for the number and magnificence of the.tombs which lined it, and for the solid and durable construction of its pavement, which is now exposed for parts of its extent.

49" "The Via Appla Is a magnlfi cent promenade nmonget ruinous tombs the massive remains of which extend for many miles over the Roman Cam pagnu. The powerful families of an cicnt Rome loved to build monuments to their dead, by the side of the public road, probably to exhibit at once their affection for their relations and their own power and affluence."

Frederika Bremer.

,0- " The best known of the Roman roads, the Appian Way, , . . forms the most travelled route between Rome nnd Naples. . . . Such roads could not have been constructed unless the very workmen who wrought upon them had

been impressed with the idea of the eternal duration of Rome." Hillard.

A8~ " Even the Pyramids form hardly a stranger spectacle, or a more alien Irom human sympathies, than the tombs of the Appian Way, with their gigantic height, breadth, and solidity, defying time and the elements, and far too mighty to be demolished by ordinary earthquakes." Hawthorne.

Then you must build up or uncover the massive tombs, now broken or choked with sand, so as lo restore the aspect of vast Btreets of tombs like those un the Appian Way, out of which the (.ireat Pyramid would rise like a cathedral above smaller churches. A. P. Stanley.

"Is there time," I asked, "In these last days of railroads, to stop

short Like Cresar's chariot (weighing half a ton) On ihe Appian road for morals t"

Mrs. Browning. Awe-struck I gazed upon that rock-paved

way, The Apptan Road; marniorean witness


Of Rome's resistless stride and fateful

will. Which mocked at limits, opening out for

aye Divergent paths to one imperial sws«y.

Aubrey de Vert.

Via Babuino. One of three streets diverging from the Piazza del Popolo in Rome. It extends to the Piazza di Spagna.

Via Balbi. The principal street in Genoa, Italy, containing many fine palaces.

Via de' Bardi. An ancient and historic street in Florence, Italy, which has of late in great part disappeared as a consequence of city improvements.

The color of these objects was chiefly pale or sombre; the vellum bindings, with their deep-ridged backs, gave little relief to the marble livid with long burial, the dark hmnzi-s wanted sunlight upon them to bring out their tinges of green, and the sun was rot yet high enough to send gleams of brightness through the narrow windows that looked on the Vxa de" Bardi. George Bitot.

Via Dolorosa. A narrow street about a mile in length, which pursues a winding or zigzag course through the city of Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives to Golgotha, and which has borne its present name for the last few centuries. On this Rtreet the credulous may find the scenes of all the historical and legendary events connected with the Crucifixion. Here are situated the birthplace of the Virgin Mary, the house of St. Veronica, upon whose handkerchief or veil, used to wipe away bis blood and sweat, the face of Jesus was miraculously impressed, and the church said to have been erected upon the spot where Mary swooned and fell at the time when her Son sank under the weight of the cross.

*S" " One cannot help wondering bow the good old monks could manifest such childish simplicity in their inventions. A schoolboy in England would naturally ask how the present lane, with its sharp turns and numerous windings, happens so exactly to correspond with the ancient one; or how arches, and walls, and staircases, and particular stones, and whole houses could remain intact, and be identified, after the total destruction of the city by the Romans, and the lapse of so many centuries. And yet so it is. Not a word is heard of the Via Dolorosa, and its eight stations, from monk or priest, traveller or pilgrim, previous to the fourteenth century. . . . There is something deeply interesting in it also to the artist and the historian; for here are the originals, if we may so call them, of some of the most celebrated works of European art, and here iB the fountain-head of some of the most famous of European superstitions."

Murray's Handbook.

tfsf" The Procession to Calvary (/Z Portamento del Croce) followed a

{>ath leading from the gate of Jerusaem to Mount Calvary, which has been kept in remembrance and sanctified as the Via Dolorosa." Mrs. Jameson. Jb3"*" Yonder steep, tortuous lane before us, flanked by ruined walls on either side, has borne, time out of mind, the title of Via Dolorosa; and tradition has fixed the spots where the Saviour rested, bearing his cross to Calvary." Thackeray.

Via Felice. A well-known street in Rome, Italy, near the Piazza Barberini.

Thence to Via Felix, a straite and noble slreete but very precipitous till we came to the Fountains of Lcpidus, built at the abuttments of four statelv wayes. John Evelyn, 1641. T»m In the Via Felice

My friend his dwelling made.
The Roman Via Felice.
Half sunshine, half in shade.

Julia Ward Howe.

Via Flaminia. [Flaminian Way.] Formerly the chief northern road of Italy, so called from Cains Flamiuius, by whom it was begun during his censorship in the third century B.C. It entered the city near the present Porta del Popolo.

Via Mala. A celebrated Alpine gorge in the canton of the Orisons, Switzerland, in which the opposite walls of limestone rock rise in towering precipices on both sides, sometimes to the height of 1,500 feet. The road crosses the river Rhine three times, and the scenery is grand in the extreme.

Via Mala Bergamesca. A remarkable gorge among the Italian Alps near Lovere.

Via Nuova. [The New Street.] A well-known street in Genoa, Italy.

Via Ripetta. One of three streets which diverge from the Piazza del Popolo in Rome. It leads somewhat in the direction of the Castle of St. Angelo and St. Peter's.

Via Sacra. [Sacred Way.] A street in ancient Rome, ana one over which triumphal processions passed, extending from the Arch of Fabius to that of Titus. It was a favorite promenade of the poet Horace.

Ibnin forte Via Sacrii. slcut meus est moe,

Ke&cio mild mediums nugaruin,«t tolus

ill litis. Sat- lib. i. ix.

Along the Sacred Way

Hither the triumph came, and, winding

round With acclamation, and the martial clang Of Instruments, and earn hiden with spoil. Slopped at the sacred stair that then appeared. Samuel Rogers. Who would have thoucht that the saucy question, "Does your mother know jon re out?" was the very same that Horace addressed In the bore who attacked him in the Via Sacra t Interpeitandi locus hie erat: Est tibi mater? Cognatl, quell te salvo est opus?


Victoires, Place des. See Plack


Victoria Bell. A large hell at Leeds, England, hung in the town-hall. It weighs 4 tons 1 cut., and its diameter at the mouth is 6 ft. 2 in.

Victoria Bridge. A celebrated bridge across the St. Lawrence at Montreal, Canada. It was erected in 1854-5!), and is !),184 feet in length, with 24 spans of 242 ft. each, and a centre span of 330 ft., at a height of GO ft. above the river. The cost of the bridge was nearly $7,000,000.

Victoria Docks. The docks bearing this name, which occupy 200 acres on the left bank of the Thames, London, were opened in 185U.

Victoria Embankment. See Thames Embankments.

Victoria Hall. A building in Edinburgh, Scotland, used for the meetings of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland.

Victoria Park. An extensive pleasure-ground in London, originated by act of Parliament in the fourth and fifth years of the reign of Queen Victoria.

Victoria Theatre. A theatre in Waterloo Bridge Road, Lambeth, London, originally called The Coburg.

Victoria Square. A public ground in Montreal, Can.

Victoria Tower. See WestminStek Palace.

Victory. A statue by Giovanni da Bologna, called II Fiammingo (1530?-1<>08). In the Palazzo Vecchio, Florence, Italy.

Victory, The. A famous vessel of the British navy. She was the flagship of Admiral Nelson (17581805) at Trafalgar, and on her deck he received a fatal wound. The ship is anchored at Portsmouth, England, and is kept on exhibition.

Victory, The. An Arctic exploring-ship which sailed from England in 182!) under the command of Sir John Ross (1777-1856). The Victory was abandoned in the ice in 1832.

Victory of Alexander the Great over Darius. A celebrated picture by Albert Altdorfer (d. 1538), a German painter, and considered his masterpiece. It was painted in 1529 for Duke William of Bavaria, and is now in the Gallery of Munich, Bavaria.

US- " It is in truth a little world on a few square feet of canvas; the hosts of combatants who advance on all sides against each other are innumerable, and the view into the background appears interminable. In the distance is the ocean, with high rocks and a rugged island between them; ships of war appear in the offing, and a whole fleet of vessels. On the left the moon Is setting—on the right the sun is rising; both shining through the opening clouds — a clear and striking imago of the events represented. . . . The character and execution of the figures is most masterly and profound."

Frederic tScMegel, Trans.

Victory of Constantine. A fresco by Raphael Sanzio (1483-1520). In the Vatican, Route.

Vieus Judeorum. See Ghetto.

Vicus Sceleratus. [The Accursed Street.] A street in ancient Rome, reputed to be the one in which the daughter of Servius Ttillius drove over the corpse of her father, after he had been murdered by the emissaries of Tarquin, her husband.

Vierge a la Diademe. [The Vir

fin with the Diadem.] "The ladonna, kneeling, is lifting the veil from the sleeping Child, in order to show it to the little St. John, who kneels in joyful adoration. In the background a rich landscape." This picture, which has been considerably injured, is now in the Louvre, Paris. [Called also Vierge au Linye.]

AS-"The subject of the Sleeping Christ is beautifully varied by the Introduction of St. John, as where Mary lifts the veil, and shows her Child to the little 8t. John kneeling with folded hands. Raphael's well-known' Vierge ii la Diaddme' is an instance replete with grace and expression.•'

Mrs. Jameson.

Vierge a la Victoire. See MaDonna DKLLA VlTTOKIA.

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Vierge a l'Oreiller verd. [Virgin of tlie Green Pillow.] A beautiful picture of the Madonna and Child by Andrea Solario, the early Italian painter. The picture derives its name from the color of the pillow on which the Child is lying. In the Louvre, Paris.

Vierge au bas-relief. A picture of the Madonna and Child by Leonardo da Vinci (1453-1520), the Italian painter. It is so called from the small sculptured stone in the corner, and is supposed to have been executed about 1490. "This is probably one of the earliest specimens of that arrangement of the Holy Family which Raphael afterwards consecrated. It is now in the possession of Lord Monson at Gatton Park. A very similar picture to this by Leonardo is in the Hermitage at St. Petersburg.

Vierge au Donataire. See MaDonna DI FOLIONO.

Vierge au Lapin. [Virgin with the Rabbit.] A beautiful picture of the Madonna and Child by Titian (1477-15TU). In the Gallery of the Louvre, Paris.

tSr" This Arcadian sentiment la carried a« far an could well be allowed In a picture by Titian known aa the Vierge au Lapin. The Virgin holdB a white rabbit, towards which the infant Christ, in the arms of St. Catherine, eagerly stretches his hand."

Mrs. Jameson.

Vierge au Linge. See Vierge X La Diademe.

Vierge au Palmier. See Holt Family Of The Palm-thee.

Vierge au Panier. [The Virgin with the Work-basket.] A wellknown picture of the Madonna, by Antonio Allegri, surnamed Correggio (1494-1534), in which the Virgin is represented dressing her Child, with a work-basket standing beside her. This picture is now in the National Gallery, London.

4Q- "Mary holds the Child upon her knee, looking down upon him fondly. ... A finished example of

that soft yet Joyful maternal feeling for which Correggio was remarkable."

Mr*. Jameson,

03- "This picture shows that Correggio was the greatest master of aerial perspective of his ume." Mtttai.

Vierge au Voile. See Viebgb A


Vierge aux Cande'labres. See

Madonna Della Candelabra.

Vierge aux Cerises. [Virgin with Cherries.] A well-known picture of the Madonna and Child by Annibale Caracci (1500-1(109). in which Joseph is seen presenting cherries. Now in the Louvre, Paris.

83- "It Is related, that before the birth of our Saviour, the Virgin Mary wished to taste of some cherries which hung upon a tree high above her bead: she requested Joseph to procure thtm for her, and, he reaching to pluck them, the branch bowed down to nis hand." Mrs. Jameson.

Vierge aux Rochers. [Madonna of the Rocks.] A picture of the Madonna and Child, by Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1520), the Italian painter. It derives its name from the dismal dark cavern with stalactite forms in which the figures are placed. It is thought that others beside Leonardo had a hand in this composition. There are similar pictures in the Louvre, the Naples Museum, and elsewhere, which are undoubtedly the work of pupils, and probably taken from Leonardo's cartoon of the subject. This picture was formerly at Milan, but is now in possession of the Earl of Suffolk at Charlton Park.

Vierge au Silence. [The Silent Virgin] The name given to pictures of the Madonna and Child, in which the latter is represented as sleeping. For an example, among others, see Vierge A La Diademe. See also SilenTicm.

Vierge aux Anges [with Angels]. A picture by Peter Tanl Runmis (1577-1040), representing the Virgin and Child surrounded by a

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