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haps, the Kremlin at Moscow, with which Royalty is so intimately associated."

4®- "The eye gazes with wonder at clustered columns of gigantic dimensions, with arches springing from them to such an amazing height. It seems as if the awful nature of the

Elace presses down upon the soul, and ushes the beholder into noiseless reverence. We fuel that we are surrounded by the congregated bones of the great men of past times, who have filled history with their deeds, and earth with their renown." Irving.

f&- "When I am In a serious humor, I very often walk by myBelf in Westminster Abbey; where the gloominess of the place, and the use to which It is applied, with the solemnity of the building, and the condition of the people who lie in it, are apt to fill the mind with a kind of melancholy, or rather thoughtfulness, that is not disagreeable." Addison.

J8£s* " The moment I entered Westminster Abbey I felt a kind of awe pervade my mind which I cannot describe: the very silence seemed sacred."


$ST M The superb nave, the admirable Gothic architecture, of Westminster Abbey, are alone adapted to the climate: this labyrinth of forms, these sweeping and huge moulding!*, this profusion of delicate sculptures, are required to fill the dim air and people the void of such sombre interiors." Taine, Tran*.

Here, where the end of earthly things
Lays heroes, patriots, bards, and kings,

Here, where the fretted allies prolong
The distant notes of holy song.

If ever from an English heart,

OU, here let prejudice depart\ Scott.

lie mine. In hours of fear Or grovelling thought, to seek a refuge

here. And through the aisles of Westminster to

roam, Where bubbles burst, and folly's dancing

foam Melts, If It crosses the threshold.


"Westminster Bridge. An elegant bridge across the Thames at London, built 1856-62, in place of a stone bridge (the second upon the spot) built in 1739-50. Wordsworth has a sonnet on the view from Westminster Bridge, beginning : —

*' Earth hath not any thing to show more


As I was going o'er Westminster Bridge, I met with a Westminster scholar;

He pulled off his cap. an* drew off his glove. And M ished me a very good morrow.

What is his name? Mother Goose.

Westminster Hall. An ancient hall originally added to the Palace at Westminster, London, by William Rufus, who held his first court here, 1099. It has long been used for the sittings of the Royal Courts and of the Parliaments, for Coronation-feasts, and other similar purposes; and the name Westminster Hall is not unfre

?uently used for the law itself. t is called the Great Hall to distinguish it from the Lesner Hall, the House of Commons after the fire of l&H. It is one of the noblest and most venerable architectural relics in Europe, and the largest room unsupported by pillars in the world. Westminster Hall was the place of trial of the Earl of Strafford, of Charles I., and of Warren Hastings.

43* " One of these balls, Westminster Hall, which serves for great state trials, is immense and of the greatest beauty. . . . The effect of the whole is rich and grave." Taine, Trans.

Those who have attended to the pnet Ice of our literary tribunal «re well aware that, by means of certain legal fictions similar to those of Westminster Hall, we are frequently enabled to taXe cognisance of cases lying beyond the sphere of our original jurisdiction. Maeaulap.

Thus he [Cromwell] subdued a spirit that had been often troublesome to the most sovereign power, and made Westminster Hall as obedient and subservient to his commands as any of the rest of his quarters. Edward Hyde.

The clothed, embodied Justice that sits in Westminster Hall, with penalties, parchments, tipstaves, is very visib.e. But the unembnd led Justice, whereof that other is either an emblem, or elsic is a fearful indcacrtbabillty, is not so vi-iblc. Carlyle,

Especially what member of the legal profession, unless his heart be as dry as parchment and worn as the steps of a court-house, can fail to do honor to the penhrs of n place [the Roman Forum] where jurisprudence was reared inio & perfect system, while Druids were yet cuitimr mistletoe on the site of Westminster Uallt HtUard

The tiRht in the street, which is backed

for cold. — The plea of the lawyers in Westminster

Hall. Mrs. Brotening.

Westminster Palace. The English Houses of Parliament in London, occupying the site of the Royal Palace of the monarchs of England from Edward the Confessor to Queen Elizabeth. The first stone of the New Palace was laid April 27, 1840. It is the largest public edifice in England, probably the largest Gothic edifice in the world, and is considered in respect to the arrangement of its apartments for the transaction of business, lighting, ventilation, etc , to be the most perfect building in Europe. It covers about eight acres, and has four principal fronts, the eastern or river front being MO feet in length. The architect was Sir Charles Barry. The Royal or Victoria Tower at the south-west angle, containing the royal entrance, rises to the height of about 340 feet, and is one of the most stupendous works of the kind in the world.

S3- "Though the Palace of Westminster may nut have realized the highest qualities of the architecture which it is popularly supposed to represent, it has at least proved an excellent school for the encouragement of ancient art. It has educated many a sculptor, stone-mason, metal-worker, decorator, and cabinetmaker, who would otherwise have grown up ignorant of every phase of ornament save that which had reached him by a perverted tradition. Barry, to whose talent are due the merits of the general design, wisely intrusted to Pugln the design of those details which were to enrich his structure." Eaatlake.

&g~ "We proceed to the nouses of Parliament; as a whole, the architecture constantly repents a rather poor idea, and does not show great invention. ... It is Gothic, accommodated to the climate. The palace magnificently mirrors itself in the shining river. In default of genius, the architects have had good sense."

Tainc, Trans. ■Westminster School, or St. Peter's College. A public school, in London, for " Grammar, Rethoricke, Poetrie, and for the Latin and Greek languages," founded by Henry VIII., and re-established in 15f>0 by Queen Elizabeth. Among tho names of eminent men who were scholars here are Ben Jonson, George Chap

man, Jaspar Mayne, Giles Fletcher, William Cartwright, Cowley, Nathaniel Lee, Dryden, Prior, Rowe, Churchill, Dyer, Cowper, Southey, Sir Harry Vane the younger, Hakluyt, Sir Christopher wren, Locke, South, Warren Hastings, Atterbury, Gibbon, tho elder Column, Cumberland, Lord John Russell.

Westphalica, Porta. See Pobta Westphalica.

Weyer's Cave. A natural curiosity in Augusta County, Va., regarded as one of the greatest wonders of its class in the United States. The cave is more than l.UOOfect in length, and contains many calcareous formations of great variety and beauty. It was discovered in 1804.

What Cheer Rock. A rock in a cove near Providence, R.I. The tradition is that Roger Williams, the founder of the Rhode Island colony, on his banishment from Massachusetts landed on this rock, where he was hailed by the Indians with the words, " SVhat cheer, Netop? (friend.)"

Wheatland. The estate and residence for many years of James Buchanan, the 15th President of the United States. It is situated about a mile from the city of Lancaster, Penn.

■Wheel of Fortune. A water-color painting by Hans Holbein the Younger (1498-1543), the German painter. It isnowatChatsworth, England.

Whirlpool Rapids. At Niagara Falls, N.Y. Here the waters from the Great Lakes rush with terrible fury through a narrow gorge. Tho velocity and volume of these rapids is so great that the stream is thirty or forty feet higher in the centre than at the sides. See Maid Of The Mist.

Whispering; Gallery. A gallery in St. Paul's Cathedral, London, so called because the slightest whisper is transmitted with great rapidity and distinctness from one side of the gallery to the

other. Another instance of a
"Whispering Gallery" in a
church is found in the Whitefield
Church of Newburyport, Mass.

Nor had Fancy fed
With less delight upon that other class
Of marvels, broad-day wonders perma-
The river proudly bridged; the dizzy top
And Whispering Gallery of St. Paul's.


White Conduit House. A publichouse on the extreme verge of London. It derived its name from the conduit near by, which was built for the use of the Charter-house. It had, both in and around it, ample accommodations for tea-drinking, and was a very popular place of resort in the early part of this century. It was celebrated for its White Conduit rolls.

All public dinners in London, from the Lord Mayor's annual banquet at Guildhall, to the Chimney-sweepers' anniversary at WJttte Conduit House; from the Guldsmiths' to the Butchers', from the Sheriffs' to the Licensed Victuallers' —are amusing scenes. IHckens.

White Convent. A monastery of Coptic Christians in Upper Egypt, standing upon the edge of the desert, supposed to be of the time of the Empress Helena, but probably of a later date.

White Hart. 1. An ancient tavern situated in Southwark, London, near London Bridge. It was the headquarters of Jack Cade and his rebel forces in 1450. It was partly demolished and partly burnt. Dickens in the " Pickwick Papers" has described the modern building of this name.

Math my sword therefore broke throuph Londrin efltes. Ihat you should leave me at the White Hart, in Southwark?


*3"* '* A great, rambling, queer old place, with galleries and passages and staircases, wide enough and antiquated enough to furnish materials for n hundred ghost-stories." Dickens.

2. An old London tavern, Bishopsgate Without. It was standing in the first part of the present century.

White Horse of Berkshire. Between Abingdon and Uffington, in the county of Berks, England,

is a vale called the "Vale of the White Horse." It takes its name from a colossal figure of a galloping horse rudely fashioned on the side of a steep chalk hill (893 feet high) by removing the overlying turf. The figure is about 374 feet in length, and can be seen 10 or 12 miles in a fair day, when the sun is shining upon it. At what period or by whom it was cut, is not known. It has been variously ascribed to the Saxons, to the Danes, and to the Druids. Local tradition attributes it to King Alfred, and regards it as a monument of the victory won by him over the Danes in the great battle of Ashdown, in 871. He is said to have carvvd a horse, rather than any other object, because that was the device borne on the Saxon standard. The earliest historical notice of the White Horse is contained in a cartulary, or register of the Abbey of Abingdon, written in the vear 1171, and preserved in the British Museum. As, in the course of time, the trench which forms the figure of the horse would naturally get filled up and grown over, the people living in the neighborhood nave a custom of meeting for the purpose of "scouring" or cleaning it; and they make this the occasion of a " pastime," or festival, at which manly games and sports, with prizes, are exhibited. Thomas Hughes has written a work called "The Scouring of the White Horse," which gives, in story form, an interesting account of a great pastime held on the 18th of September, 1857, and embodies all the scattered legends and traditions of the vicinity, and all the authentic historical notices relating to the old monument.

White House. The executive or presidential mansion at Washington. It is a large freestone building, painted white, from which latter circumstance it derives its name. It is said to have been modelled after the palace of the Duke of Leinster. The executive mansion was first occupied by President Adams in 1800, was destroyed by the British in 1814, and rebuilt a few years later.

The President's house —or the White House, as it Is now called all the world over—is a handsome mansion tilted for the chief officer of a great republic.

Anthony TroUope.

Kf vmi git m« inside the White House,
Your head with He I'll kin* o* 'iiint

By plttin' you inside the Light house
Down to the eend o' Jattlnm Pint.

Lowell, Jiifjloic Papers.

At a moment when the White House Itself is In danger of conflagration, instead of all hands uniting to extinguish the flames, we are contending about who shall be iu next occupant, wheuadreadful crevasse has occurred, which threatens inundation and destruction to all around it. we are contesting and disputing about the profit* of an estate which is threatened with total submersion. // Clay.

Before the White House portals
The cnreless eyes behold

Three Iron bombs uplifted,
A dusk in summer gold

/. J. Piatt.

White House. See Casa Blaxca.

White Tower. See Tower, The.

Whitechapel. A wide and spacious street in London.

In spirituals and temporals, In field and workshop, from Manchester to Dorsetshire, from Lambeth Palace to the Lanes of Whitechapel, wherever men meet and toil and traffic together,— Anarchy, Anarchy. Carlyle. Two sticks and an apple. Say the bells at Whitechapcl.

Mother Goose.

Whitefleld Church. A name by which the Old South (Presbyterian) church in Newbury port, Mass., is sometimes known. The remains of George Whitefleld (1714-1770), the founder of Calvinistic Methodism, rest in a vault under the pulpit of this church. In this church is a noted whispering-gallery, said to be equalled only by that at St. Paul's, London.

Long shall the traveller strain hlg eye From the railroad-car. as It plunges by. And the vanishing town behind him

search For the slender apire of the Whitejield

Church. Whitticr.

"Yonder spire Over grav roofs, a shaft of fire; What Is it. pray?" —"The Whitejield

Church! Walled about by its basement atones. There rest the marvellous prophet's

bones." Whittier.

Whitefriars. A district in London, which long possessed the privileges of sanctuary, and hence became the asylum of debtors, cheats, and gamblers, who were here protected from arrest. From this circumstance it derived the cant name of Alsutia, perhaps from the Ijandgraviate of Alsace, which stood in much the same relation to France as Whitefriars did to the Temple. In the Temple students were studying to observe the law, and in Alaatia, adjoining, debtors to avoid and violate it. Alsatia, or Whitefriars, has been immortalized by Sir Walter. .Scott in "The Fortunes of Nigel;" and here is laid the scene of Shadwell's comedy of "The Squire of Alsatia."

,8^" Though the Immunities legal* ly belonging to the place extended only to cases of debt, cheats, false witnesses, forgers, ami highwaymen found refuge there. For amidst a rabble so desperate no peace-officer's life was in safety. At the cry of * Rescue!' bullies with swords and cudgels, and termagant bugs with spits and broomsticks, poured forth by hundreds; ami the Intruder was fortunate if he escaped back Into Fleet Street, hustled, stripped, and putLped upon." Jfacautay.

t,r "It Is not unlikely that the Landgraviatc of Alsace [tier. Einam»t Lat. Ainatia] — now the frontier province of France [at present (1881) a part of the German empire], long a cause of contention, often the seat of war, and familiarly known to many British soldiers — suggested the application of the name Aleatia to the precinct of White friars." Cunningham.

Wo shall nnt charge upon a whole party the profligacy and baseness of the horseboys, gamblers, and bravos, whom the hope nf license and plunder attracted from all the dens of Whitefriars to the standard of Charles, and who disgraced their associates by excesses which under the stricter discipline of the Parliamentary armies were never tolerated.


Whitehall. A district of Westminster, London, and the site of the Royal Palace of Whitehall from 1530 to 1697. It was formerly called York Place from having been the town residence of the Archbishops of York. Cardinal Wolsey lived here for a

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lonpf time upon his fall from office in 1529. York Place was taken from him by Henry VIII., and the name of the palace changed to Whitehall, perhaps from some new buildings constructed of white stone. The present banqueting-house, which is about all that is left of the palace, was built by Inigo Jones between 1G19 and 1622, and is considered one of the finest buildings in London. James I. had previously rebuilt the old banqueting-house, but his structure was burnt in 1G19.

,83- " Little did James think that lie was raising a pile from which his son [Charles 1.) was to step from the throne to a scaffold." Pennant.

jfcS-" Poetry, painting, music, and architecture were ail called in to make them rational amusements: and I have no doubt that the celebrated festivals of Louis the Fourteenth were copied from the shows exhibited at Whitehall, in its Lime the most polite court in Europe. Ben Jonson was the laureate, Inigo Jones the inventor of the decorations; Lanierc and Feraboseo composed the symphonies; the king, the queen, and the young uobility danced in the interludes." Walpote.

«y" Whitehall, when he [Charles the Second] dwelt there, was the focus of political intrigue and of fashionable gayety. Half the jobbing and half the flirting of the metropolis went on under his roof." Macaulay.

You must no more call It York-place,

that i- past: For Mine the Cardinal fell, that title's

lost: Tis now the king's, and call'd Whitehall. Shakespeare.

The king, with wonder and surprise,
Will swear the sens prow bold;

Because the titles mill higher rise
Than e'er they did of old.

But let them know it is our tears

Bring floods of ^rlef to Whitehall stairs. turd borxet.

I see, I pee, where two fair cities bend
Tin trample bow, anew IfTu'/eAatf ascend!

The furioiiB German comes, with his clarions and his drum*.

Ills bravnes of Alsatia, and pages of Whitehall. Macaulay.

All the town was In an uprosr of admiration of his poem, the '* Campahni," which Dick Steele was spnutlnp at every coffee-house in Whitehall and Cnvent Garden. T/tucieruy.

"White's Chocolate House. See White's.

White's. A famous club in St. James's Street, London, first established in 1696 as "White's Chocolate House." White's has from the first been noted as a gaming-house.

4*" "I have heard that the late Earl of Oxford, in the lime of his ministry, never passed by While's Chocolate-house (the common rendezvous of infamous sharpers and noble cullies) without bestowing a curse upon that famous Academy, as the bane of half the English nobility/' £ici/l.

83- "The Club, which is at thia time limited to 600 members, was formerly composed of the high Tory party, but, though Conservative principles may probably prevail, it has now ceased to be a political club, and may rather be termed * aristocratic' Several of the present members have belonged to the Club upwards of half a century, and the ancestors of most of the noblemen and men of fashion of the present day who belong to the Club were formerly members of it. The Club has given mngnlticent entertainments in our time. On June 20,1814, they gave a ball at Burlington House to the Emperor of Russia, the King of Prussia, and the allied sovereigns then in England : the cost was £9,849,2*. 6rf. Three weeks after this, the Club gave to the Duke of Wellington a dinner, which cost £2,480,10*. 9d." Timbe.

(■ambling he CHartey] held in aversion: and it was said that he never passed White's, then the favorite haunt of noble shurpenand dupes, without an exclamation of anger. Macaulay.

Aimwelt. Prav, sir. han't I seen your face at Will's coflee-hou>e?

Gibbet. Ye*, sir. and at II Airs'* too.

Paryultar, Beaux' Stratagem.

While softer chairs the tawdry load convey

To court, to White**, assemblies, or the play.

Kosy-coinplexloned Health thy steps attends.

And exercise thy lasting youth defends.


His grace will game: to If Aide's a bull be

led. With spurning heels and with a butting

head: To White's be carried, as to ancient camea. Fair coursers, vases, and alluring dames. Pope.

Or chalr'd at White's, amidst the doctors

sit. Teach oaths to gamesters, and to nnbies

wit. Pope

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