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abaci abacus Adolf Michaelis angle triglyph appear architects architrave asymmetries Athenian authors average axial spacing bays Brooklyn Institute Museum building centre Century B.C. chapter columnar diameter convex Cori cornice curvature Curves in Elevation curves in plan dimensions diminution Doric temple Dorpfeld east front Egesta entablature entasis Erechtheum explanation fact feet fronts and flanks gable Girgenti Greek curvature Greek refinements Greek temples Ground-plan Hauck Hera Hoffer horizontal curvature illustration instance Institute Museum Series intercolumnar space intercolumniations irregularities Koldewey and Puchstein Maison Carree mason's error measurements mediaeval mentioned Metaponto metope Michaelis modern Nimes north flank observations Olympia optical effect optical illusions Paestum Parthenon Penrose photograph Pisa Cathedral Poseidon at Paestum Professor Propylaea quoted Selinus Series of 1895 side sixth century so-called temple spacial contraction stylobate systematic Temple G Temple of Poseidon temple of Zeus thenon theory Theseum Thiersch tion Vitruvius west front wholly Zeus temple
الصفحة 32 - The stylobate," says this military engineer of Julius Csesar, " ought not to be constructed upon the horizontal level, but should rise gradually from the ends toward the centre, so as to leave there a small addition. The inconvenience which might arise from a stylobate thus constructed may be obviated by means of unequal scamilli. If the line of the stylobate were perfectly horizontal, it would appear like the bed of a channel.
الصفحة 96 - ... for it not only obviates the dry uniformity of too many parallel lines, but also produces exquisite varieties of light and shade. One of the most happy instances of this latter effect is in the temple of Nike Apteros, in front of the southern wing of the Propylaea. The facade of this temple and...
الصفحة 60 - Vitruvius seems to have assumed, and probably rightly, that the entablature curve followed and was a consequence of that of the stylobate. Penrose on the other hand argued, with less probability, that the reverse was the case; that Ictinus, in order "to obviate a disagreeable effect produced by the contrast of the horizontal with the inclined lines of a flat pediment...
الصفحة 96 - Penrose calls attention to the remarkable absence of parallelism among the several buildings. " Except the Propylaea and Parthenon, which were perhaps intended to bear a definite relation to one another, no two are parallel. This asymmetria is productive of very great beauty; for it not only obviates the dry uniformity of too many parallel lines, but also produces exquisite varieties of light and shade. One of the most happy instances of this latter effect is in the temple of Nike Apteros, in front...
الصفحة 32 - In placing the capitals upon the shafts of the columns, they are not to be arranged so that the abaci may be in the same horizontal level, but must follow the direction of the upper members of the epistylium, which will deviate from the straight line drawn from the extreme parts in proportion to the addition given to the centre of the stylobate.
الصفحة 95 - The whole building is constructed, so to speak, on a subjective rather than an objective basis; it is intended not to be mathematically accurate, but to be adapted to the eye of the spectator. To the eye a curve is a more pleasing form than a straight line, and the deviations from rigid correctness serve to give a character of purpose, almost of life, to the solid marble construction.
الصفحة 83 - Nature avoids the rectilinear and develops its most attractive forms in swelling curves, and so they endeavored to make the construction of their buildings resemble Nature, to transfer to them the beautifully curving forms which surrounded them, and thus to infuse the lifeless forms of art with a breath of living Nature.
الصفحة 47 - Gustavo Giovannoni, of curves in plan, concave to the exterior, in the facade of the temple at Cori.
الصفحة 19 - re finements" were designed as optical corrections of optical effects of irregularity ; in other words, geometrical effect is supposed to have been sought by departures from geometric fact. This, however, would not explain the other variations that have been noted. Moreover, it is contradicted even in the case of curvatures by a discovery of Professor Giovannoni of Rome, that the facade of the Temple at Uri has a curvature in plan.1 The columns, that is...