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summer, owing to the miasmata which rise from it. Pliny speaks of the healthfulness and perennial salubrity of this now desolate region, which was once adorned with Roman villas and gardens. Pius VI. (1775-1799) drained a portion of this plain.

J8EJ- "Of all kinds of country that

could, by possibility, lie outside the

gates of Rome, this is the aptest and

fittest burial-ground for the Dead City."


sKf '* Over this region of the Campagna a light still hangs more beautiful than its golden mists or the purple shadows that lie upon its distant hills. The spirit of the past dwells here, and breathes over the landscape the consecrating gleams of valor, patriotism, and filial duty." 1/illurd.

J03~ *' Nothing -can be more heartrending than the contrast which the immediate ami the present here form with the recollections of the past, gilded as they are by the feelings and the fancy. I cannot express the sinking of heart which I felt in passing so many hours over this dreary waste — these lugentex campi, so different from all the deserts nature has elsewhere left or created." Tkknor.

Nothing impresses the traveller more. on visiting the once imperial city, than the long lin'-s of aqueducts that are everywhere seen stretehfng across the now deserted plain of the Campagna.


Groves, temples, palaces. Swept from the slKht: and nothing risible. Amid the sulphurous vapors that t-xhale As from a laud accurst, save here and

there An empty tomb, a fragment like the limb Of some dismembered giant.

Samuel Rogers.

No wreaths of sad Campagna's flowers Shall childhood in thy pathway fling;

No garlands from their ravaged bowers
Shall Terni's maidens bring. Whittier.

The priest, and the swart flsher by his side,
Beheld the Eternal City lift Its domes
And solemn fanes and monumental pomp
Above the waste Camjtagna. Whiltier.

Campana Museum. An old Roman collection, now forming part of the Musee Napoleon III., in the Louvre, Paris. It was bought by the French Government in 1861. This museum contains a fine collection of antique statues, and is rich in jewels of gold and precious stones.

MHc. d'Estang had earrings like those

In the Campana Museum, with emeralds.

7'aiiie, l'rans.

Campanile. In Italy, the general name for the belfry or bell-tower of a church, usually in that country a separate building from the church itself. The more noted campaniles are those of Florence, Pisa, and Venice. See Giotto's Campanile, the Leaning Tower, and St. Mark's Campanile.

Campbell. See Castle CampBell.

Campidoglio, Piazza del. See Piazza Del Campidoglio.

Campo di Sangue. See Field Of Blood.

Campo Marzo. The modern Italian name of the ancient Campus Martitts, or Field of Mars, a low irregular plain in the city of Rome, between the Corso and the Tiber, surrounded by the Pincian, Quirinal, Viminal, and Capitoline hills, including the principal portion of the modem city. See Campits Martics.

Campo Santo. [The Holy Field.] A celebrated cemetery in Pisa, Italy, adjoining the Cathedral and Baptistery. It was founded by Archbishop Ubaldo de' Lanfranchi, about the year 120Q, who. retreating from Palestine, whence he had been expelled by Saladin, returned with 5IJ vessels laden with earth from Mount Calvary, which he deposited in this place. The present building was begun in l'J78. It has given its name to every similar burial-place in Italy. It contains a museum of sepulchral monuments, aud frescos of much celebrity.

*3T " Giovanni Pisann, having been appointed to enclose the space with walls, designed and built the first, as well as the most beautiful, Campo Santo In Italy. Fullowing the ground, plan marked out by Archbishop Lanfranchi, Giovanni raised his outer walls without windows, and with only two doors looking towards the Duomo, that the frescos, with which they were to be covered on the inside, might be protected as far as possible from the injurious effect of the salt and damp seawinds. Between these outer walls, which ho decorated with arches nnd pilasters, and the Inner, directly contiguous to the quadrangle, he made a broad-roofed corridor paved with marble, lighted by Gothic windows and four open doorways." Perkins.

The Cemetere cnl'd Campo Santo Is made of divers enlly ladlnrs ot earth formerly brought from .Icrus-ilem, said to bo of such a nattire as to consume de.td bodies in forty hours. 'TIs cloistered with marble arches. John Evelyn, 1644.

Love, lonx remembering those she could

not save. Here liuntf the cradle of Italian Art: i'u.th rocked It: like a hermit child went

forth From hci.ee that power which beautified

the earth. She perished when the world had lured

her heart From her true friends, Ucllgion and the Grave.

Monumental marbles,

Time-clouded frescos, mouldering year by year, Dim cells In which all day the night-bird warbles. — These things arc sorrowful elsewhere, not here: A mljrhtler Power than Art's huth hero her shrine: Strong r I thou tread'st the soil of Palestine. Aubrey de Yere.

Even the "lumberers in the churchyard of the Campo Santo sc nied

Scarce more quiet than the living world that underneath us drenmed.

T. W. Pawns.

A signal example is the fine enthroned Madonna In t:ie Cainpo Santo, who receives St. Itiinl rl when presented hy St. l'eter and St. Paul. Mrs. Jameson.

Campo Vacoino. [The Cow-Pasture.] The modern Italian name of the Forum Romanum, or Roman Forum, derived, it is supposed, from the greater part of the area having become, as far hack as the fifteenth century, the resort of cattle, "a kind of Roman Smithtield;" but according to others the name is derived from one Vitruvius Vacco, who is said to have lived there. See Forum Romanum.

1844, Nov. 7. We went Into the Campo Vaccino by the rules uf the Temple of Peace built by Titus Vespaslanus.

John Evelyn.

Campus Esquilinus. [Esquiline Field.] A burial-ground for the poor in ancient Rome. It now makes a part of the grounds of the Villa Massimo.

Campus Martius. [Field of Mars.] 1. The ancient name of the irregular plain in the city of Rome surrounded by the Pincian, Quirinal, Viminal, and Capitoline hills, now including the principal portion of the modern city. This region did not come within the walls of ancient Rome, and it is thought that settlements were first made here during the Lombard invasion, when, the supply of water through the aqueducts having been cut off, the people were compelled to desert the hills and seek the plain below where they could use the water of the Tiber. The Pantheon and a few fragments of other structures are all that is now left of the buildings which were erected upon the Campus. Campo Marzo is the modern Italian name of the ancient Field of Mars.

— There of old With orms nnd trophies gleamed the field

of Mars: There to their dally sports the noble youth

rushed emulous. John Dyer.

2. A largo open square in Detroit, Mich.

Campus Sceleratus. [The Accursed Field.] A field in ancient Rome where unchaste virgins were buried alive.

Cana, Marriage at. See Mar


Canadian Fall. See Iiorse-shok Fall.

Canal of the Qiudecoa. A picture of a sceuo in Venice, by Joseph Mallord William Turner (17751851). In the National Gallery, London.

Canal Street. A noted street in New Orleans, La. It has a breadth of nearly 200 Sect, with a grass-plot 25 feet in width in the centre, extending the entire distance.

Canale Grande. See Grand CaNal.

Cancelleria, Palazzo della. A magnificent palace in Rome, coin

Sleted in 1-105, the official resience of the Vice-Chaucellor.

Cane, Grotta del. See Grotta

Del Cane. Cannon Street. A well-known

.modern street in London, leading

out of St. Paul's Churchyard. Canon, The. A celebrated print

by Albert Diirer (1471-1528) which

is thought to be the first example

ot the art of etching. Canon. See Grand Cason Of The

Yellowstone. Canonbury Tower. A building in

London, formerly the resort and

lodging-place of many literary


Canongate. A noted street and the principal thoroughfare in the Old Town of Edinburgh, Scotland (bearing different names at other points of its course), and terminating at the rocky eminence on which stands the palace of Holyrood. Sir AValter Scott pul>lished two series of tales entitled "Chronicles of the Canongate." Strew'd were the streets around with

milk-white reams, Flow'd all the Canongate with Inky

streams. Byron.

Canons Park. A palatial residence built by the "Great Duke of Chandos," near Edgeware, England. It was a favorite resort of literary men, including Pope, who often alludes to it. The original building is no longer standing.

Canopus, Decree of. See Stone Op San.

Canterbury Cathedral. A magnificent cathedral at Canterbury, England. It was designed by Sir James Burrough, was begun in 1174, and finished in the reign of Henry V. It contains the shrine of Thomas a Bccket, in former times a great resort of pilgrims. See SnitiNE Of Thomas A Becket.

And specially from every shire's ende
Of Lntjle lond to Canterbury llicy wendc.

Cape Horn. A name given to a locality on the line of the Central Pacific Railroad, in California.

JEJ- "The bluffs at this point are ao precipitous that when the railroad was made the workmen had to be lowered down the face of the rock by ropes, and

held on by men above, until they were enabled to'blast for themselves a foothold on the side of the precipice."

Samuel Smile*.

Capella Borghese. [Borghese Chapel.] A gorgeous chapel, so called from the Borghese family, in the church of Santa Maria Mnggiore in Rome, built for Paul V. in 1B08, rich in marbles, alabasters, and frescos.

**T" "The splendor of the opposite Borghese chapel so far surpasses my feeble powers of description that i shall leave it all to your imagination, to which you may give abundance of latitude, for it can scarcely surpass the reality. It contains one of St. Luke's

firecious performances, a miraculous mage of the Virgin." Eaton.

Capella Brancacci. [Brancacci Chapel.] A chapel in the convent of the Carmine, Florence, Ita.lv, celebrated for its fine'frescos by Maaacclo (1402?-1443).

*S~ "The importance of these frescos arises from the fact that they hold the same place in the history of art during the fifteenth century, as the works of Giotto, in the .Arena chapel at Padua, hold during the fourteenth. Each series forms on epoch in painting." Layard.

People at the present day still eo to the Brancacci Chapel to contemplate this Isolated creator CMasaccln] wlione precocious example no one followed 7'aine, Trani. He came to Florence lonjr a(?o And puiiiteil here these walls, thatshouo For riaphacl and for Angolo With secrets deeper than his own. Then shrank Into the dark again. And died, we know not how or when.


Capella Clementina. See ClemEnt's Chapel.

Capella Corsini. See Cobsini Chapel.

Capella della Colonna Santa. [Chapel of the Holy Pillar.] A chapel in St. Peter's Church, Rome, so called from an inscribed pillar in it, concerning which the church tradition is that it is the one against which Christ leaned when teaching in the Temple at Jerusalem.

Capella Paolina. [Tailine Chapel.] An .ipartment in the Vatican Palace, Rome, built in 1540 for Paul III. It contains two frescos by Michael Angelo.

*y "Two excellent frescos executed by Michael Angelo on the side walls of the I'auline Chapel are little cared for, and are so much blackened by the smoke of lamps that they are seldom mentioned. The Crucifixion of St. Peter, under the large window, is in a most unfavorable light, but Is distinguished for its grand, severe composition. Tlint on the opposite wall — the Conversion of St. Paul — is still tolerably distiuct." Kugler.

Capella Sistina. See Sistwe ChapEl.

Capitol, The [Rome]. See CapiToline Hill and Piazza Del Campidoglio.

Capitol [of the United States]. The immense and magnificent building in Washington, D.C., devoted to the uses of the American Congress. The centre building is of freestone painted white. Its corner-stone was laid by Washington in 17112. The marble extensions were begun in 1851. The total length of the original Capitol, together with the wings and corridors, is 737 feet. The building covers an area of 3J acres, and the cost of erection has been over $13,000,000. It is surmounted by an iron dome which is 287 feet above the base of the building, and 135J feet in diameter, being surpassed in size only by four domes in Europo, — that "of St. Peter's at Rome, of St. Paul's in London, St. Isaac's in St. Petersburg, and that of the Invalides in Paris. The dome is surmounted by a colossal statue of Liberty iu bronze, l!)feet in height, standing upon a globe which bears the inscription E Pluribus Unum. Within the Capitol are included the Senate Chamber, the Hall of the House of Representatives, the Supreme Court room, and the Library of Congress.

J83j- "We have built no national temples but the Capitol; we consult no common oracle but the Constitution." S. Choute. When.lo! in a viRlon Iseemed to stand In tli" lonely Capitol. On each hand K.-ir stretched the riortlco; dim anil irrnnd Its columns ranged, like a martial band Of sheett'd spectres whom sonic command Had culled to ft last reviewing.

lint Hartt.

Capitol [of New York]. An immense and imposing building in the city of Albany, the capital of the State of New York, designed for legislative purposes and the uses of the executive department of the State. The structure is of the Renaissance architecture, and one of the best finished and most costly edifices of the kind in the world. Capitoline Hill. [Lat. Mons Capitolinus.] One of the original seven hills of ancient Rome, immediately contiguous to the Forum, and still bearing the same name. The Church of Ara Cceli is supposed to mark the site of the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, which formerly stood upon the summit. There is a depression called the Intermontium, upon the top of the hill, forming two heights, upon the summit of one of which the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus is thought to have stood, and upon the summit of the other the Arx Capitolii. Upon the latter mount is placed the temple which Romulus is said to have built and to have dedicated to Jupiter Feretrius. Tho hill was originally called Mons Sattirnius, and afterwards (or certainly the whole of one side of it) Mons Tarpeia, from her who, during the war with the Sabines, longing for the golden bracelets of the enemy, and allured by tho promise of receiving that which they wore upon their arms, treacherously opened the fortress to the Sabines, and was rewarded by lieing crushed by the shields which they threw upon her in passing. It lastly received the name of Mons Capitolinus (or Capitolium), because in digging the foundations for the Temple of Jupiter (Capitolinus) a bloody human head was found, which the augurs declared to be an omen that Rome was destined to become the head of Italy. The famous Tarpeian Rock was also upon this side of the Intermontium, though its exact situation is not definitely determined. See Piazza Del Campidoglio.

M&- "Bat when we think of Its Invulnerable citadel, its vanished temples, it* triumphal arches, its splendid porticos, its golden statues, and all its unparalleled but forgotten splendors — it is indeed a contrast to look round on the scattered ruins of that seat of empire which awed the world; to behold a convent of barefooted friars usurping the proud temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, a few miserable hovels crowning the Tarpeian Hock, and the palace of a modern Roman patrician occupying the site of the house of Ovid and the School of Philosophers." C. A. Eaton.

tS~ "No language contains a word of more expression and significance than the Capitol, nor is there a spot on earth more full of historical interest. It was at once a fortress and a temple; the head of the Roman state and the shrine of their religion. The Capitol was the symbol of ancient Rome, as St. Peter's and the Vatican are the symbols of the modern and mediaeval etty." 0. S. HiUarii.

"L'nsexed, but foul with barren lust.
Marshalled her powers to overwhelm
Our Capitol and ancient realm,

And lay Home's glories in the dust?

lioraeeH Trans.

Cat. Cesar, 1 never stood on ceremonies. Yet now they fright me. There is one

within. Besides the things that we have heard

and seen. Recounts most horrid sights seen by the

watch. A lioness hath whelped In the streets; And graves have yawn'd, and yielded up

their dead; Fierce fiery warriors fought upon the

clouds. In ranks, and squadrons, and right form of

war. Which drizzled blood upon the Capitol.


Capitoline Museum. See Mrs Ho

Capitolino. Capitolium. See Capitoline Hill

and Piazza Del Campidohlio.

Cappuccini, Convent, Church, and Cemetery of the. One of the largest and most populous convents in Rome, belonging to the monks of the order of St. Francis. The conventual Church contains a number of fine pictures, including that of the "Archangel Michael and the Devil " by Guido. Adjoining the Church is the famous Cemetery of the Cappuccini. It is a sort of museum of I

bones, consisting of four chambers decorated with human bones, and bodies that have become mummified. The earth was brought hither from Jerusalem. Several skeletons are standing upright, dressed in their monastic robes. Whenever a brother dies, he is buried in the oldest grave, and the bones which have been displaced to make room for him are removed to the general collection.

Caprino, Monte. See Monte CaPkino.

Capucines, Boulevart des. One of the boulevards of Paris. See Boulevards.

Caracalla, Baths of. See Baths Op Caracalla.

Card Party. A small but very interesting picture, representing a company of men and women at a card-table, bv Luc Jucobsz, commonly called Lucas van Leyden (UiH-loiCS), a Flemish painter. It is now in the collection of the Earl of Pembroke, at Wilton House, England.

Cardiff Giant. A noted piece of trickery in the shape of a colossal statue of gypsum disinterred at a littlo place called Cardiff, near Lafayette, N.Y., in Octobor, 18o!l, and successfully palmed off upon some of the most distinguished antiquaries and palaeontologists of America as being either a work of ancient sculpture, or more probably a fossilized man. It was carried about the country, and publicly exhibited to great crowds in all the principal cities. At last the fact came out, that it had been cut from a quarry in Iowa not long before, wrought into shape in Chicago, and buried in Cardiff, where it was soon after alleged to have been accidentally discovered.

Cardinal Bentivoglio. See Ben

Tivoolio. Cardinal Bibiena. See Bibiena. Cardinal Pole. See Pole. Cardross Castle. A ruined castle

in Scotland, on the Clyde, near

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