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Boulogne Flotilla. A naval armament assembled at Boulogne, France, in 1804, by Napoleon I., with the design ofinvading England. It included over 1,200 vessels, with a large force of seamen, infantry, cavalry, and artillery In consequence of Nelson's success, the expedition was abandoned, and the flotilla was dis]>ersed.
Bounty, The. A noted ship which sailed from England in 1787 for the Society Islands in the South Pacific Ocean. Ou the 28th of April, 178't, a mutiny occurred on l>oard, as a result of which the commander, Capt. Bligh, was liound and placed with 18 of his crew in an open boat with 140 pounds of bread, a little meat, and a few gallons of water. They landed at Otaheite, but were driven off, and finally reached New Holland, after having been 4i> days in a small boat upon the open sea on short allowances of food After his return to England, Capt. Bligh published "A Narrative of the Mutiny which occurred on H. M. S. the Bounty," which excited great interest. Lord Byron wrote a poem entitled "The Island," suggested by the adventure. With slow, despairing oar, the abandon'd
skiff 1'ioughs its drear progress to tlte scarceseen cliff. Which lilts Its peak a cloud above the
main: That bout and ship shall never meet ayain! Byron.
Bourbon, Oros. [The Great Bourbon] An orange-tree in the gardens of Versailles, France, said to have reached an age of over 400 years.
When France with civil wan* was torn.
To alt beholders. Horace Smith.
Bourbon Museum. See Museo Bokhonico.
Bourdon, Gros. See Gkos BoukDox.
Bourse, La. [Exchange, or Stock Exchange.] A stately edifice iu
the Place de la Bourse, Paris. It is in the form of a parallelogram, with a surrounding colonnade of Corinthian pillars, and is one of the finest examples of classical architecture in Parts. In it is the Salle de la Bourse, a large and handsome hall with a gallery. The hours for business at the Bourse are from one to five.
*fg~ Bourse is a general term corresponding to the English 'Change. While the Bourse of I'aris is the most prominent and best known, these exchanges exist in the other French cities.
Each vear the number of real artists prows less and less. TaMc has declined since the division of patrimonies has broken fortunes into crumbs, and the lirvat profits of the Bourse soil socletv with new and vulgar wviilth. Taine, 'Trans. When | observe the Parisians on the boult vurd. at the Bourse, at the can* or theatre, I always seem to see a pele-inele of busy anil maddened ants, on whom pepper has been sprinkled.
Taine, Trans. Well-shaven, buxom merchants, looking as trim and fat as those on the Bourse or on 'Change. Thackeray
.1 'ai frequented jusqu'a present.
... La Bourse est un champ clos
Ou e'est, au lieu de sang, de Tor qui coille
a flots Ponsard.
Paris, like Spsrta. has its temple of
Fear, — It is the Bourse. Heine, Trans.
The Bourse is the temple of speculation.
The Bourse is the sibyl's cave of Purls.
Bow Bells. The famous set of bells in the belfry of the Church of St. Mary-le-Bow, Cheapside, London. It was from the extreme fondness of the citizens in the old times for these bells, that a genuine cockney has been supposed to be born within the sound of Bow Bells. The Bow Bells being rung somewhat late for the closing of shops, the young men, 'prentices, ana others in Cheap made this rhyme: —
M Clarke of the Bow Bells with the yellow locks. For thy late ringing thou shall have knocks."
To which the clerk replied : —
"Children of Cheape, hold you all still. Fur you shall liave the Bow Bells rung at your wilt."
The Bow Bells were the ones that rung the famous rhyme In the nursery tale: —
Turn again. Wblttington,
See Bow Church. Far as loud Bow's stupendous bells resound. Pope. t am sure 1 don't know, Says the great bell at Bow.
Bow Church, or St. Mary-le-Bow. A celebrated church in Cheapside, London. According to Stow, an ancient church upon the same site was originally named St. Mary de Arcitbtts, from its being built on arches of stone. The Ecclesiastical Court, "The Court of Arches," was formerly held in this church, and hence derived its name. The bells of this church, which was built by Wren, have long been famed for their sweetness of tone. See Bow Bells.
Tillotson was nominated to the Archbishopric, and was consecrated on Whitsunday, In the church of St. Mary Le Bow. Macaulay.
There has been a saying current among the ancient sibyls, who treasure up these things that when the grasshopper on the top of the Exchange shook hands with the dragon on the top of Bow Church steeple, fearful events would take place. Irving.
Bow Street. A once fashionable street in Covcnt Garden, London, so called from its shape being that of a bent bow. Here in the eighteenth century was Will's well-known coffee-house. Bow Street is especially familiar in connection with the Bow-street Police Office. In this street Fielding wrote his novel " Tom Jones;" and here lived Edmund Waller, Wycherley, and Dr. Radcliffe.
I've had to-day a dozen billets-doux From fops, and wits, and ells, ami Bow street beaux. brydtn.
Through this dingy, ragged, bustling.
beggarly, cheerful scene, we begnn now
to march towards the Bow Street of Jaffa.
Can none remember that eventful day, That ever glorious, almost fatal frav, When Little's leadless pistol met tiU eye, And Bow-street myrmidons stood laughing by? Byron.
At home, our Bow-street gemmen keep the laws.
And here a sentry stands witlirn your calling. Byron.
Bowariyeh. The oldest Chaldiean temple of which any remains exist. It is at Warka (Erek), and was erected at least 2,000 years before Christ. Bowdoin College. An institution of learning in Brunswick, Me., named after Gov. James Bowdoin of Massachusetts, who endowed it with gifts in land and money, together with his library aiid picture-gallery. The latter contains some valuable works of the old masters. The college was incorporated in 1794. Bowery, The. A well-known thoroughfare in New York, nearly parallel with Broadway. It is chiefly populated by the lower classes. At one time it gained notoriety by the ruffian bands known as the Bowery Boys. Bowery Theatre. A theatre on the Bowery, New York, devoted to German plays and operas. Bowling Green. An enclosure just north of the Battery, in the city of New York. It was "the cradle " of the infant city. Hero formerly ptood an equestrian statue of King George III. It was torn down by the people in 1776, and, after being removed to Connecticut, was melted into bullets for the national army. Is this the Bowling Qreen t I should not
know it, So disarrayed, defaced, and gone to seed, Like Home un-I*egasused and prosy poet, Whose Helicon is now the bowi and
weed; Its Green, if grass, docs not precisely show
it, 8o changed to worse from that once
The iron fence, its once proud decoration.
The street, the mansions round, shnre the
disgrace. T. G. Appleton.
The road Is continuous. It Is afl if Broadway had hnlf a dozen names between the Bowling Green and Tltirtvfourth Street. R, O. White.
Bowood. A seat of the Marquis of Lansdowne, near Calne, England. Bowyer, Fort. See Fort Bowyer. Boxers, The. See Two Boxers.
Boy and the Dolphin. A statue executed by Raphael (1483-1520), the Italian painter, and pronounced "a remarkable work of sculpture." It is in the possession of Sir Hervey Bruce, London.
Boy Blowing Bubbles. A wellknown and beautiful picture by Franz van Mieris (1635-1681). At the Hague, Holland.
Boy Praying. A bronze statue, considered one of the finest relics of ancient sculpture, discovered in the bed of the Titer. It was purchased by Frederic II. of Prussia for 10,000 thalers, and placed in his palace at Potsdam. Now in the Museum at Berlin. It is known of Boe'das, son of Lysippus, the celebrated Greek sculptor, that he executed the statue of a praying figure, and by many this is believed to be his work.
O goni us of new days!
Hall from thine ancient tomb; >*ow let thy spirit's blaze
Chase the old world of gloom.
Bright one! thine influence pour
And teach him how to adore,
A'. L. Frothingham.
Boy with a Squirrel. A picture by John Singleton Copley, the American painter(1737-1815). In possession of Mrs. James S. Amory.
Braceio Nuovo. A hall in the Vatican, Rome, built in 1817 under Pius VII., filled with valuable works of sculpture.
XW" This noble hall is upwards of 200 feet in length, and admirably ilghted from a roof supported by CorinthIan columns. It is impossible for works of sculpture to be better disposed; and, out of 72 busts and 43 statues which arc here, there is hardly one which is not excellent." Jlillard.
All tills shows itself in the Braceio yiwco and in countless statues besides, such as the Augustus and the Tiberius.
Tills statue [the Sleeping Ariadne], the Tu-inosthones and tlte Minerva Medica in the A'uoro Braceio. are worthy of peculiar nttentlon to the modem artist, as showing what may be done by a skilful management of drapery. HiUard.
Brae-Mar. A picture by Sir Edwin Landseer (1803-1873), the celebrated English painter of animals. It is pronounced the noblest single figure which he ha» painted, — "a stately stag, standing clearly out on a misty hilltop,and bellowing defiance, while near him are several does." This picture was sold for 521,000 in 1868.
Brambletye House. An ancient mansion of the reign of Henry VII., near the royal forest of Ashdown, in Sussex, England. With its gables and chimneys, moat and drawbridge, it remained an object of interest and curiosity till about 60 years since. About the middle of the seventeenth century Sir Henry Compton erected an elegant baronial mansion, but after the Civil AVar it was deserted. It is now only a picturesque ruin. Horace Smith's romance of" Brambletye House" has its opening scenes laid here.
Bramfleld Oak. A noted tree of great size, not far from Norwich, in England, the age of which exceeded 1,000 years. It fell in 1843, from simple decay.
Branoaeei Chapel. See Capella Bkaxcacci.
Brandenburg Gate. [Ger. Das lirnndcnburijer Thor.'] A noted gate and entrance-way into the city of Berlin, Prussia. It is said to have been modelled after the Propylreum at Athens. On the summit is a triumphal caT, which was carried by Napoleon to Paris, but afterwards recovered.
Brandywine, The. A noted frigate of the United States navy, in service in the war of 1812. She was fitted up to convey Lafayette home to France in 1824 on his return from his visit to this country.
Branksome Hall. A mansion near Hawick, Scotland, belonging to the Duke of Buccleuch, and associated with Scott's poem of the "Lay of the Last Minstrel."
Such Is the custom of Branksome Hall.
Braschi Antinous. See Antinous, Thb (6).
Braschi Palace, fltal. Palazzo Jiraaehi.] A well-known palace in Rome, built near the end of the last century by Pius VI. for his nephew, the Duke of Braschi. 4Ss~ " As you ascend the staircase, you will be struck with its noble archi. tecture, which is in the most chaste and classical taste. The stairs are led up between a colonnade of columns of red Oriental granite, the high polish of which accords well with the lustre of the variegated marbles, and with the graceful symmetry and just design of the whole.'* Eaton.
Brazen Head. See Friab Bacon's Brazen Head.
Brazen Nose College. One of the colleges included in the University of Oxford, England. The tradition is, that its quaint name is derived from the circumstance that it was erected on the site of two ancient halls, one of which was called Brazen No»e Hall on account of an iron ring fixed in a nose of brass, and serving as a knocker to the gate.
Bread and Cheese Land. The name given to a piece of ground, twenty acres in extent, in the parish of Biddenden, Kent, England, where, it is said, pursuant to the will of two maiden sisters, born in 1110 (and traditionally said to have been joined together by the shoulders and hips), "on the afternoon of Easter Sunday, 600 rolls are distributed to strangers, and 270 loaves, weighing three pounds and a half each, are given to the poor of the parish, — the expense being defrayed by the rental of the land."
Bread Street. A street in London, so named from the market in which bread was formerly sold. Stow says that in the year 1302, which was the 30th of Edward I., the bakers of London were forced to sell no bread in their shops or houses, but in the market. In this street John Milton was born, Dec. 9, 1G08; and in the Church
of All Hallows (now destroyed), at the corner of Broad Street and Watling Street, he was baptized. Dec. 20, 1608. See Mermaid Tavern.
Breche do Roland. [Roland's Breach.] A famous mountain pass in the Pyrenees, deriving its name from the tradition that. Roland opened the passage with a blow of his sword, Ditrandal. It is the colossal entrance way from France to Spain, 200 feet wide, 300 feet high, and 50 feet long, at an elevation of more than 9,000 feet above the level of the sea.
Breda, Surrender of. See SURRENDER OF BltEDA.
Brede, La. An interesting and ancient chateau, in the vicinity of Bordeaux, France. It is the seat of the Montesquieu family. It was here that the great historian and philosopher of that name was born and wrote.
Brederode Castle. A picturesque ruined fortress of the Middle Ages, in the neighborhood of Haarlem, Holland.
Breed's Hill. An eminence (formerly so called) in Charlestown, now a part of Boston, Mass. See Bunker Hill Monument.
Brera, La. A palace in Milan, Italy, containing a famous gallery of paintings, together with a museum of antiquities. The building was erected in 1618, and is said to derive its name from the Latin prcedlum, meadow.
Leonardo da Vinci'B angels do not quite
f lease me, elegant, refined, and lovely as hey are: "mclhlnks they smile too much." By his scholar t.uml (bore are some angels In the gallery of the Brera. swinging censers and playing on musical Instruments, which, with the peculiar character of the Milanese school, combine all the grace of a purer, loftier nature.
Breton Club. A political association formed at Versailles, France, in 1789. The name was subsequently changed to that of the Jacobin Club.
Bridal Veil. 1. A noted fall in the Yosemite Valley, Cal. The water falling from a height of 1,000 feet is converted Into mist before reaching the bottom.
2. A slender fall on the American shore, at Niagara Falls.
Bride's, St. See St. Bride's.
Bridewell. Formerly a workhouse and prison, now a hospital in London. The prison was founded upon the ancient palace of Bridewell, in which is laid the whole third act of Shakespeare's "Henry VIII." The name is derived from the famous well (St. Bride's, or St. Bridget's Well) in the vicinity of St. Bride's Church; and, this prison being the first of its kind, other houses of correction upon the same plan were called Bridewells.
Bridge of Alcantara. See Puente Dk Alcantara.
Bridge of Balgownie. See Brio o' Balgownie.
Bridge of Lodi. A bridge over the river Adda, at Lodi, in Italy, famous in military history in connection with the wars of Napoleon.
l'.:in 1. s ami bloodshed, September massacres. Undoes of Lodi, retreats of Moscow, Waterloo*, l'eterloo*. ten-pound franchises, tar-barrels and guillotines.
Bridge of St. Angelo. This- bridge — the ancient Puns^Elitts—which crosses the Til>er immediately opposite the Castle of St. Angelo in Rome, was erected by Hadrian as a passage to his mausoleum. At the end are the statues of St. Peter and St. Paul. See St. Anuelo.
4JS""The piera and arches are ancient, but have been a (rood deal repaired; not, indeed, till it was necessary, for in the Pontilicate of Clement VII., when crowdB wen- pressing forward to St. Peter's to share In the benellts and indulgences offered to the
fious there, the bridge gave way, and 72 persons are said to have perished in the Tiber." Eaton.
Even as the Romans, for the mighty host.
Dante (Inferno), Longfellow's Trans.
I may be wrong; but the Tiber has a voice for me, as it whispers to the plera o( the Pons jElius. even more full of meaning than my well-beloved Charles eddying round the piles of West Boston Bridge. hot met.
Bridge of Segovia. See Pckntb Del Diablo.
Bridge of Sighs. [Ital. Ponte dei Sospiri.] This bridge over the Rio Canal in Venice, Italy, connecting the Doge's palace and the state prisons, is so called because the condemned passed over it on the way to execution. "The Bridge of Sighs " is also the title of a well-known poem by Thomas Hood (1796-1845^ which begins:—
"One more unfortunate.
tf " The Venice of modern fiction and drama is a thing of yesterday, a mere efflorescence of decay, a stagedrama, which the first ray of davlight must dissipate into dust. No prisoner whose name is worth remembering, or whose sorrows deserved sympathy, ever crossed that Bridge of Sighs, which is the centre of the Byronic ideal of Venice." Rankin.
>:,:■ " The Bridge of Sighs was not built till the end of the sixteenth century, and no romantic episode of political imprisonment and punishment (except that of Antonio Fosearini) occur* in Venetian history later than that period. But the Bridge of Sighs could have nowise a savor of sentiment from any Buch episode; being, as it was, merely a means of communication between the criminal courts sitting in the I>ucal Palace and the criminal prison across the little canal. Housebreakers, cut-purse knaves, and murderers do not commonly impart a poetic interest to place* which have known them; and yet these are the only sufferers on whose Bridge of Sighs the whole sentimental world has looked with pathetic sensation ever since Byron drew attention to it. The name of the bridge was given by the people from that opulence of compassion which enables the Italians to pity even rascality in difficulties." W. D. Howelts.