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exemption from its vices or its follies, but had [ aliquando oden hanc ad te mitto sublimem, tenever neglected the cultivation of his mind; his belief of Revelation was unshaken; his learning preserved his principles; he grew first regular, and then pious.

His studies had been so various, that I am not able to name a man of equal knowledge. His acquaintance with books was great; and what he did not immediately know, he could at least tell where to find. Such was his amplitude of learning, and such his copiousness of communication, that it may be doubted, whether a day now passes in which I have not some advantage from his friendship.

neram, flebilem, suavem, qualem demum divinus (si Musis vacaret) scripsisset Gastrellus: adeo scilicet sublimem ut inter legendum dormire, adeo flebilem ut ridere velis. Cujus elegantiam ut melius inspicias, versuum ordinem et materiam breviter referam. 1mus. versus de duobus præliis decantatis. 2dus. et 3us. de Lotharingio, cuniculis subterraneis, saxis, ponto, hostibus, et Asia. 4tus. et 5tus. de catenis, subdibus, uncis, draconibus, tigribus, et crocodilis. 6us. 7us. Sus. 9us. de Gomorrhâ, de Babylone, Babele, et quodam domi sue peregrino. 10us. aliquid de quodam Pocockio. 11us. 12us. de Syriâ, Solymâ. 13us. 14us. de Hoseâ, et quercu, et de juvene 15us. 16us. de Ætnâ, et quodam valde sene.

At this man's table I enjoyed many cheerful and instructive hours, with companions such as are not often found; with one who has length-quomodo Etna Pocockio fit valde similis. 17us. ened and one who has gladdened life; with Dr. 18us. de tubâ, astro, umbrâ, flammis, rotis, PoJames, whose skill in physic will be long remem-cockio non neglecto. Cætera de Christianis, bered, and with David Garrick, whom I hoped to have gratified with this character of our common friend: but what are the hopes of man! I am disappointed by that stroke of death which has eclipsed the gayety of nations, and impoverished the public stock of harmless pleasure.

In the library at Oxford is the following ludicrous Analysis of Pocockius:


(Sent by the Author to Mr. Urry.) OPUSCULUM hoc, Halberdarie amplissime, in lucem proferre hactenus distuli, judicii tui acumen subveritus magis quam bipennis. Tandem

Ottomanis, Babyloniis, Arabibus, et gravissimá agrorum melancholiâ; de Cæsare Flacco,* Nestore, et miserando juvenis cujusdam florentissimi fato, anno ætatis suæ centesimo præmaturè abrepti. Quæ omnia cum accuratè expenderis, necesse est ut oden hanc meam admirandâ planè varietate constare fatearis. Subitò ad Batavos proficiscor, lauro ab illis donandus. Prius verò Pembrochienses voco ad certamen Poeticum.


Illustrissima tua deosculor crura.


Pro Flacco, animo paulo attentiore, scripsissem Marone.


OF Mr. RICHARD DUKE I can find few memorials. He was bred at Westininster* and Cambridge; and Jacob relates, that he was some time tutor to the Duke of Richmond.

He appears from his writings to have been not ill qualified for poetical compositions; and, being conscious of his powers, when he left the University, he enlisted himself among the wits. He was the familiar friend of Otway; and was engaged, among other popular names, in the translations of Övid and Juvenal. In his "Review," though unfinished, are some vigorous lines. His poems are not below mediocrity; nor have I found much in them to be praised.f

With the wit he seems to have shared the dissoluteness of the times; for some of his compositions are such as he must have reviewed with detestation in his later days, when he published those sermons which Felton has commended.

| he rather talked than lived viciously, in an age when he that would be thought a wit was afraid to say his prayers; and, whatever might have been bad in the first part of his life, was surely condemned and reformed by his better judgment.

In 1683, being then master of arts and fellow of Trinity College, in Cambridge, he wrote a poem on the marriage of the Lady Anne with George, Prince of Denmark.

He then took orders; and, being made prebendary of Gloucester, became a proctor in convocation for that church, and chaplain to Queen Anne.

In 1710, he was presented by the Bishop of Winchester to the wealthy living of Witney, in Oxfordshire, which he enjoyed but a few months. On February 10, 1710-11, having returned from an entertainment, he was found dead the next morning. His death is mentioned in Swift's

Perhaps, like some other foolish young men, Journal.

He was admitted there in 1670; was elected to Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1675; and took his master's degree in 1682.-N.

Poetry; but were first published in Dryden's Miscellany, as were most, if not all, of the poems in that collection.-H. They make a part of a volume published by Tonson He was presented to the rectory of Blaby, in Leiin Svo. 1717, containing the poems of the Earl of Ros-cestershire, in 1687-8; and obtained a prebend at Gloucominon, and the Duke of Buckingham's Essay on cester, in 1688.-N.


WILLIAM KING was born in London, in 1663; | which only he could find delight. His reputation

the son of Ezekiel King, a gentleman. He was allied to the family of Clarendon.

as a civilian was yet maintained by his judg ments in the courts of delegates, and raised very From Westminster-school, where he was a high by the address and knowledge which he scholar on the foundation under the care of Dr. discovered in 1700, when he defended the Earl Busby, he was at eighteen elected to Christ- of Anglesea against his lady, afterwards Dutchchurch, in 1681; where he is said to have pro-ess of Buckinghamshire, who sued for a divorce, secuted his studies with so much intenseness and obtained it. and activity, that before he was eight years standing he had read over, and made remarks upon, twenty-two thousand odd hundred books and manuscripts.* The books were certainly not very long, the manuscripts not very difficult, nor the remarks very large; for the calculator will find that he despatched seven a day for every day of his eight years; with a remnant that more than satisfies most other students. He took his degree in the most expensive manner, as a grand compounder; whence it is inferred that he inherited a considerable fortune.

In 1688, the same year in which he was made master of arts, he published a confutation of Varillas's account of Wickliffe; and engaging in the study of the civil law, became doctor in 1692, and was admitted advocate at Doctors' Commons.

He had already made some translations from the French, and written some humorous and satirical pieces; when, in 1694, Molesworth published his "Account of Denmark," in which he treats the Danes and their monarch with great contempt; and takes the opportunity of insinuating those wild principles, by which he supposes liberty to be established, and by which his adversaries suspect that all subordination and government is endangered.

This book offended Prince George; and the Danish minister presented a memorial against it. The principles of its author did not please Dr. King; and therefore he undertook to confute part, and laugh at the rest. The controversy is now forgotten; and books of this kind seldom live long, when interest and resentment have ceased.

In 1697, he mingled in the controversey between Boyle and Bentley; and was one of those who tried what wit could perform in opposition to learning, on a question which learning only could decide.

The expense of his pleasures and neglect of business had now lessened his revenues; and he was willing to accept of a settlement in Ireland, where, about 1702, he was made judge of the Admiralty, commissioner of the prizes, keeper of the records in Birmingham's tower, and vicar general to Dr. Marsh, the primate.

But it is vain to put wealth within the reach of him who will not stretch out his hand to take it. King soon found a friend, as idle and thoughtless as himself, in Upton, one of the judges, who had a pleasant house called Mountown, near Dublin, to which King frequently retired; delighting to neglect his interest, forget his cares, and desert his duty.

Here he wrote "Mully of Mountown," a poem; by which, though fanciful readers in the pride of sagacity have given it a political interpretation, was meant originally no more than it expressed, as it was dictated only by the Author's delight in the quiet of Mountown. In 1708, when Lord Wharton was sent to govern Ireland, King returned to London with his poverty, his idleness, and his wit, and published some essays, called "Useful Transac tions." His "Voyage to the Island of Cajamai" is particularly commended. He then wrote "The Art of Love," a poem remarkable, notwithstanding its title, for purity of sentiment; and in 1709 imitated Horace in an "Art of Cookery," which he published, with some letters to Dr. Lister.

In 1710, he appeared as a lover of the church, on the side of Sacheverell; and was supposed to have concurred at least in the projection of "The Examiner." His eyes were open to all the operations of whiggism; and he bestowed some strictures upon Dr. Kennet's adulatory sermon at the funeral of the Duke of Devonshire.

"The History of the Heathen Gods," a book composed for schools, was written by him in 1710. The work is useful, but might have been In 1699, was published by him "A Journey produced without the powers of King. The to London," after the method of Dr. Martin next year, he published "Rufinus," an historiLister, who had published "A Journey to Pa- cal essay; and a poem, intended to dispose the ris." And in 1700 he satirised the Royal Soci-nation to think as he thought of the Duke of ety, at least Sir Hans Sloane, their president, in Marlborough and his adherents. two dialogues, entitled "The Transactioner." Though he was a regular advocate in the courts of civil and canon law, he did not love his profession, nor indeed any kind of business which interrupted his voluntary dreams, or forced him to rouse from that indulgence in

This appears by his "Adversaria," printed in his works, edit 1776, 3 vols.-C.

In 1711, competence, if not plenty, was again put into his power. He was, without the trouble of attendance, or the mortification of a request, made gazetteer. Swift, Freind, Prior, and other men of the same party, brought him the key of the gazetteer's office. He was now again placed in a profitable employment, and again threw the benefit away. An act of insolvency made his business at that time particularly troublesome;

and he would not wait till hurry should be at an | mas-day. Though his life had not been without end, but impatiently resigned it, and returned to irregularity, his principles were pure and orthohis wonted indigence and amusements. dox, and his death was pious.

One of his amusements at Lambeth, where he After this relation, it will be naturally supposed resided, was to mortify Dr. Tenison, the arch-that his poems were rather the amusements of bishop, by a public festivity on the surrender of idleness than the efforts of study; that he endeaDunkirk to Hill; an event with which Teni-voured rather to divert than astonish; that his son's political bigotry did not suffer him to be thoughts seldom aspired to sublimity; and that, delighted. King was resolved to counteractif his verse was easy and his images familiar, his sullenness, and at the expense of a few bar- he attained what he desired. His purpose is to rels of ale filled the neighbourhood with honest be merry; but, perhaps, to enjoy his mirth, it merriment. may be sometimes necessary to think well of his opinions.*

In the autumn of 1712, his health declined; he grew weaker by degrees, and died on Christ


elegance of diction have been able to preserve, though written upon a subject flux and transitory. "The history of the Royal Society," is now read, not with the wish to know what they were then doing, but how their transactions are exhibited by Sprat.

THOMAS SPRAT was born in 1636, at Talla- | few books which selection of sentiment and ton, in Devonshire, the son of a clergyman; and having been educated, as he tells of himself, not at Westminster or Eton, but at a little school by the churchyard side, became a commoner of Wadham College, in Oxford, in 1651; and, being chosen scholar next year, proceeded through the usual academical course; and, in 1657, became master of arts. He obtained a fellowship, and commenced poet.

In the next year he published "Observations on Sorbiere's Voyage into England, in a Letter to Mr. Wren." This is a work not ill performed; but perhaps rewarded with at least its full proportion of praise.

In 1649, his poem on the death of Oliver was published, with those of Dryden and Waller. In his dedication to Dr. Wilkins, he appears a In 1668, he published Cowley's Latin poems, very willing and liberal encomiast, both of the and prefixed in Latin the Life of the Author, living and the dead. He implores his patron's which he afterwards amplified, and placed beexcuse of his verses, both as falling "so infi-fore Cowley's English works, which were by nitely below the full and sublime genius of that will committed to his care. excellent poet who made this way of writing free of our nation," and being "so little equal and proportioned to the renown of a prince on whom they were written; such great actions and lives deserving to be the subject of the noblest pens and most divine phansies." He proceeds: "Having so long experienced your care and indulgence, and been formed, as it were, by your own hands, not to entitle you to any thing which my meanness produces would be not only injustice, but sacrilege."

He published, the same year, a poem on the "Plague of Athens;" a subject of which it is not easy to say what could recommend it. To these he added afterwards a poem on Mr. Cowley's death.

After the restoration he took orders, and by Cowley's recommendation was made chaplain to the Duke of Buckingham, whom he is said to have helped in writing "The Rehearsal." He was likewise chaplain to the King.

Ecclesiastical benefices now fell fast upon him. In 1668, he became a prebendary of Westminster, and had afterwards the church of St. Margaret, adjoining to the Abbey. He was, in 1680, made canon of Windsor; in 1683, dean of Westminster; and in 1684, bishop of Rochester.

The court having thus a claim to his diligence and gratitude, he was required to write the history of the Rye-house Plot; and in 1685, published "A true Account and Declaration of the horrid Conspiracy against the late King, his present Majesty, and the present Government;" a performance which he thought convenient, after the Revolution, to extenuate and excuse.

The same year, being clerk of the closet to the King, he was made dean of the chapel-royal; and, the year afterwards, received the last proof of his master's confidence, by being appointed one of the commissioners for ecclesiastical affairs. On the critical day when the Declaration distinguished the true sons of the church of England, he stood neuter, and permitted it to be

As he was the favourite of Wilkins, at whose house began those philosophical conferences and inquiries which in time produced the Royal So-read at Westminster; but pressed none to viociety, he was consequently engaged in the same studies, and became one of the fellows; and when, after their incorporation, something seemed necessary to reconcile the public to the new institution, he undertook to write its history, which he published in 1667. This is one of the

* Dr. Johnson appears to have made but little use of the life of Dr. King, prefixed to his "Works, in 3 vols." 1776, to which it may not be impertinent to refer the the highest terms. In that at least he yielded to none of reader. His talent for humour ought to be praised in his contemporaries.-C.

late his conscience; and when the Bishop of London was brought before them, gave his voice in his favour.

Thus far he suffered interest or obedience to carry him; but further he refused to go. When he found that the powers of the ecclesiastical commission were to be exercised against those who had refused the Declaration, he wrote to the lords, and other commissioners, a formal profession of his unwillingness to exercise that authority any longer, and withdrew himself from them. After they had read his letter, they adjourned for six months, and scarcely ever met afterwards.

When King James was frighted away, and a new government was to be settled, Sprat was one of those who considered, in a conference, the great question, whether the crown was vacant, and manfully spoke in favour of his old


Bishop's innocence, who, with great prudence and diligence, traced the progress and detected the characters of the two informers, and published an account of his own examination and deliverance; which made such an impression upon him, that he commemorated it through life by a yearly day of thanksgiving.

With what hope, or what interest, the villains had contrived an accusation which they must know themselves utterly unable to prove, was never discovered.

After this, he passed his days in the quiet exercise of his function. When the cause of Sacheverell put the public in commotion, he honestly appeared among the friends of the church. He lived to his seventy-ninth year, and died May 20, 1713.

Burnet is not very favourable to his memory; but he and Burnet were old rivals. On some public occasion they both preached before the House of Commons. There prevailed in those days an indecent custom; when the preacher touched any favourable topic in a manner that delighted his audience, their approbation was expressed by a loud hum, continued in proportion

ed, part of his congregation hummed so loudly and so long, that he sat down to enjoy it, and rubbed his face with his hankerchief. When Sprat preached, he likewise was honoured with the like animating hum; but he stretched out his hand to the congregation, and cried, "Peace, peace, I pray you peace."

He complied, however, with the new establishment, and was left unmolested; but, in 1692, a strange attack was made upon him by one Robert Young and Stephen Blackhead, both men convicted of infamous crimes, and both, when the scheme was laid, prisoners in New-to their zeal or pleasure. When Burnet preachgate. These men drew up an association, in which they whose names were subscribed declared their resolution to restore King James, to seize the Princess of Orange, dead or alive, and to be ready with thirty thousand men to meet King James when he should land. To this they put the names of Sancroft, Sprat, Marlborough, Salisbury, and others. The copy of Dr. Sprat's name was obtained by a fictitious request, to which an answer in his own hand was desired. His hand was copied so well, that he Burnet's sermon, says Salmon, was remarkconfessed it might have deceived himself. Black-able for sedition, and Sprat's for loyalty. Burhead, who had carried the letter, being sent again with a plausible message, was very curious to see the house, and particularly importunate to be let into the study; where, as is supposed, he designed to leave the association. This, however, was denied him; and he dropped it in a flower-pot in the parlour.

This I was told in my youth by my father, an old man, who had been no careless observer of the passages of those times.

net had the thanks of the house; Sprat had no thanks, but a good living from the King, which, he said, was of as much value as the thanks of the Commons.

The works of Sprat, besides his few poems, are, "The History of the Royal Society," "The Life of Cowley," "The Answer to Sorbiere," Young now laid an information before the "The History of the Rye-house Plot," "The privy-council; and, May 7, 1692, the Bishop Relation of his own Examination," and a volume was arrested, and kept at a messenger's under a of sermons. I have heard it observed, with great strict guard eleven days. His house was search-justness, that every book is of a different kind, ed, and directions were given that the flowerpots should be inspected. The messengers, however, missed the room in which the paper was left. Blackhead went therefore a third time; and, finding his paper where he had left it, brought it away.

The Bishop, having been enlarged, was, on June the 10th and 13th, examined again before the privy-council, and confronted with his accusers. Young persisted with the most obdurate impudence, against the strongest evidence; but the resolution of Blackhead by degrees gave way. There remained at last no doubt of the

and that each has its distinct and characteristical excellence.

My business is only with his poems. He considered Cowley as a model; and supposed that, as he was imitated, perfection was approached. Nothing, therefore, but Pindaric liberty was to be expected. There is in his few productions no want of such conceits as he thought excellent: and of those our judgment may be settled by the first that appears in his praise of Cromwell, where he says, that Cromwell's "fame, like man, will grow white as it grows old."


THE Life of the EARL of HALIFAX was pro- | grant the assistance of counsel in trials for high perly that of an artful and active statesman, em- treason; and, in the midst of his speech, falling ployed in balancing parties, contriving expedi- into some confusion, was for a while silent; but, ents, and combating opposition, and exposed to recovering himself, observed, "how reasonable the vicissitudes of advancement and degrada- it was to allow counsel to men called as crimition; but in this collection, poetical merit is the nals before a court of justice, when it appeared claim to attention; and the account which is how much the presence of that assembly could here to be expected may properly be proportion-disconcert one of their own body."* ed not to his influence in the state, but to his After this he rose fast into honours and emrank among the writers of verse. ployments, being made one of the commissioners of the Treasury, and called to the privy-council. CHARLES MONTAGUE was born April 16, 1661,In 1694, he became chancellor of the Exchequer ; at Horton, in Northamptonshire, the son of and the next year engaged in the great attempt Mr. George Montague, a younger son of the of the recoinage, which was in two years hapEarl of Manchester. He was educated first in pily completed. In 1696, he projected the genethe country, and then removed to Westminster, ral fund, and raised the credit of the Exchequer; where, in 1677, he was chosen a king's scholar, and, after inquiry concerning a grant of Irish and recommended himself to Busby by his feli- crown-lands, it was determined by a vote of the city in extemporary epigrams. He contracted Commons, that Charles Montague, Esq. had a very intimate friendship with Mr. Stepney; deserved his Majesty's favour. In 1698, being and, in 1682, when Stepney was elected at advanced to the first commission of the Treasury, Cambridge, the election of Montague being not he was appointed one of the regency in the to proceed till the year following, he was afraid King's absence; the next year he was made lest by being placed at Oxford he might be sepa-auditor of the Exchequer, and the year after rated from his companion, and therefore solicited to be removed to Cambridge, without waiting for the advantages of another year.

It seems indeed time to wish for a removal; for he was already a school-boy of one-andtwenty.

created Baron Halifax. He was, however, impeached by the Commons; but the articles were dismissed by the Lords.

At the accession of Queen Anne he was dismissed from the council; and in the first parliament of her reign was again attacked by the His relation, Dr. Montague, was then master Commons, and again escaped by the protection of the college in which he was placed a fellow-of the Lords. In 1704, he wrote an answer to commoner, and took him under his particular care. Here he commenced an acquaintance with the great Newton, which continued through his life, and was at last attested by a legacy.

Bromley's speech against occasional conformity. He headed the inquiry into the danger of the church. In 1706, he proposed and negotiated the Union with Scotland; and when the ElecIn 1685, his verses on the death of King tor of Hanover had received the garter, after the Charles made such an impression on the Earl act had passed for securing the protestant sucof Dorset, that he was invited to town, and in- cession, he was appointed to carry the ensigns troduced by that universal patron to the other of the order to the electoral court. He sat as wits. In 1687, he joined with Prior in "The one of the judges of Sacheverell; but voted for City Mouse and the Country Mouse," a bur-a mild sentence. Being now no longer in falesque of Dryden's "Hind and Panther." He signed the invitation to the Prince of Orange, and sat in the convention. He about the same time married the Countess Dowager of Manchester, and intended to have taken orders; but afterwards, altering his purpose, he purchased for 1,5001. the place of one of the clerks of the council.

vour, he contrived to obtain a writ for summon, ing the Electoral Prince to parliament as Duke of Cambridge.

At the Queen's death he was appointed one of the regents; and at the accession of George I. was made Earl of Halifax, knight of the garter, and first commissioner of the Treasury, with a grant to his nephew of the reversion of the auditorship of the Exchequer. More was not to be had, and this he kept but a little while; for, on the 19th of May, 1715, he died of an inflammation of his lungs.

After he had written his epistle on the victory of the Boyne, his patron, Dorset, introduced him to King William, with this expression: "Sir, I have brought a mouse to wait on your Majesty." To which the King is said to have replied, "You do well to put me in the way of Mr. Walpole, in his "Catalogue of Royal and Noble Mr. Reed observes that this anecdote is related by making a man of him ;" and ordered him a pen- Authors," of the Earl of Shaftesbury, author of the "Cha sion of five hundred pounds. This story, how-racteristics;" but it appears to me to be a mistake, if ever current, seems to have been made after the we are to understand that the words were spoken by event. The King's answer implies a greater Shaftesbury at this time, when he had no seat in the House of Commons; nor did the bill pass at this time, acquaintance with our proverbial and familiar being thrown out by the House of Lords. It became a diction than King William could possibly have law in the 7th William, when Halifax and Shaftesbury attained. both had seats. The editors of the "Biographia Britan. In 1691, being member of the House of Com-nica" adopted Mr. Walpole's story, but they are not speaking of this period. The story first appeared in the mons, he argued warmly in favour of a law to Life of Lord Halifax, published in 1715.—C

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