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I stood In Venice, on the Bridge of Bxghi:
A palace and a prison on each hand.


Bridgewater Gallery. See Bridge

Water House. Bridgewater House. The town residence of the Earl of Ellesinere, London, built in 1847-4!) on the site of Cleveland House, where once resided Barbara Villiers, Duchess of Cleveland, and which had at different times belonged to the great Earl of Clarendon, and to the Earls of Bridgewater. It contains a very celebrated collection of pictures, called the Bridgewater Gallery, and sometimes the Stafford Gallery ; it having l>een left by the Duke of Bridgewater to his nephew, the Marquis of Stafford. It is the finest private collection in England; comprising some of the best works of Raphael, Titian, Guido, Domenichmo, Rubens, Rembrandt, Vandyke, and other masters, as well as those of the modern artists.

t&~" From the time of Raphael the series is more complete than in any private gallery I know, not excepting the Lichtenstein Gallery at Vienna. The Cancel school can nowhere be studied to more advantage."

Mi v. Jameson.

Bridgewater Madonna. See MaDonna OK THE Bkidoewatek

Gallery. Brig o* Balgownie. A famous bridge of a single arch near Aberdeen, Scotland, built in the time of Rolnirt Bruce (1274-1329). It has been made familiar by Byron, who alludes to it iu his poem of " Don Juan." >

4^- " It is a single gray stone arch, apparently cut from solid rock, thin spans the brown rippling waters, where wild overhanging banks, shadowy trees, and dipping wild flowers, all conspire to make a romantic picture. This bridge, with the river and scene, ry, were poetic items that went, with other things, to form the sensitive mind of Byron, who lived here in his earlier days, lie has some lines about it: — 'As "Auld laug Syne" brings Scotland, one and all, Scotch plaids, Scotch sniwds, the blue hills, and clear streams,

The Dee, the Don, Balgownie's brig's black wall. All my boy-feelings, all my gentler dreams.

Like Banquo'soffspring — floating past

me seems My childhood.'" Mrs. //. B. Stotoe.

Brig o' Doon. A bridge across the river Doon, in Scotland, near the town of Ayr, made famous by the poetry of Burns. Now do thy speedy utmost, Meg, And win the key-stane of the brig: There nt them thou thy tali may toss, A running stream they dareim cr>«« '■

Tarn O'Shanter.

Brignole Sale Palace. [Ital. /'«luzzo Briyiwle SaleA A beautiful palace in Genoa, Italy, now the property of the city, and containing many fine treasures of art. It derives its uame rosso from being painted of a red color. It formerly belonged to the Brignole family.

Britain, Little. See Little BritAin.

Britannia Bridge. A famous iron tubular bridge across Menai Strait, which separates the island of Auglesea from Carnarvon, Wales. It consists of two lines of tubes, each 1,613 feet long, supported on three piers, in addition to the abutments, 100 feet above the sea. It is situated one mile from the Menai suspension bridge.

A fourth [stone In the substructure of a temple at Banlbec] of similar dimensions is Ivmg in the quarry, which it is calculnted must welnh alone more than 1.100 tons in its rouj;li stale, or nearly as much as. one of the tubes of the Britannia Bridge Fcrgutsuit.

Britannia Theatre. A well-built theatre in Loudon, opened in 1858.

British Coffee-house. A London coffee-house, formerly frequented by Scotchmen.

British Museum. This celebrated institution, formed of three collections, — the Cottoniau, the Harleian, and the Sloane, — occupies the site of Montague House in Great Russell Street, London. It has been the growth of a century, the first purchase for the collection having l>een maile in 175:(, and it having been opened to the public 17511. It was at first divided into three departments, viz.: Printed Books,Manuscripts, and Natural History. To these have since been added other departments, as Antiquities anil Arts, Medals and Coins, Prints and Drawings, Zoological Collections, etc. The Elgin marbles, the Egyptian antiquities, and the Assyrian sculptures collected by Layard, are among the chief curiosities of the institution. The Library is one of the largest and most valuable in Europe.

Brittany Sheep. A picture byRosa Bonheur (b. 1822), the celebrated French painter of animals.

Broad Street. One of the great thoroughfares of Philadelphia, Perm. It is over 100 feet in width, and runs in a straight line 15 miles.

Broadway. A noted street, and the great thoroughfare of New York, extending from the Battery, at the extreme lower end of the island, to Central Park. In respect of length, the imposing character of its buildings, and the importance of the business transacted in it. this avenue is unequalled in the world.

Princes' Street, the Broadway of the new town. Is hutlt along the edge of the ravine lacing the Ion*, many-windowed walls of the Callongale. Jf. P. Willis.

He's so Innate a cockney, that halt he been bom

Where phiin bare-skin's the only fulldress that is worn.

He'd have given his own such an air that you'd **y

T hail been made by a tailor to lounge in
Broadway Lowell.

Tell me not. In half-derision.
Of your Honleviirds I'arlslan.

With their hrilllant hroild parts,
Stili for us Hie best I* nearest.
Ami the lust Jove is the dearest,

And theQueen of streets — Broadieav.
W. A. Butler.

For the wide sidewalks of Broadway are
Gorgeous aa are a rivulet's banks In
,1 tine.
That, overhung with blossoms, through
Its glen
Slides soft away beneath the sunny

And they>whft search the untrodden wood

for flowers Meet in Its depths no lovelier ones than

ours. Bryant (Spring in Town).

Brocken, Spectre of the. See Spectke Of The Bkockek.

Brohlth.il. This lovely valley of the Rhine is surrounded by mountains, and a rapid brook runs through it. It is especially remarkable that the whole bottom of the valley consists of tuffstone 15 to 50 feet "in thickness.

Bromserburg. A well-known ruined castle at Rudesheim, on the Rhine.

Bronze Door [of the Capitol at Washington]. A work of art, forming the entrance to the Rotunda of the Capitol. It is entirely of bronze, weighing 20,000 pounds, and was designed by Randolph Rogers, an American artist. The casting was executed at Munich in 18til. The door is 17 feet in height by !• feet in width. It contains 8 panels with reliefs exhibiting scenes in the life of Columbus.

Bronze Gates [of Ghiberti]. Famous gates of bronze in the Baptistery of St. John at Florence, Italy, executed from designs furnished by Lorenzo Ghiberti (13781455?). the greatest sculptor of his time. These gates represent scenes from the New Testament. Ghiberti is said to have spent more than 20 years on these bronze gates, which were pronounced by Michael Angelo worthy to be the Gates of Paradise. Bronze Horses. Four celebrated figures of horses, in bronze, which were brought by the Venetians from Constantinople, and which now stand over the vestibule of the Cathedral of St. Mark, in Venice, Italy.

lie rthc doge Danduio] went to die; Hut of his trophies four arrived ere long. Snatched from destruction,—the four

steeds divine. That strike the ground, resounding with

their feet. And from their nostrils snort ethereal

flame Over that very porch, Rogers.

4£#f* " A glorious team of horsee,— ■what aeeraed strange to me was, that, closely viewed, they appear heavy, while from the piazza below they look light as deer." Goethe, Trans.

&$• " It should seem that the horses arc irrevocably Chian, and were transferred to Constantinople by Theodoeiua." Byron.

&£• " We have seen no bravoea with poisoned stilettos, no masks, uo wild carnival; but we have seen the ancient

fride of Venice, the grim Bronze torses that figure in a thousand legends. Venice may well cherish them, for they are the only horses she ever had." Mark Twain.

Before St. Mark still glow his steeds of
Their gilded collar* glittering In the sun;
But is not Doris's menace come to imss?
Are they not bridled t Byron.

Bronze Wolf. See Wolf Op The

Brook Farm. A celebrated community or association organized for agricultural and also for educational purposes, at West Roxbury, Mass., in 1841. Nathaniel Hawthorne and George Ripley were among its founders. In his preface to the "Blithedale Romance,'* which is thought to embody a description of the community, Hawthorne says that he has "ventured to make free with his old and affectionately - remembered Brook Farm, as being certainly the most romantic episode of his own life." The characters introduced into this romance are wholly fictitious, though they may naturally enough be thought to narmonize well with the scene of the story.

0~" The self-conceited pbllanthro

Sist; the high-spirited woman bruising
erself against the narrow limitations
of her sex; the weakly maiden whose
tremulous nerves endow her with sib-
ylline attributes; the minor pool be-
ginning life with strenuous aspirations
which die out with his youthful fervor:
all these might have been looked for at
Brook Farm, but, by some accident,
never made their appearance there."

tStr' " While our enterprise lay all In theory, wc had pleased ourselves with delectable visions of the splritualizntion of labor. It was to be our form of prayer and ceremonial of worship. Each stroke of the hoe was to uncover

some aromatic root of wisdom, heretofore hidden from the sun. ... In this point of view, matters did not turn oul quite so well as we anticipated. . . . The clods of earth which we so constantly belabored and turned over and over, were never etherealized into thought. Our thoughts, on the contrary, were fast becoming cloddish." Hawthorne,

Here Is a new enterprise of Brook Farm* of Skeneateles, of Northampton: why so Impatient-to baptize them Essenes, or Port Royalists, or Shakers, or by any known and effete name if Emerson.

Between the generality of these theorists and Emerson there was a wide gap, although he. like Hawthorne, if leas practically, sympathized with Ripley's Brook Farm experiment.

Lathrop, Harper's Hag.

Brooks's. A Whig club in London, founded as Almack's Club in 1764. The club-house in St. James's Street was opened in 1778. Sir Joshua Reynolds, Burke, Hume, Garrick, Gibbon, Horace Walpole, Sheridan, and Wilberforce were among the noted men of Brooks's. See Almack's Club.

The choicest wines are enhanced in their liberal but temperate use by tho vista opened In Lord Holland's tales of bacchanalian evenings at Brooks's with Fox and Sheridan, when potations deeper and more serious rewarded the statesman's toils, and shortened his duvs.


Not to know Brown was. at the West End, simply to he unknown. Brookes was proud of him, and without him the Travellers would not have been such H Travellers :>- It is. Anthony Trvllope.

Brothers, The. A political club in London, the rules for which were framed, in 1713, by Dean Swift, who declared that the end of the club was "to advance conversation and friendship, and to reward learning without interest or recommendation;" and that it was to take in "none but men of wit, or men of interest; and if we go on as we began, no other club in this town will be worth talking of." The meetings of the club were held every Tuesday, first at the Thatched House Tavern, and latterly at the Star and Garter. The Brothers Club having to a great extent served its purpose was succeeded, in 1714, by the Scriblerus Club. See Scriblerus Club.

Brothers, The. [Ger. Die Briider.'] See Stern Hero.

Brougham Hall. The ancient and picturesque seat of Lord Brougham in the neighborhood of Penrith, Cumberland, England. It is called, from its situation and beautiful view, the "Windsor of the North."

Broughton Castle. A noted mansion of the Elizabethan age, the seat of Lord Saye and Sele, near Banbury, in the county of Oxford, England.

Brown University. An institution of learning in Providence, B.I. It was originally founded in 17M, at Warren, as Rhode Island College, removed to Providence in 1770, and in 1804 named Brown University. Here is a library of about 40,000 volumes, a museum of natural history, and a portraitgallery.

Broxbourne House. The seat of the Duke of Roxburghe, near Dunbar, Scotland.

Bruce's Castle. This castle on Rathlin Island, between Ireland and Scotland, derives its name from the fact that Rol>ert Bruce was long concealed here. Here occurred the well-known incident of the spider and the web.

Bruce's Tomb. See Harpers' Tomb.

Bruges, Belfry of. See Belfry Ok Bulges.

Briihl Palace. A well-known building in Dresden, Saxony. In front of the palace is the Briihl terrace overlooking the Elbe.

Brunswick Square. A well-known public square in London, England.

Brunswick Theatre. This theatre in London, built upon the site of the Royalty Theatre, and opened in 1828, fell to the ground, from defective construction, during a rehearsal, a few days after the opening.

Bteddin. A ruined palace of the Emir Beshir (b. 17(M), " Prince of Lebanon," in Northern Palestine. It was once gorgeously furnished

in the highest style of Damascene art, with marble pavements and gilded arabesqued ceilings, but is now entirely abandoned to decay.

Bubastis, Temple of. See Temple or Bubastis.

Bucentaur, The. The name of the famous galley in which the Doge of Venice went out once a year to wed the Adriatic. The name is said to be a corruption of Ducentorum, i.e., a vessel having two hundred oars. There have been only three Bucentaurs. One was built in 1520. Another, still more splendid, was built in the following century. The third and last was constructed in 1725, and destroyed in 17!l7. It is said that the gilding alone of this last cost $40,000. The ceremony of the Espousal of the Adriatic is of higher antiquity than the construction of the first Bucentaur. This wedding ceremony, symbolizing the naval supremacy of Venice, owes its origin to the victory of the Venetians over the fleet of Frederick Barbarossa. A consecrated ring was each year thrown into the sea in the presence of the papal Nuntio and the diplomatic corps, with the declaration by the Doge that, "We wed thee, O sea, in sign of true and perpetual dominion" (Detpontamus te, mare, in siynum vtri perpetuiqite dvminii).

$&- "In the model-room [of the Arsenal at Venice] are mlniuturc representations of all forms of navigable craft, from ancient galley* down to modern frigates. There is also a model of the Bucentaur, made from drawings and recollections after the original had been destroyed. This must have been a gorgeous toy, but very unseaworthy. A bit of tbe mast of the original structure 1b still preserved." Millard.

The spouseless Adriatic mourns her lord;
And, annual marriue.e now no more re-
The Bucentaur lies rotting unrestored,
Neglected garment of Iter widowhood!

As nrlpht as In a blue lagune,
Wh"*n gondolas from shore to shore
Swam round the golden Bucentaur

On a Venetinn holhlav.
What time the Dose threw in the tide
The ring which made the sea hi* bride

T. B. Read.

Buckingham Palace. The town resilience of the sovereign of England, situated in London, on the west side of St. James's Park. It was built between 1825 and 1837, upon the site of Buckingham House. Queen Victoria took up her residence here July 13,1837.

Buen Ketiro. [Pleasant Retreat.] Extensive pleasure-grounds in Madrid, Spain, laid out as a place of retirement for Philip IV., in order to divert his attention from politics. Here were formerly situated a palace and a theatre in which the plays of Lope de Vega were acted. These gardens have been thrown open to the public since the revolution of 1868.

Buildins of Carthago. A wellknown and admired picture by Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775-1851), the English landscapepainter, and regarded one of his best works. Now in the National Gallery, London.

S3- " The principal object in the foreground of Turner's 'Building of Carthage,' Is a group of children sailing toy-boats." Bunkin.

Bull, The Young. A celebrated picture by Paul Potter (1625-1054), the Dutch painter. It represents a young bull with a cow, reposing, and a sheep and a shepherd, in a landscape. "All these figures are as large as life, and the cattle so extraordinarily true to nature as not only to appear real at a certain distance, but even to keep up the illusion when seen near; the single hairs on the cow's head being seemingly palpable to the touch. The plastic element and the energy of execution are particularly imposing upon so large a scale. There is but one fault, —the legs of the bull, and the bent foreleg of the cow, are a little stiff." It is in the Museum of the Hague, Holland.

t&- "There cannot be a greater contrast to a very generalized mode of treatment than that displayed in the celebrated picture of 'The Bull' by Paul Potter, which approaches the nearest to deception of any really Hue work of art I have seen. . . . Through

out the picture. Indeed, we sec that the hand has been directed by the eye of a consummate artist, and not merely by a skilful copyist." C. R. Lentil.

Bull, The. See Faknese Bull and Aldebjsey Bull.

Bull and Mouth Inn. A noted hostelry of Loudon in former days, in the street of the same name.

Also the bumpkins from Norfolk Just disgorged by tlie Bull and Mouth. — the soldiers, the milliners, the Frenchmen, the swindlers, ihe porters with four-pt»t beds on their backs who add the excitement of danger to that of amusement.

y. p. wiiiii.

Bull of Phalaris. Phalaris, tyrant of Agrigentum, in Sicily, who lived in the sixth century before Christ, is said to have employed an Athenian artist to make for him a brazen bull so constructed as to contain a man, and a small fire by which he would be burned to death. History adds that the artist was the first victim of the punishment he had himself invented. Phalaris subjected his enemies and many citizens of Agrigentum to this punishment, but finally the people revolting caused him to be destroyed by the same means.

Lettres de cachet, that masterpiece of Ingenious tyranny, are more dangerous to men than the hrazen bull, that Infernal Invention of Phalaris, hecrtiise they unite to the most odious uniformity an imposing appearance of Justice. Mirabeau.

Bunhill Fields. A burial-ground in London, and the place of interment of several eminent men. It was opened as a suburban place for burial in 1665, and was closed in 1850. According to Souther, Bunhill-Fields' burial-ground is the Campo Santo of the Dissenters. It was one of the chief places for burial in the time of the Great Plague. John Bunyan, Daniel DeFoe, Isaac Watts, and Nathaniel Lardner were buried here. Its original name of " Bonehill Fields" is supposed to have arisen from its having been made a place of deposit for more than 1,000 cart-loads of human bones removed from the charnel-house of St. Paul's.

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