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host of children. In the Gallery of the Louvre, Paris.

49* "Rubens has moro than once committed the same fault against ecclesiastical canons and decorum (I.e., in* troducing into a glory round the Virgin, female angels), for instance in his Madonna aux Angea in the Louvre." . Mrs. Jameson.

Vigilant, The. A French frigate captured by the British frigate Massachusetts at the taking of Louisbourg in 1743.

Villa Adriana. See Hadrian's Villa.

Villa Albani. A Roman villa built in 1760 by Cardinal Albani, and now owned by Prince TorIonia. It contains a collection of sculptures and paintings, once of great merit, but now of reduced value in consequence of the loss of 294 of its best specimens which were taken to Paris by Napoleon, and there sold. Among the treasures of art in the villa, are the bronze Apollo Sauroctonos, q. v., and a beautiful rilievo ol Antinous, q.v.

Villa Aldobrandini. A celebrated villa in Frascati, near Rome. It was erected towards the close of the sixteenth century by Cardinal Aldobrandini, nephew of Pope Clement VIII. It is famous for its water-works, the water being made to flow in every fantastic form.

1644,3 May. We tooke coach and went 15 miles out of the Cittle to Frascntt, formerly Tusculanum, a villa of Cardinal Aldobrandini, built for a country house, but surpassing. In my opinion, the most delicious places 1 ever beheld for Its situation, ehgance, plentifull water, groves, ascents and prospects. Just behind the

falace (which Is of excellent architecure) in the centre of the enclosure rise* an high hill or mountaine all overt-lad with tall wood, and so Tunned by nature as if it had been cut out by art, from the sum'it whereof falls a cascade, seeming rather a great river than a streame precipitating into a large theater of water. Under thi--* is made an artificial grott, wherein are curious rocks, hydraulic engines and all sorts of singing-birds moving and chirping by force of the water, with aeverall other pageants and surprising Inventions. John Evelyn. JsW "This is the Italian rural palace constructed for a noblo of classic tastes, one who relished nature accord

ing to the landscapes of PousBln and Claude Lorraine, in the Interior tho walls are decorated with 'Apollo and the Nine Muses,'' The Cyclops and Vulcan at his Forge,' . . . 'David and Goliath,' and a 'Judith,' simplo and beautiful, by Domenicbino."

Taine, Trans.

Villa Borghese. A villa or country house just outside the Porta del Popolo, Koine, belonging to the Borghese family. It contains a collection of sculptures. The grounds connected with this villa are very beautiful.

Jteff- "The scenery is such as arrays itself to the imagination when we read the beautiful old myths, and fancy a brighter sky, a softer turf, a more picturesque arrangement of venerable trees, than we find In the rude and untrained landscapes of the Western world. ... A seclusion, but seldom a solitude; for priest, noble, and populace, stranger and native, all who breathe the Koraan air, find free admission, and come hither to taste the languid enjoyment of the day-dream which i hey call life." Hawthorne*

43- "The Villa Borgheae is a vast

Eark four miles in circumference, with uildings of all kinds scattered over it. . . . Here is a little temple, there a peristyle, further on a ruined colonnade, a portico, balustrades, large round vases, and a sort of amphitheatre. The undulating surface rises and falls in beautiful meadows, red with the delicate trembling anemone. Fountains murmur at every turn of the avenues, and in small valleys grand old oaks send up their valiant, heroic, antique forms.*' Taine, Trans.

I walked to the Villa Borghesi, a house and Ample garden on Mons l'inclus, yet somewhat without the Citty walls, circumscribed by another wall full of email turrets and banquctin^-houses, which makes it Appear? at a distance like a little towne. Within it Is an elysium of delight, having In the centre a noble Palace, but the entrance of the garden presents us with a very glorious fabrick or rather dove-case Hdorned with excellent marble statues. This garden abounded with all sort of delicious fruit and exotlq simples, fountains, groves, and rivulets.

John Evelyn*

*5» " I was never weary of seeing from the Villa Borghese the sun go down behind the cypresses of Monte) Mario, and the pines of the Villa Famphili planted by Lc Notre."

Chateaubriand, Trans,

Villa Farnesina. See Farnesiua.

Villa Ghcrardesea. A villa at San Domenica di Fiesole, in the environs of Florence, known as the residence of Walter Savage Landor, and since called by bis name.

A9~ "I found him [Landor] noble and courteous, living In a cloud of pictures al hi* Villa Gherardcsca, a line house commanding a beautiful landscape." Emerson.

Villa Landore. See Villa Ghe

KAKDF.SCA.

Villa Ludovisi. A beautiful villa in Rome, built early in the eighteenth century by Cardinal Ludovisi, nephew of Gregory XV., now owned by the Duko and Duchess Sora. It contains a fine collection of sculptures, among which the most celebrated is the Ludovisi Juno, a colossal head, greatly admired by Goethe.

ay "The Villa Ludovisi, though iU grounds are a mile In circumference, la within the walls of Home. The principal building, Inhabited by the prince, is not shown. A smaller structure, or casino, is appropriated to sculpture; and it contains one of the finest private collections in Rome."

milard.

*y "1644, Nov. 10. We went to Bee Frince Ludovixio'* villa, where was formerly the Viridarium of the poet Ballust. The house is very magnificent, and the extent of the ground is exceeding large, considering It is a Citty; in every quarter of the garden are antiqu statueB, and walkes planted with cypresse." John Evtlyn.

ay "The villa Is charming. This kind of landscape is unique: you find the vegetation of all climates mingled and grouped together. And a still more peculiar si^ht is the old walls of Home, a veritable natural ruin, that serves as an enclosure. Hot-houBCB are supported against red arcades; lemontrees In pale rows bug the disjointed bricks, and in the vicinity fresh green grass is growing abundantly."

Taint, Trant.

Villa Madama. A deserted villa near Rome, containing some interesting frescos.

One event in nature, on the contrary, like a *unset fruili the Villa Madama. one work of art like the much-revered Juno, make a deep and inspiring impression.

Goethe, Tram.

Villa Medici. A villa npon a beautiful situation in Rome, built in 1540, afterwards passing into the possession of the Medici family, and now the seat of the French Academy. It contains a valuable collection of casts.

j»a- "The grounds of the Villa Medici arc laid out in the old fashion of straight paths, with borders of box. There arc green alleys with long vistas overshadowed by ifex-treea, . . . and in their season a profusion of roses from which the genial sun of Italy distils a fragrance, to be scattered abroad by the no lees genial brccze.ra

ZTdiclAome.

Villa Massimo. A villa in Rome near the Church of S. Maria Maggiore, and formerly one of the most beautiful in the city. [Called also Villa Nayroni and Villa Alaisimo A'egroni.]

Villa Mozzi. A noted villa in the vicinity of Florence, Italy, once the residence of Lorenzo de' Medici.

See Villa

Villa Vazionale.
Reale.

ViUa Negroni. See Villa MasSimo.

ViUa Famflli-Doria. A beautiful villa in Rome, called by the Italians Helrespiro. It contains some statues and pictures.

ViUa Reale. [Now called Villa A'azionule.] The Public Garden of Naples, in the street called the Chiaja, and the favorite promenade of the inhabitants. It is nearly a mile in length, and 200 feet in breadth, bordering upon the sea, from which it is separated by a wall and parapet. It is planted with orange-trees, myTtles, acacias, and evergreen oaks, and is laid out partly in the Italian and partly in the English style of gardening.

gar* "The brightest and gayest aspect In Europe. . . . Here is every thing that can restore the weary, or amuse the idle, — a prospect of indescribable beauty; the breezes and voices of the sea; the rich foliage of the south, gay faces of men and women, and children sporting round the fountains.''

MUard. Ville, Hotel de. See Hotel De

VlLLE.

Viminal Hill. [Lat. Mons Viminalis.] One of the seven bills of ancient Rome, scarcely distinguishable at the present time. It is supposed to derive its name from the osiers (vimina) which grew upon it.

to- "The Viminal Hill is to me terra incognita. It Is, or watt, situated between the Esquilfnc and the Quirinal; and, I suppose, 'if it be not gone, it must be there still.' But I have already confessed my Incapacity to discover it; and though 1 have frequently since most diligently renewed my scrutiny, I have been able to descry nothing that, by any latitude of interpretation, can be construed into the least resemblance to a hill. The truth is, that it has sustained, between its two puissant neighbors (the Ksquiline and the Quirinal) that extinction which a small state sometimes suffers between two large ODes." C. A. Eaton.

Vincennes, Barriere de. See BarRiers DU TltONE.

Vinci. See Leonardo Da Vinci.

Vintage of Noah. A fresco painting by Bennozo Gozzoli (14081478). In the Campo Santo, Pisa, Italy.

Violets of Peestum. See Roses

OF PyESTUM.

Violin Player. [77 Snonatore.] A well-known picture by Raphael Sanzio (14811-1520), representing a young man holding in his hand the bow of a violin and a wreath of laurel. It is supposed to be the portrait of one Antonio Marone, a Brescian improwisatore, and is regarded as one of Raphael's best portraits. This picture is now in the Sciarra Palace in Rome.

,09* •' Two precious pictures hero fin the Sciarra Palace] are under glass, the first and most beautiful being the Violin-player by Raphael. This represents a young man in a black cap and green mantle, with a fur collar, and thick brown hair descending over it. The young man slowly turns his bead, fixing his eye on.the spectator. The nobleness and calmness of the bead are incomparable, also its gentleness

and Intelligence: you cannot Imagine a more beautiful, a more delicate spirit." Taine, Tram. One of these peasants, with long black hair and pale dignified face, resembles the Suonatore of Raphael, h. Taine. Tram.

Viper, The. A noted frigate of the United States navy, in service in the war of 1812. She was built at Washington.

Virgen de la Serviletta. [Virgin of the Napkin.] A picture by Bartolome' Estevan Murillo (1618li>82), so called in allusion to the dinner-napkin on which it wag painted.

Virgil's Tomb. That which is known as the tomb of Virgil (7019 B.C.) is on the promontory of Pausilippo, overlooking the Bay of Naples. It bears the inscription: "Mantua me genuit: Calabri rapuere: tenet nunc Parthenope: cecini pascua, rura, duces." See Grotta Di Posilippo.

;W" Virgil's Tomb is so called, I believe, on the single authority of Donatua. . . . And who is this Donatus? — an obscure grammarian, or rather his counterfeit. The structure itself resembles a ruined pigeun-house, where the numerous columbaria would Indicate a family-sepulchre: but who should repose In the tomb of Virgil, but Virgil alone? Visitors of every nation, kings and princes, have scratched their names on the stucco of this apocryphal ruin, but the poet's awful name seems to have deterred them from versifying here." Forsyth.

jfty'The epitaph,which,thoughnot genuine, is yet ancient, was inscribed by order of the Duke of Pescolangiano, then proprietor of the place, on a marble slab placed In the side of the rock opposite the entrance of the tomb, where it still remains." Eustace.

"Why dost thou still mistrust?'' my
Comforter

Began to say to me turned wholly
round;

"Dost thou not think me with thee, and that I guide thee 1 'TIs evening ihere alreitdy « here Is buried

The body within which 1 cast a shadow;

TIs from Brnndusium ta'cn, and Naples has It."

Dante. Purgatorio, Longfellow's Trans.

Virgin. See Madonna. Also see Coronation or The Virgin; Death or The Virgin; MasRIAGE OF THE VIRGIN; PRESENTATION Of The Virgin, etc. See Grotto De La Vierge.

Virgin and Angel Annunciate.

A picture by Gheerardt David

(1484-1523), trie Flemish painter.

Now in the collection of the • Prince of Hohenzollem at Sig

maringen.

Virgin and Child. A small altarpiece by Hans Memling (d. 14515), the Flemish painter, and considered one of his finest works. By Horace Walpole this picture was ascribed to Jan van Eyck. It is now in the possession of the Duke of Devonshire at Chiswick, England.

Virgin and Child. A picture by Albert Diirer (1471-1528), the German painter and engraver, and regarded as one of his finest works. "In the centre of the landscape is the Virgin, seated, with the Child, and crowned by two angels; on her right is a Pope with priests kneeling, on the left the Emperor Maximilian with knights ... all being crowned with garlands of roses by the Virgin, the Child, St. Dominick, — who stands behind the Virgin, —and by angels." This picture is now in the monastery of Strahow at Prague. There is also a copy in the Museum at Lyons, France.

Virgin and Child. A votive picture by Hans Memling (d. 1495), the Flemish painter. Now in possession of Count Duchatel, of Paris.

Virgin and Child with Mary Magdalen. A picture by Luc Jacobsz, commonly called Lucas van Leyden (1494-1533), a Flemish painter. It is a beautiful and finely-executed work. Now in the Gallery of Munich, Bavaria.

Virgin and Child with Saints. A picture by Gheerardt David (14841523), a Flemish painter. It is now in the Museum of Rouen, France.

Virgin and Saints. A picture by

the Flemish painter. Petms Cristus. Now in the Stadel Museum at Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany.

Virgin and Child with the little St. John. A picture bv Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641). In the Munich Gallery.

Virgin, Assumption of the. See Assumption, The.

Virgin between S. Anthony and S. Sebastian. A large altarpiece by Alessandro Bonvicino, called II Moretto di Brescia (1514-1564). In the Stadel Institute, Frankforton-the-Main, Germany.

Virgin in a Bower of Roses. A picture by Martin Schongauer, commonly called Martin Schon (h: 1420?), a German painter, and considered to be his most important work. It is in St. Martin's church at Colmar, Germany.

Virgin in the Meadow. A wellknown picture bv Raphael Sanzio (1483-1520), in which the Madonna is " represented in a beautiful landscape with both hands supporting the infant Christ, who stands before her; her head inclined toward the little St. John, who, kneeling at the side, offers a reed cross to his companion." This picture is now in the Belvedere Gallery at Vienna, Austria.

Virgin, Iron. See Iron Virgin.

Virgin, Joys and Sorrows of the. A beautiful picture bv Hans Memling (d. 1495), the Flemish painter, described as representing " the principal events of the life of Christ and the Virgin (the Beven joys of the Virgin); not in separate compartments, but as one great whole, united in a landscape with an endless number of subordinate events. — a whole world of life and joy and sorrow, all executed with wonderful grace and beauty." It was painted for Pierre Baltynck, a currier of Bruges, and was formerly in the Boisseree Collection, bat is now at Munich, Bavaria,

Virgin, Life of the. A aeries of wood-cuts hy Albert Diirer (14711528), the German painter and engraver, and considered to bo among the best of his works which have descended to us.

Virgin nursing the Child. A picture by Roger van der Weytlen (d. 1404), the Flemish painter, and one of his later works. It is now in the Stiidel Institute, Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany.

Virgin of the Burgomaster Meyer. See Madonna Of The BurGomaster Meyer.

Virgin Staying the Plague at Brescia. A picture by Alessandro Bonvicino, called II Moretto (1514-1564). In the Gallery of Dresden, Germany.

Virgin with the Goldfinch. See Madonna Del Caudellino.

Virgin with the Seven Sorrows. A picture by Joachim Pateuier (d. 1545?), a Flemish painter. It is now in the Museum at Brussels, Belgium.

Virginia, The. An old line-ofbattle ship in one of the shiphouses of the United States Navy Yard at Charlestown, Mass. She has been on the stocks for half a century.

Virginia 'Water. A beautiful artificial lake seven miles from Windsor, near London.

Virginius, The. A vessel sailing under the American flag from New York for the West Indies, on the 4th of October, 18C9. On the 31st of Octolier she was captured by a Spanish ship and taken to Havana. Being accused of hostile designs against Spain, the American commander, Capt. Fry, with 36 of his crew, and 18 others, were shot without trial. After much diplomacy, the Virginius was formally surrendered to the United States navy on the 10th

. of December, 1873, but, on the way to New York, sank off Cape Fear.

Virgin's Chapel and Tomb. A venerable and picturesque building in Jerusalem, believed by the faithful to be the place where the Virgin Mary was laid. Near the chapel is the spot where her Asmimption is supposed to have occurred, together with a rock that bears the marks of the girdle she let fall to convince the in, credulous Thomas.

Virgin's Tree. A name applied to an old sycamore-tree, near the village of Matarecah, Egypt, under which the Holy Family are said to have rested after the flight into Egypt.

Vision of a Knight. A small alle

with a female figure on each side. "One in a plain purple robe is offering him a book and a sword; the other, richly dressed, is presenting flowers as symbols of the pleasures of life. . . . The original pen-and-ink drawing by the master, with punctured outlines fromwhich the picture was traced, hangs by its side." There is an engraving of it by L. Gruner. This picture was formerly in the Borghcse Gallery in Rome, but is now in the National Gallery, London.

Vision of Ezekiel. A picture by Raphael Sanzio (1483-1520). It is in the Pitti Palace, Florence, Italy. A copy of this picture, which was for a time regarded as the original, and which was formerly in the Orleans Gallery, is now at Stratton, in England.

£&• "All direct imitation of nature was by the best painters carefully avoided. In this respect bow fine Is Raphael's 'Vision of Ezekiel'! How sublime and true in feeling and conception! where the Messiah comes floating along, upborne by tho Four Creatures, . . . animals in form, but in nil else unearthly, and the winged ox not less divine than the winged angel."

J/r*. Jameton.

Vision of Jacob. A celebrated picture by Rembrandt van Ryn (1606-1669). In the Dulwich Gallery.

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