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Bocca della Verita, [Tmth's Mouth.] A huge mask of white marble in the portico of the church of S. Maria in Cosinedin, Rome, which has given its name to the adjoining piazza. This mask is a slab of stone with holes for the eyes, nose, and mouth, and resembles the common representations of the face of the sun or moon. It had great fame among the vulgar of Borne, who believed in it as a sort of touchstone of truth, from which notion it derived its name. The belief was, that a witness of doubted veracity, having been required to place his hand in the mouth of the mask, would be unable to remove it in case he swore falsely. This truth-loving stone is thought to have been the opening to a drain.

a&- "This Bocca della Verita is a curious relic of the Middle Ages. It served the purpose of a divine ordeal. Imagine a windmill which resembles Dot a human countenance, hut the face of the moon: we can distinguish in it eyes, a nose, and an open mouth into which the accused person placed his hand to take an oath. This mouth bit all liars, at least so the tradition goes. I put my right hand into it, saying the Ghetto was a delightful place, aud have not been bitten." About, Tratu.

Boccadi Leone. SeeLiON'sMouTii.

Bodleian Library. A famous library belonging to the University of Oxford, England, founded, or rather restored, by Sir Thomas Bodley, near the close of the sixteenth century. It is one of the most valuable collections of books and manuscripts in Europe. The founder expended large sums upon the building, which is magnificent, furnished It with a large quantity of books, and bequeathed a large sum to be devoted to its annual replenishment. It has been enriched, also, by many valuable gifts of books and manuscripts.

fly-" No candle or fire is ever lighted in the Bodleian. Its catalogue is the standard catalogue on the desk of every library in Oxford. In each several college, they underscore In red ink on this catalogue the titles of books

contained In the library of that college, — the theory being that the Bodleian has all books." Emerson.

The walls and roofs [of the Vatican library] are painted not with antiques and grotescs, like our Bodleian at Oxford, but emblems, figures, diagrams, and the like learned Inventions. John Evelyn, 1644.

Each college has been developed by itself, each age has built in its fashion . . . close to the Bodleian Library, a mass of edifices, sculptured portals, lofty belltowers. Taine, Tyrant.

Bohgme, La. See Bohemia.

Bohemia. A cant name (from the Fr. Bohe'mien, gypsy) given to certain quarters of London largely occupied by roving wits and people who have no fixed occupation. The appellation La Boheme is similarly used in Paris.

Bois de Boulogne. A beautiful and extensive promenade in Paris, covering nearly 2,500 acres. Previous to 1852 it was a sort of forest, with walks and rides; but in that year Napoleon III. determined to improve it, and, together with the municipality, built new roads, dug out the lakes, made the waterfalls, and otherwise diversified the surface, converting it into a delightful promenade — the Hyde Park of Paris.

8g~ " The Bois de Boulogne is a level wood of small trees covering a mile or two square, and cut from corner to corner with straight roads for driving. The soil is sandy, and the grass only in tufts. Barring the equipages and the pleasure of a word in passing an acquaintance, I find a drive to this famous wood rather dull business. I want either one thing or the other,— cultivated grounds like the Tuileries or the wild wood." N. P. Willi*.

tS~" In 1319 some pilgrims, having erected at Mera-lez-Sainl-Cloud (a little hamlet situated in the midst of a clearing of woods) a church modelled after that of Boulogne-sur-Mer, the name of the hamlet was changed to that of Boulogne. The wood, too, following the fortunes of the first habitations erected upon its territory, took the name of Boulogne, which it haB retained to this day." Alphaud, Trans.

About four o'clock he tskes a tum In the Boil. He has a fair horse. He rides well, and does not look badly.

Taine. Tram.

His rR£ranper*«J gropranhy did not go Tar beyond the Tulleries, the Chumps Elys4e». and the Boh de Boulogtie; and his true home was the circle in which the self-supporting citizen toiled for his daily bread and butter and his weeklv holiday. Daxly Advertiser.

Come, Albert, said he, if you will take my advice, let us go out: a turn in the Jioit In a carriage or on horseback will divert you. Dumas, Trans.

BoisserSe Gallery. A celebrated collection of paintings (often referred to in works upon art) begun at Cologne, Prussia, in 1804 by two brothers of that name, during the confiscation of property and the dispersion of works of art at the time of the Napoleonic wars. The best part of this collection is now in the Pinakothek at Munich, having been purchased in 1827 by King Lewis.

Boisson. See Glacier De BoisSon.

Bolingbroke House. A building at Battersea, about three miles from London. It was formerly the residence of Henry St, John, Viscount Bolingbroke, and was the frequent resort of Pone, Swift, Arbuthnot, Thomson, Mallet, and other men of genius. The greater part of the mansion was taken down in 1778. In the wing remaining is a parlor lined with cedar, in which Pope composed his '* Essay on Man." It is said to have been called " Pope's Parlor."

Bolsena, Mass of. See Mass Of


Bolt Court. A street in London. Dr. Johnson lived here (at No. 8) from 177t> until his death in December, 1784.

V$~ " When we read of Johnson's house in Bolt Court, although we do not think of the doctor us living in any •tnte, we do not imagine a place like a flagged yard, reached through a dark, narrow alley, and in which we should expect to see clothes drying on the lines. Bolt Court is a representative place — an example of those nooks and secluded recesses found in the towns all over England." R. Q. White.

The plate-llcker and wlne-bibber [Boswell] dives Intn Bolt Court, to sip muddy coffee with a cynical old man, and a si>urtempercd blind uld woman (feeling the

cups, whether they are full, with her finger;) nnd patiently endured contradiction* without end; too hnpny so he may but be allowed to listen and live. Cdrlyle.

Thore.inthe Hue Taranne. for instance, the once noisy Denis Diderot has fallen silent enough- Here also, in Bull Court. old Samuel Johnson, like nn overwearied

Slant, must lie down and slumber without ream Cartyle.

Can this he Sir Allan McLean?

■ Ah, no! It Is onlv the Rambler, The Idler, who lives in Bolt Court, And who says, were he I,alrd of Incbken

neth. He would wall himself round with a fort Anonymous.

Bolton Priory. The ruins of this celebrated priory are situated in one of the most beautiful spots in England, near Skipton on the banks of the Aire.

From Bolton's old monastic tower

The bells ring loud with gladsome power;

And thus in joyous mood they hie
To Bolton's mouldering Priory.

Wordsworth. Entranced with varied loveliness, I gaze On Bolton's hallowed fane. Its huary

walls, More eloquent in ruin, than the halls Of princely pomp. Newman Halt.

Bon Homme Richard. TGood Man Richard.] A noted snip in which Capt. John Paul Jones of the American navy sailed in 1779 to the coast of England, and engaging the much superior British frigate JSerapis captured her after a desperate fight of two hours. The Bon Homme Richard was named after Benjamin Franklin's " Poor Richard.'*

£3-"In his earlier writings, he [Benjamin Franklin] often uttered wise sayings in this form: "* A bird in the hand is worth two In the bush/' aa Poor Richard says.' By these sayings in tills form he came to be known at home and abroad as ' l'oor Richard ; * and when, in the summer of 1779, the French government and the American ambassador jointly tilted out an expedition to be commanded by Jones, the flag-ship was named /tonhomme Richard, or ' Good Man Richard.'"


Who, In the darkest days of our Revolution, carried your Mac into the very chops of the British Channel, bearded the lion In his rt*>n, and woke the echoes of old Albion's hills by the thunders of his cannon, and the shouts of his triumph? It was the American sailor. And th« names of Jrhn Pfutl Jones, and the Bon Homme Richard, will go down the annuls of time iorever. R. F. Stockton.

Bonanza, Big. See Consolidated

Virginia. Bonaparte at Cairo. A picture

by Jean Leon G-irome (b. 1824),

the French painter.

Bonaventure. A noted cemetery near Savannah, Ga. 'It is plant-' ed with native live-oaks.

Bond Street. A street in London named after its builder, Sir Thomas Bond.

It is natural to me to go where I please, to do what I please. I find myself at eleven o'clock in the day in Bond Street, and it seems to me that 1 have been sauntering there at that very hour for years past. Charles Lamb.

Why should we call them from their dark

In broad St. Giles's or In Tottenham-
Or (since some men of fashion nobly

To scrawl in verse) from Bond-street or
the Square? Byron.

Ib this the sublime? >ir. Antrelo of Bond Street might admire the attitude; his namesake, Michel, I don't think would. Tliackeruy.

Theexpresslve word' quiet' defines the dre»s. manner, bow. and even physiognomy, of everv true denizen of St. James's arid Bond Street. JV. P. Willis.

Bone Compagnie. See Court De


Bonne Nouvelle, Boulevart. One of the boulevards of Paris. On this street is the Theatre du Gymnase. See Boulevards.

Bonsecours Market. A stone building three stories high, with a dome, in Montreal, Canada. It is unsurpassed for its purposes by any building in America.

Boodle's Club. This club in St.

. James's Street, London, first known as- the Savoir Vivre Club, was established about 17fi4. Gibbon was a member of Boodle's.

sW "Boodle'sClub-house,designed by Holland, has long been eclipsed by the more pretentious architecture of the club edifices of our time; but the Interior arrangements are well planned. Boodle's is chiefly frequented by country gentlemen, whose status has been thus satirically insinuated by a contemporary: 'Every Sir John belongs

to Boodle's — as yon may see; for when a waiter comes into the room, and says to some aged student of the Morning Herald, "Sir .John, your servant has come," every head Is mechanically thrown up in answer to the address.'" Timbs.

So, when some John his dull invention racks.

To rival Boodle's dinners or Almack's,

Three uncouth legs of mutton shock our eyes.

Three roasted geese, three buttered applepies. William Mason.

Hank weeds will sprout between yon
And owls will roost at Boodle's,
And Echo will hurl buck the tones
Of screaming Yankee Doodles.

Frederick Locker,

Book of Revelation. A series of wood-cuts illustrating the Book of Revelation, by Albert Dtirer (1471-152H), the German painter and engraver.

Booth's. An elegant theatre on Twenty-third Street, New York. It is chiefly used for standard tragedy.

Bora, The. A name locally given to the north or north-east wind which at times rages over the Caruic and Julian Alps, in Southern Austria, with extreme violence.

Border, The. The name often applied to the common boundary fine (or more generally to the whole of the common frontier region) of England and of Scotland. The position of this dividing line was, until comparatively recent times, dependent upon the changes of war or diplomacy; and the border, from the eleventh century until about the beginning of the eighteenth century, was the scene of almost constant wars, forays, feuds, and various disturbances. After the legislative union of 1707, these wars and troubles of the border were finally terminated. Sir Walter Scott is often called the "Border Minstrel," and he and some of his poetical followers, who celebrated various plundering chiefs of the "border, have been sometimes referred to as the "Border-thief School."

O, yonng Lochlnvar is come out of the

Westl Through all the wide Border his steed Is

the best; And save his good broadsword he weapon

had none; He rode all unarmed, and he rode all alone. Scott Sophia [Scott] shares and enjoys these local feelings and attachments, and can tell as many Border stories as her father, and repeat perhaps as many ballads, and certainly more Jacobite song*.

George Ticknor. Borestone, The. 1. A spot on the field of Bannockburn, in Scotland, now enclosed by an iron railing, where, according to tradition, Bruce's standard was planted during the contest.

2, A monumental stone preserved at Edinburgh, Scotland, into which, according to tradition, the standard of James IV. was stuck before he marched to the battle-field of Flodden. Borghese Chapel. See Capella


Borghese Gladiator. A celebrated statue, representing a warrior contending with a horseman, and supposed to have made part of a large battle-group. It is attributed to Agasias (400 B.C.,?), an Ephesian sculptor, whose name appears on the statue. Now in the Louvre, Paris. See Dying Gladiator and Wounded GladIator.

Borghese Palace. [Ital. Palazzo Borr/ltese.] A Roman palace of immense size, containing one of the richest collections of art in the city. It was begun in 1090, and completed by Paul V., one of the Borghese family.

jay «' The Palazzo Borghese contains the finest private collection of Slctures in Rome, upwards of Bix uunrcd in number. . . . The Borghese family is still rich, and the suite of apartments devoted to the collection is taken good care of." O. S. Millard.

Borghese Villa. See Villa BorOhesb.

Borgia, Coosar. See Cesar BorGia.

Borgo. [Suburb, or borough.] See Leonine City.

See also Incendio Del Boroo and Stanze Op Raphael.

Borough, The. A generar term, but applied specifically to Southwark, a parliamentary borough of England, on the southern side of the Thames, directly opposite the City of London.

And Gower, an older poet whom
The Borough church enshrines.

Horace Smith.

Indeed, It Is evident that the curious

'little passage which leads in to the

"Cock " must have been originally an

entrance to one of these court* on which

the tavern gradually encroached. Much

the same are found In the Borough, only

these lead into great courts and Innyards.


"Borrachos," The. [The topers.] A famous picture by Diego Rodriguez de Silva y Velasquez (1599-1060). In the gallery at Madrid, Spain.

Borromean Colossus. See Carlo Bohromeo.

Borromean Islands. See Isola Bella.

Borromeo, Carlo. See Carlo Bor


Borthwick Castle. A Scotch fortress of the fifteenth century, in the parish of the same name, in the county of Edinburgh.

t&- " This building is believed to be the largest specimen of that claw* of architecture [a simple square block] in Scotland." Hilling*.

Bosch, The. See Hcis In't Bosch.

Boston Common. See Common, The.

Bothwell Bridge. A bridge over the Clyde, near Glasgow, the scene of the battle between the Royalists and the Covenanters, June 22, 1G79, deseril>ed in Sir Walter Scott's tale of "Old Mortality."

fl®-" "We went to the famous Bothwell Bridge, which Scoit hns immortalized in ' Old Mortality.' We walked up and down, trying to recall the scones of the battle, as there described, and wore rather mortified, after we had all our associations comfortably located upon it, to be told that It was not the same bridge —it had been newly built, widened, and otherwise made more comfortable and convenient."

Mrs. //. B. Stome.

Bothwell Castle. An old baronial fortress on the Clyde, near GlasBow, Scotland, belonging to the Karl of Home. The modern mansion adjoining contains a valuable art-collection.

MSr "The name had for me the quality of enchantment. ... I remembered the dim melodies of ' The Lady of the Lake.' Bothwell's lord was the lord of this castle, whose beautiful mine here adorn the banks of the Clyde. Wnntever else we hnve, or may have, in America, we shall never have the wild poetic beauty of these ruins. The present noble possessors are fully aware of their worth as objects ot taste, and therefore with the great. est care are they preserved."

Mrs. H. B. Stowe.

Immured in Bothwell's towers, at times

the brave (So beautiful is Clyde) forgot to moum The liberty they lost at Bannuckburn.


Botolph's, St. See St. Botolph's.

Boue, La. A strong fortification at Luxemburg, Holland. It is an excavation in the solid rock capable of holding four thousand men.

Boucberie. See St. Jacques La Boucherie.

Bouffes Parisiens. A little theatre in Paris, known for the first production of Offenbach's operettes. It is mini) frequented, and is tievoted to comedies and vaudevilles.

Do you suppose that I do not know tint your club appointment is Hi the Bonjtes Pansiens or somewhere else?

Tame, Trans.

Bouillon Castle. An extensive feudal mansion in Belgium, once the seat of the famous Godfrey de Bouillon (1058 ?-1100). It is now used as a prison.

Boulevards. A name given in French cities to the public promenade, and chiefly applied to the wide and magnificent streets of Paris, which occupy the site of the former fortifications, or Bulwarks (whence the name), once devoted to the defence of the city. In the centre is a road which is lined with trees, and between each row of trees and the houses are wide sidewalks. They became a general promenade in the reign of Louis XIV. Each of these

streets has a distinctive name, as the Boulevart ties Itoliens, de la Madeleine, ties Capucines, de Montmartre, Poissoniire, Bonne Nouvelle, St. Denis, St. Martin, du Temple, des Filles du Calvaire, Beaumarchais. Napoleon III. built several great streets which traverse the city in different directions, and to which the name Boulevart is applied. The principal of these new streets are: Boulevart de Prince Eugene, Boulevart de Malesherbes, Boulevart de la Reine Hortcnse, Boulevart de Haussman, Boulevart de Richard Lenoir, Boulevart de Sebastopol. The boulevards exMrieurt constitute a line of broad, continuous road on the site of the ancient octroi wall.

KiT* For the more celebrated boulevards of Paris, see the next prominent word: e.g., Boii.evakt Des Itauens, see Italiens, Boulevart Des.

«3-. "The Boulevarts Tnterimrs, the oldest in Paris, and those best known to the visitor, extend from the Madeleine to the Bastille, and occupy the site of the old walls of Paris, which were pulled down about 1670, when the ground was levelled and trees were planted, and the broad and handsome street thus formed soon became, and still continues, the gayest and most brilliant purt of Paris. Some of the trees had attained large size, but they were cut down to form barricades in the revolutionary struggle of 1830; fresh ones were planted, but many of these were again cut down in 1848, and the Boulevarts thus deprived of their chief ornament. These Boulevarts are thronged with carriages and pedestrians, especially in the evening, when the^ hosts of people sitting outside cafes, tlte throng ot loungers along the pavement, the lofty houses, the splendid shops, the brilliantly lighted cafes, and the numerous tlieatres, form a scene which will be quite new to an Englishman." Murray's Handbook.

Under pretence of doing his dutv. lie pass<d his time In walking to the tuileriea and on the Boulevard.

Alfred de Mussel.

Que ma glolrc s'etende
Du Louvre aux boulevards


Would ten rubles buy a t*g Of ribbon on the boulevard, worth a sou? Mrs. tirvuniny.

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