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An altar-piece, with wings, by Stephan Lochner, called Meister Stephan (d. 1451), a German painter, and regarded as his principal work. It was originally painted for a chapel of the Hotel de Ville, hut has been for many years in a chapel of the choir of Cologne Cathedral.
Adoration of the Marti (Kings). A picture by Giovanni da Fiesble, called Fra Angelico (1387-1455). In the Museum of St Mark, Florence, Italy.
Adoration of the Magi (Kings). 1. A celebrated picture by Roger van der Weyden (d. 1464), the Flemish painter, and one of the largest and finest works of that master. The Annunciation and the Presentation in the Temple are represented in the wings of the picture. It is said to nave been painted for the church of St. Columba in Cologne, and was afterwards in the Boissere'e collection, but is now in the gallery of Munich, Bavaria.
2. A picture by the Flemish painter, Roger van der Weyden (d. 1464). For centuries it adorned the altar of a church at Middelburg, but has been transferred to the Museum of Berlin, Prussia.
Adoration of the Magi (Kings). The travelling altar-piece of Charles V., with wings representing the Nativity and the Presentation in the Temple. It was executed by Hans Meraling (d. l+'jn), the Flemish painter, and is now in Madrid, Spain. There is a smaller altar-piece by this painter, bearing the title of the "Adoration," now in St. John's Hospital at Bruges, Belgium.
Adoration of the Magi (Kings). A picture by Domenico Ghirlandajo (1449-1498?). In Florence, Italy.
Adoration of the Magi (Kings). A noted picture by Pietro Peru
S'no (1446-1524), and one of his ;st works. In the church of S. Francesco del Moute, at Perugia, Italy.
Adoration of the Magi (Kings). An admired picture by Francesco
Francia (1450-1518), in which the landscape is very beautiful. In the gallery at Dresden. There is an excellent engraving of this fine picture.
Adoration of the Magi (Kings). A large altar-piece by Raphael Sanzio (1483-1520). It has been much injured by dampness. It was formerly in the possession of the Ancajiui family at Spoleto, Italy, but is now in the Museum of Berlin, Prussia.
*S"" In a composition upon the game subject by Raphael, In the Vatican, the worshippers wear the claasical, not the oriental costume; but an elephant with a monkey on his back 1b seen In the distance, which at once reminds us of the far East."
Adoration of the Magi (Kings).
A picture by Raphael Sanzio
(1483-1520). Now at Copenhagen,
Adoration of the Magi (Kings). A picture by Albert Diirer (14711528), the German painter, originally executed for the Elector of Saxony, and now in the Tribune of the Uffizi, at Florence, Italy.
Adoration of the Magi (Kings). An admired picture by Paolo Cagliari, called Paul Veronese (1528-1588). In the gallery at Dresden, Saxony.
Adoration of Hie Magi (Kings). A picture by Jan (or Jannyn) Gossart(d. 1532), a Flemish painter, and considered to he his principal work. It is now at Castle Howard, the seat of the Earl of Carlisle, England.
Adoration of the Magi (Kings). A picture by Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), one of fifteen by him upon this subject, and the finest of all. Now in the gallery at Madrid, Spain. Adoration of the Shepherds. A common subject of representation by the religious painters of the Middle Ages. Of compositions upon this subject, those mentioned below are among the better known.
Adoration of the Shepherds. A picture by Albert Altdorfer (d. 1538), a German painter. In the collection of the Historical Society at Regensburg, Bavaria.
Adoration of the Shepherds. A picture bv Alessandro Bonvicino, called II Morctto di Brescia (1500-1547). In the Museum of Berlin, Prussia.
Adoration of the Shepherds. A picture by Diego Rodriguez de Silva y Velasquez (1599-1660), the Spanish painter. Now in the Louvre, Paris.
Adoration of the Shepherds. A well-known picture by Anton Rafael Mengs (1728-1779). It was brought to the United States by Joseph Bonaparte, and is now in the Corcoran Gallery, Washington.
Adoration of the Shepherds. See Nottk, La.
Adoration of the Trinity. A celebrated picture by Albert Diirer (1471-1528), the German painter and engraver, regarded as one of his masterpieces. It was painted for the chapel of the Landauer Bruderhaus in Nuremberg, was afterwards removed to Prague, and is now in the Belvedere at Vienna, Austria.
Adorno Palace. [Palazzo Adorno] A noted palace in Genoa, Italy.
Adrian VI. 1. A portrait of this pope by Sebastian del Piombo (1485-1547), the "realization," according to Sir C. L. Eastlake, "of what is usually attributed to Michael Angelo." It has been wrongly named Alexander VI. Now in the Museum of Naples, Italy.
2. There is another picture of this pope by Sebastian (often miscalled Amerigo Vespucci) in the collection of the late Lord Taunton.
Adrian's Mole. See St. Angelo.
Adrian's Wall. See Hadrian's Wall.
Adullam, Cave of. See Cave Op Adullam.
Advance, The. A noted vessel in which Elisha Kent Kane (18201857) set sail from New York, in May, 1853, on a voyage of Arctic discovery, and in search of Sir
John Franklin. The Advance was beset with ice, and abandoned in higher latitude than any vessel had ever before reached.
Adventure, The. The ship in which the notorious pirate Capt. William Kidd ( 1701) cruised.
iEgina Marbles. A collection of casts from groups of figures on the Temple of Jupiter in the island of ^Egina, now preserved. in the British Museum, London." The originals are now in Munich, Bavaria. They have been skilfully restored by Thorwaldsen, and arranged as far as possible in the order in which they originally stood.
D&- " These sculptures may be classed among the most valuable remains of ancient art that bave reached us." R. WfHtmacott.
.(Eneas, Shipwreck of. See ShipWreck OF iENEAS.
JEschines. A famous statue discovered at Herculaneum, and now in the Museum at Naples, Italy. By some it is considered to be a statue of Aristides.
Age of Innocence. A picture by Sir Joshua Reynolds (172;t-1792). Now in the National Gallery, London.
Ages. See Three Ages.
Agger of Servius Tullius. A Celebrated rampart of ancient. Rome, a few remains of which still exist in the rear of the Baths of Diocletian.
Agincourt, The. An armor-plated ship of the British navy, launched March 27, 1865.
Agnes, St. See St. Agnes.
Agora, The. [The Market-place or Forum.] The public place of Athens, Greece, situated in avalley partially enclosed by the hills known as the Acropolis, Areopagus, Pnyx, and Museum. It is an elliptical area about one-third of a mile in length. The Gate of the so-called New Agora, also known as Hadrian's Arch, is of comparatively recent date.
^^''AIl the buildings connected with the civil processes employed in the enactment of laws at Athens arc, from its neighborhood to the Pnyx, fitly grouped together in thin place. Here in the JiouUuUrion, or Council Chamber, In which the Senate of Five Hundred meet to discus* measures before they are submitted to the assembly of the people in the l*nvx. Hero are the statues of the ten Heroes of Athens, — CecropB, Erectbeus, Pandion, .^Egeus, Hippothoon, Acamas, Leon, (Eneus, Ajax, Anliochus, — the Eponyml, as they are called, because they give their names to the ten tribes of Athens. Here is the refectory of the Prytatte*, or Presidents of the Assembly,—a building which may be distinguished from the crowd of other fabrics in the same place by its hemispherical dome, and In which the most distinguished citizens of Athens are entertained at the public charge. In the centre of the area which we are describing stands the altar of the Twelve Gods, being the point to which all the roads of Attica converge, and from which distances are measured. . . . Such are the most remarkable objects contained In the Agora of Athens. We apeak of the early times of its glory." C. Wordsworth.
Ahmed ebn Tooloon. See Mosque Of Ahmkd Ebn Tooloon.
Aignan. See Hotel St. Aioxan.
Ain Moosa. See Fount A 1KB Of Moses.
Aird's Mobs. A tract of moorland in the county of Ayr, Scotland, famous in the history of the Scottish Covenanters as being
'the scene of numerous gatherings, or "conventicles." " where men came armed to the teeth to hear the Bible read."
Airlie Castle. A residence of the Earl of Airlie, near Meigle, Scotlaud. It forms the subject of the ballad of "The Bonnie House of Airlie."
Akbar's Palace. A famous palace, built by the renowned emperor of that name, in the city of Akbar, or Agra, in Hindostlin.
4®-"It would be difficult to describe In detail Its many courts, its separate masses of buildings, and its detached pavilions. . . . Akbar's palace is far more complete than the Alhambra. No part has been utterly destroyed, and the marks of injury by time and battle are comparatively slight. The substructions of the palace ore of
red sandstone, but nearly the whole of its corridors, chambers, and pavilions are of white marble, wrought with the most exquisite elaboration of ornament. There are precious caskets of marble, glittering all over with jasper, agate, cornelian, blood-stone, and lapis-lazuli, and topped with golden domes. Balustrades of marble, wrought in open patterns of such rich design that they resemble fringes of lace when seen from below, extend along the edge of the battlements." Bayard Taylor.
Alabama, The. A Confederate privateer, built by Laird of Liverpool, and commanded by Raphael ScmmcB, who set out on a cruise with her in 1862. This ship, during her career, inflicted immense damage on the American mercantile marine. She is reported to have captured over GO vessels, destroyed 45 others, and taken millions of property. She was sunk on the l!»th of June, 1HCA, off the harbor of Cherbourg, France, in a battle with the Union vessel Kearsarge, commanded by Capt. Winslow. For the complicity of the British government in the ravages of this English-Confederate privateer, a tribunal of arbitration, chosen by the United States and Great Britain jointly, adjudged that the latter should pay to the former, for damages, the sum of §15,500,000 in gold, and this sum was paid. [Also known as the "290."]
SJT " The most famous of the English-American cruisers during the civil war was the Alabama, ('apt. Raphael Semmes. She was built by Laird near Liverpool, was anned, provisioned, and chiefly manned in a British port, and sailed under British colors. She was watched while in port by the national ship TuHcarora; out, favored by the British government in keeping the latter vessel back until the Alabama had gut well to sea, she was allowed to go on her destructive errand without molestation. For a year and a half afterward, while carefully avoiding contact with armed vessels of the United Suites, the Alabama illuminated the sea with blazing American merchantmen which she had captured and set on fire. During the last 90 days of 1862 she captured and destroyed 28 helpless vessels. After a prosperous voyage In the South Atlantic and Indian oceans, during which she captured 67 vessels, and destroyed a greater portion of thorn, the Alabama took shelter in the French harbor of Cherbourg, in the early summer, 1864. There the United States steamship Kearftarge found her at or near the middle of June." Lowing.
fVlabaster Cave. A natural curiosity in California, on Kidd's Ravine near its junction with American River. This remarkable cave was discovered Aug. 19, 18G0.
*y- " On our first entrance we descended about 15 feet gradually to the centre of the room, which is 100x30 feet. At the north end there is a roost magnificent pulpit. ... It is completed with the most beautiful drapery of alabaster steriWs of all colors, varying from white to pink-red, overhanging the beholder. Immediately under the pulpit is a beautiful lake of water extending to an unknown distance. . . . On arriving at the centre of the first room we saw an entrance to an inner chamber still more splendid, 200 x 100 feet, with most beautiful alabaster overhangings, in every possible shape of drapery." Owinn.
Alameda. In Spanish towns the usual name for the public walk, or promenade. The word is derived from alamo, poplar.
A walk in Broadway or Fifth Avenne will show you damsels and dames who will remind you of those you have met in the Casclno or Corso, In the Prado or Alameda. Oalaxy.
Alaric'a Grave. According to tradition the grave of the Visigothic chief (3. 410) was dug in the bed of the river Busento, in Italy, the stream being diverted from its course for the purpose; and after the burial the waters were let back into their former channel.
Alba Madonna. See Madonna
DELIA CASA D'ALBA.
Albani. See Villa Albani.
Albany Chambers. A wellknown row of buildings in Piccadilly, London, named after the Duke of York.
In the quiet avenue of the Albany, memories of tho illustrious dead crowd upon you. JeiTold.
Albany, Fort. See Fort Albany.
Albero d'Oro. [Golden Tree.]
The name given to one of the
most beautiful palaces in Venice, Italy, from a tradition that one of its owners staked and lost all his fortunes except a single tree in the garden of this palace. The tree finally being staked also, fortune turned, and the owner recovered all that he had lost, including the palace.
Albert Durcr. A well-known autograph portrait of the painter, in the collection of artists' portraits painted by themselves, in the Uffizi Gallery at Florence, Italy. He is represented as standing at a window, with his hands resting on the window-sill, dressed in a holiday suit. There is also another portrait of him in the gallery of Munich, Bavaria, which represents him as much more mature in features and character, although he was but two years older when it was taken. This picture gives a front view of him, with his hand laid upon the fur lining of his robe.
Albert Embankment. See
Albert Memorial. This monument to the memory of the PrinceConsort, Albert of Saxe Gotha (d. ltKil), was built from designs of Sir Gilbert Scott. It is situated opposite the Albert Hall in London, and on the site of the Crystal Palace of 1861. Monuments in memory of the Prince have also been erected in other places in Great Britain.
£ff- " If the Prince had united the genius of Napoleon to the virtues of Washington, there might, with more show of reason, have been such a literary and such a sculptured monument raiBed to him Bo soon after the close of his blameless and useful life. But even then something more simple and sober would have been more effective than this gilded, enthroned, enshrined, and canopied efllgy of the demi-god of commonplace. In fact, this is the most obtrusively offensive monument in London." * Richard Grant White.
Albert Park. See Finsbuet
Pakk. Albertina Bronze. See Caligula. Albion, The. 1. A noted Loudon
tavern famous for its Corporation banquets, and other public dinners, and for the annual tradesales of the principal London publishers.
2. A London club founded in the first part of the present century, and dissolved in 1841.
Alcala, Sate of. See Puebta De Alcala.
Alcantara, Bridge of. See 1'vEnte De Alcantara.
Alderney Bull, Cow, and Calf. An admired picture by James Ward (1709-185!)), often compared with Paul Potter's Young Bull (q. v.). It, is in the National Gallery, London.
Aldersgate. One of the gates in the old city walls of London. It was restored after the Great Fire of linn!, and somewhat resembled Temple Bar.
He [Clcnnam] turned slowly down Aldersgate Street, and waa pondering his way along towards St. Paul's, . . . when a crowd of people flocked toward* him. Dickens.
Aldgate. One of the old Hoiuan gates of London, so called from its antiquity (Aeld or Old gate). From the time of the Romans to 1760 (when it was demolished), it formed the main outlet to the eastern counties. The barons, using money from the monks' coffers, and' building material from the Jews' houses, rebuilt the structure during the time of John. This gate was torn down in 160K, and again built up in 1(X)9. The poet Chaucer (1328-1400) held a life lease of the dwelling-house above the gate.
If tbe brutalizing effect of such scenes
as the .-tni mur.' of .St. Sebastian may be counteracted, we may hope, that, In a Christian Utopia, some minds mi^ht be
proof aualnst the kennels and dressi-s of Aldgate. Macaulay.
Old Father Bnlrtpate,
Mother Qoose. Aldine Press. The name given to the press established about 1490, at Venice, by Aldo Manuzio (Aldus Manutius), an Italian printer of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and the inventor of Italic type. The highly-esteemed Aldine editions of the classics
issued by Manutius and his descendants led to the publication of counterfeit Aldine editions in Florence and Lyons as early as 1502. The name Aldine has also been used by the English publisher Pickering.
As for the foundlings like my Hederlcus, tbey go among their peers: it is a pleasure to take them from the dusty stall where they were elbowed by plebeian school-books and battered odd volumes, and give them Aldoses and Elzevirs for companions. Holmes.
Aldobrandini Madonna. See Madonna Aldobrandini.
Aldobrandini Marriage. [Nozze Aldobrandini.] A celebrated fresco painting, and one of the most valuable relies of ancient art. It was found in MiOB among the ruins of the Baths of Titus in Rome, and is now in the Vatican. It derives its name from the Aldobrandini family, by whom it was purchased. It represents a marriage-scene, as the name implies. Winckelmauu thinks that it represents the nuptials of Peleus and Thetis. In the Palazzo Doria, there is a copy by Nicholas Poussin.
Aldobrandini, Villa. See Villa Aldobrandini.
Aletsch Glacier. A celebrated glacier in Switzerland surrounded by the Aletsclihorn, Jungfrau, and other peaks. It is about sixteen miles in length.
Alexander. See Triumphal March Of Alexander and VicTory Of Alexander The Great Over Darius.
Alexander and Diogenes. A noted picture by Sir Edwin Landseer (1803-1873), the celebrated painter of animals. In the National Gallery, London.
Alexander and Boxana. See Marriaoe Of Alexander And Boxana.
Alexander Column. A red granite monolith and memorial pillar, lOO feet in height, situated in the Admiralty Square, St. Petersburg, Russia. It was erected to the Emperor Alexander, a«d was the work of Montferrand.