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and beautiful of Colinæus, the Junta, Plantin, | loss of the same kind should be disadvantageous Aldus, the Stephens, and Elzevir, with the com- to him, no man will hereafter willingly risk his mentaries and observations of the most learned fortune in the cause of learning.
Nor are they accompanied only with the illustrations of those who have confined their attempts to particular writers, but of those likewise who have treated on any part of the Greek or Roman antiquities, their laws, their customs, their dress, their buildings, their wars, their revenues, or the rites and ceremonies of their worship, and those that have endeavoured to explain any of their authors from their statutes or their coins.
Next to the ancients, those writers deserve to be mentioned, who, at the restoration of literature, imitated their language and their style with so great success, or who laboured with so much industry to make them understood: such were Philelphus and Politian, Scaliger and Buchanan, and the poets of the age of Leo the Tenth; these are likewise to be found in this library, together with the Delicia, or collections
of all nations.
Painting is so nearly allied to poetry, that it cannot be wondered that those who have so much esteemed the one, have paid an equal regard to the other; and therefore it may be easily imagined, that the collection of prints is numerous in an uncommon degree; but, surely, the expectation of every man will be exceeded, when he is informed that there are more than forty thousand engraven from Raphael, Titian, Guido, the Carraches, and a thousand others, by Nanteuil, Hollar, Collet, Edelinck, and Dorigny, and other engravers of equal reputation.
There is also a great collection of original drawings, of which three seem to deserve a particular mention: the first exhibits a representation of the inside of St. Peter's church at Rome; the second, of that of St. John Lateran; and the third, of the high altar of St. Ignatius: all painted with the utmost accuracy, in their proper colours.
TO THE CATALOGUE OF THE HARLEIAN LIBRARY
HAVING prefixed to the former volumes of my Catalogue an account of the prodigious collection accumulated in the Harleian library, there would have been no necessity of any introduction to the subsequent volumes, had not some censures which this great undertaking has drawn upon me, made it proper to offer to the public an apology for my conduct.
The price which I have set upon my catalogue, has been represented by the booksellers as an avaricious innovation; and, in a paper published in the Champion, they, or their mercenary, have reasoned so justly, as to allege, that, if I could afford a very large price for the library, I might therefore afford to give away the Catalogue.
I should have imagined that accusations, concerted by such heads as these, would have vanished of themselves, without any answer; but, since I have the mortification to find that they have been in some degree regarded by men of more knowledge than themselves, I shall explain the motive of my procedure.
My original design was, as I have already explained, to publish a methodical and exact Catalogue of this library, upon the plan which has been laid down, as I am informed by several men of the first rank among the learned. It was intended by those who undertook the work, to make a very exact disposition of all the subjects, and to give an account of the remarkable differences of the editions, and the other peculiarities, which make any book eminently valuable: and it was imagined, that some improvements might, by pursuing this scheme, be made in literary
As the value of this great collection may be conceived from this account, however imperfect, as the variety of subjects must engage the curi-history. osity of men of different studies, inclinations, and employments, it may be thought of very little use to mention any slighter advantages, or to dwell on the decorations and embellishments which the generosity of the proprietors has bestowed upon it; yet, since the compiler of the Thuanian catalogue thought not even that species of elegance below his observation, it may not be improper to observe, that the Harleian library, perhaps, excels all others, not more in the number and excellence, than in the splendour of its volumes.
We may now surely be allowed to hope, that our catalogue will not be thought unworthy of the public curiosity; that it will be purchased as a record of this great collection, and preserved as one of the memorials of learning.
With this view was the Catalogue begun, when the price was fixed upon it in public advertisements; and it cannot be denied, that such a Catalogue would have been willingly purchased by those who understood its use. But, when a few sheets had been printed, it was discovered that the scheme was impracticable, without more hands than could be procured, or more time than the necessity of a speedy sale would allow the Catalogue was therefore continued without notes, at least in the greatest part; and, though it was still performed better than those which are daily offered to the public, fell much below the original design.
It was then no longer proper to insist upon a price; and therefore, though money was demanded upon the delivery of the Catalogue, it The patrons of literature will forgive the pur- was only taken as a pledge that the Catalogue chaser of this library, if he presumes to assert was not, as is very frequent, wantonly called for, some claim to their protection and encourage-by those who never intended to peruse it, and I ment, as he may have been instrumental in con- therefore promised that it should be taken again tinuing to this nation the advantage of it. The in exchange for any book rated at the same sale of Vossius's collection into a foreign country, is, to this day, regretted by men of letters; and if this effort for the prevention of another
It may be still said, that other booksellers give away their catalogues without any such precau
If, therefore, I have set a high value upon books-if I have vainly imagined literature to be more fashionable than it really is, or idly hoped to revive a taste well nigh extinguished, I know not why I should be persecuted with clamour and invective, since I only shall suffer by ry mistake, and be obliged to keep those books which I was in hopes of selling.
tion, and that I ought not to make any new or extraordinary demands. But, I hope, it will be considered, at how much greater expense my Catalogue was drawn up: and be remembered, that when other booksellers give their catalogues, they give only what will be of no use when their books are sold, and what, if it remained in their hands, they must throw away: whereas I hope that this Catalogue will retain its use, and, con- If those who charge me with asking a high sequently, its value, and be sold with the cata-price, will explain their meaning, it may be pos logues of the Barberinian and Marckian libraries. [sible to give them an answer less general. If However, to comply with the utmost expecta- they measure the price at which the books are tions of the world, I have now published the now offered, by that at which they were bought second part of my Catalogue, upon conditions by the late possessor, they will find it diminished still more commodious for the purchaser, as I at least three parts in four: If they would comintend, that all those who are pleased to receive pare it with the demands of other booksellers, them at the same price of five shillings a volume, they must find the same books in their hands, shall be allowed at any time, within three months and they will be, perhaps, at last reduced to after the day of sale, either to return them in ex- confess, that they mean, by a high price, only a change for books, or to send them back, and price higher than they are inclined to give. receive their money.
I have, at least, a right to hope, that no genSince, therefore, I have absolutely debarred tleman will receive an account of the price from myself from receiving any advantage from the the booksellers, of whom it may easily be ima sale of the Catalogue, it will be reasonable to gined that they will be willing, since they canimpute it rather to necessity than choice, that I not depreciate the books, to exaggerate the price: shall continue it to two volumes more, which the and I will boldly promise those who have been number of the single tracts which have been disco-influenced by malevolent reports, that, if they vered, make indispensably requisite. I need not tell those who are acquainted with affairs of this kind, how much pamphlets swell a catalogue, since the title of the least book may be as long as that of the greatest.
Pamphlets have been for many years, in this nation, the canals of controversy, politics, and sacred history, and therefore will, doubtless, furnish occasion to a very great number of curious remarks. And I take this opportunity of proposing to those who are delighted with this kind of study, that, if they will encourage me, by a reasonable subscription, to employ men qualified to make the observations for which this part of the catalogue will furnish occasion, I will procure the whole fifth and sixth volumes to be executed in the same manner with the most laboured part of this, and interspersed with notes of the same kind.
will be pleased, at the day of sale, to examine the prices with their own eyes, they will find them lower than they have been represented.
ON THE ORIGIN AND IMPORTANCE OF SMALL
Written for the Introduction to the Harleian
THOUGH the scheme of the following Miscel lany is so obvious, that the title alone is sufficient to explain it ; and though several collections have been formerly attempted upon plans, as to the method very little, but, as to the capacity and execution, very different from ours; we being possessed of the greatest variety for such a If any excuse was necessary for the addition work, hope for a more general reception than of these volumes, I have already urged in my de- those confined schemes had the fortune to meet fence the strongest plea, no less than absolute with; and, therefore, think it not wholly unnecessity, it being impossible to comprise in four necessary to explain our intentions, to display volumes, however large, or however closely the treasure of materials out of which this Misprinted, the titles which yet remain to be men-cellany is to be compiled, and to exhibit a tioned. general idea of the pieces which we intend to
us, in common with every other learned nation, our constitution in church and state naturally gives birth to a multitude of performances which would either not have been written, or could not have been made public in any other place.
But, I suppose, none will blame the multipli-insert in it. cation of volumes, to whatever number they There is, perhaps, no nation in which it is so may be continued, which every one may use necessary, as in our own, to assemble from time without buying them, and which are therefore to time the small tracts and fugitive pieces which published at no expense but my own. are occasionally published; for, besides the geneThere is one accusation still remaining, byral subjects of inquiry, which are cultivated by which I am more sensibly affected, and which I am therefore desirous to obviate, before it has too long prevailed. I hear that I am accused of rating my books at too high a price, at a price which no other person would demand. To answer this accusation, it is necessary to inquire The form of our government, which gives every what those who urge it mean by a high price. man that has leisure, or curiosity, or vanity, the The price of things valuable for their rarity is en-right of inquiring into the propriety of public tirely arbitrary, and depends upon the variable taste of mankind, and the casual fluctuation of the fashion, and can never be ascertained like that of things only estimable according to their
measures, and by consequence, obliges those who are intrusted with the administration of national affairs, to give an account of their conduct to almost every man who demands it, may be reasonably imagined to have occasioned innumera
ble pamphlets, which would never have appeared under arbitrary governments, where every man lulls himself in indolence under calamities, of which he cannot promote the redress, or thinks it prudence to conceal the uneasiness, of which he cannot complain without danger.
The multiplicity of religious sects tolerated among us, of which every one has found opponents and vindicators, is another source of unexhaustible publication, almost peculiar to ourselves; for controversies cannot be long continued, nor frequently revived, where an inquisitor has a right to shut up the disputants in dungeons; or where silence can be imposed on either party by the refusal of a license.
Not that it should be inferred from hence, that political or religious controversies are the only products of the liberty of the British press; the mind once let loose to inquiry, and suffered to operate without restraint, necessarily deviates into peculiar opinions, and wanders in new tracks, where she is indeed sometimes lost in a labyrinth, from which though she cannot return, and scarce knows how to proceed, yet sometimes makes useful discoveries, or finds out nearer paths to knowledge.
The boundless liberty with which every man may write his own thoughts, and the opportunity of conveying new sentiments to the public, without danger of suffering either ridicule or censure, which every man may enjoy, whose vanity does not incite him too hastily to own his performances, naturally invites those who employ themselves in speculation, to try how their notions will be received by a nation, which exempts caution from fear, and modesty from shame; and it is no wonder, that where reputation may be gained, but needs not be lost, multitudes are willing to try their fortune, and thrust their opinions into the light; sometimes with unsuccessful haste, and sometimes with happy temerity.
It is observed, that, among the natives of England, is to be found a greater variety of humour, than in any other country; and doubtless, where every man has a full liberty to propagate his conceptions, variety of humour must produce variety of writers; and, where the number of authors is so great, there cannot but be some worthy of distinction.
All these, and many other causes, too tedious to be enumerated, have contributed to make pamphlets and small tracts a very important part of an English library; nor are there any pieces, upon which those, who aspire to the reputation of judicious collectors of books, bestow more attention, or greater expense; because many advantages may be expected from the perusal of these small productions, which are scarcely to be found in that of larger works.
short time, or omitted in formal relations, and which are yet to be considered as sparks of truth, which, when united, may afford light in some of the darkest scenes of state, as, we doubt not, will be sufficiently proved in the course of this Miscellany; and which it is, therefore, the interest of the public to preserve unextinguished.
The same observation may be extended to subjects of yet more importance. In contro versies that relate to the truths of religion, the first essays of reformation are generally timorous; and those who have opinions to offer, which they expect to be opposed, produce their sentiments by degrees, and, for the most part, in small tracts: by degrees, that they may not shock their readers with too many novelties at once; and in small tracts, that they may be easily dispersed, or privately printed; almost every controversy, therefore, has been, for a time, carried on in pamphlets, nor has swelled into larger volumes, till the first ardour of the disputants has subsided, and they have recollected their notions with coolness enough to digest them into order, consolidate them into systems, and fortify them with authorities.
From pamphlets, consequently, are to be learned the progress of every debate; the vari ous state to which the questions have been changed; the artifices and fallacies which have been used, and the subterfuges by which reason has been eluded; in such writings may be seen how the mind has been opened by degrees, how one truth has led to another, how error has been disentangled, and hints improved to demonstration, which pleasure, and many others, are lost by him that only reads the larger writers, by whom these scattered sentiments are col lected, who will see none of the changes of fortune which every opinion has passed through, will have no opportunity of remarking the tran. sient advantages which error may sometimes obtain, by the artifices of its patron, or the successful rallies by which truth regains the day, after a repulse; but will be to him, who traces the dispute through into particular gradations, as he that hears of a victory, to him that sees the battle.
Since the advantages of preserving these small tracts are so numerous, our attempt to unite them in volumes cannot be thought either useless or unseasonable; for there is no other me thod of securing them from accidents; and they have already been so long neglected that this design cannot be delayed, without hazarding the loss of many pieces, which deserve to be transmitted to another age.
The practice of publishing pamphlets on the most important subjects, has now prevailed more than two centuries among us; and therefore it cannot be doubted, but that, as no large collections have been yet made, many curious tracts must have perished; but it is too late to lament that loss; nor ought we to reflect upon it, with any other view, than that of quickening our endeavours for the preservation of those that yet remain; of which we have now a greater number than was perhaps ever amassed by any one person.
If we regard history, it is well known that most political treatises have for a long time appeared in this form, and that the first relations of transactions, while they are yet the subject of conversation, divide the opinions, and employ the conjectures of mankind, are delivered by these petty writers who have opportunities of collecting the different sentiments of disputants, of inquiring the truth from living witnesses, The first appearance of pamphlets among us, and of copying their representations from the is generally thought to be at the new opposition life; and, therefore, they preserve a multitude raised against the errors and corruptions of the of particular incidents, which are forgotten in al Church of Rome. Those who were first con
vinced of the reasonableness of the new learn- | whom they were written, or to whom they were ing, as it was then called, propagated their sold. opinions in small pieces, which were cheaply printed; and, what was then of great imporThese treatises were tance, easily concealed. generally printed in foreign countries, and are There was not, therefore, always very correct. not then that opportunity of printing in private; for the number of printers was small, and the presses were easily overlooked by the clergy, who spared no labour or vigilance for the suppression of heresy. There is, however, reason to suspect, that some attempts were made to carry on the propagation of truth by a secret press; for one of the first treatises in favour of the reformation, is said, at the end, to be printed at Greenwich, by the permission of the Lord of Hosts.
In the time of king Edward the Sixth, the presses were employed in favour of the reformed religion, and small tracts were dispersed over the nation, to reconcile them to the new forms of worship. In this reign, likewise, political pamphlets may be said to have begun, by the addresses of the rebels of Devonshire; all which means of propagating the sentiments of the people so disturbed the court, that no sooner was queen Mary resolved to reduce her subjects to the Romish superstition, but she artfully, by a charter granted to certain freemen of London, in whose fidelity, no doubt, she confided, entirely prohibited all presses, but what should be licensed by them; which charter is that by which the corporation of Stationers in London is at this time incorporated.
Under the reign of queen Elizabeth, when liberty again began to flourish, the practice of writing pamphlets became more general, presses were multiplied, and books were dispersed; and, I believe, it may properly be said, that the trade of writing began at that time, and that it has ever since gradually increased in the number, though, perhaps, not in the style of those that followed it.
In this reign was erected the first secret press against the church as now established, of which I have found any certain account. It was employed by the Puritans and conveyed from one part of the nation to another, by them, as they found themselves in danger of discovery. From this press issued most of the pamphlets against Whitgift and his associates in the ecclesiastical government, and, when it was at last seized at Manchester, it was employed upon a pamphlet called More Work for a Cooper.
In the peaceable reign of King James, those minds which might, perhaps, with less disturbance of the world have been engrossed by war, were employed in controversy; and writings of The press, all kinds were multiplied among us. however, was not wholly engaged in polemical performances, for more innocent subjects were sometimes treated; and it deserves to be remarked, because it is not generally known, that the treatises of Husbandry and Agriculture, which were published about that time, are so that it can scarcely be immagined by
Which begins thus: "Know ye, that We, consider: ing and manifestly perceiving, that several seditious and heretical books or tracts-against the faith and sound catholic doctrine of holy mother, the church," &c.
The next reign is too well known to have been a time of confusion, and disturbance, and disputes of every kind; and the writings which were produced, bear a natural proportion to the number of questions that were discussed at that time; each party had its authors and its presses, and no endeavours were omitted to gain proselytes to every opinion. I know not whether this may not properly be called The Age of Pamphlets; for, though they, perhaps, may not arise to such multitudes as Mr. Rawlinson imagined, they were, undoubtedly, more numerous than can be conceived by any who have not had an opportunity of examining them.
After the Restoration, the same differences, in religious opinions, are well known to have subsisted, and the same political struggles to have been frequently renewed; and, therefore, a great number of pens were employed, on different occasions, till at length all other disputes were absorbed in the popish controversy.
From the pamphlets which these different periods of time produced, it is proposed, that this Miscellany shall be compiled; for which it cannot be supposed that materials will be wanting; and, therefore, the only difficulty will be in what manner to dispose them.
Those who have gone before us in undertakings of this kind, have ranged the pamphlets, which chance threw into their hands, without any regard either to the subject on which they treated, or the time in which they were written; a practice in no wise to be imitated by us, who want for no materials; of which we shall choose those we think best for the particular circumstances of times and things, and most instruct ing and entertaining to the reader.
Of the different methods which present themselves upon the first view of the great heaps of pamphlets which the Harleian library exhibits, the two which merit most attention are, to dis tribute the treatises acccording to their subjects, or their dates; but neither of these ways can be conveniently followed. By ranging our collec tion in order of time, we must necessarily publish those pieces first, which least engage the curi osity of the bulk of mankind; and our design must fall to the ground, for want of encourage ment, before it can be so far advanced as to obtain general regard: by confining ourselves for any long time to any single subject, we shall reduce our readers to one class; and, as we shall lose all the grace of variety, shall disgust all those who read chiefly to be diverted. There is likewise one objection of equal force against both these methods, that we shall preclude ourselves from the advantage of any future discove ries; and we cannot hope to assemble at once all the pamplets which have been written in any age or on any subject.
It may be added, in vindication of our intended practice, that it is the same with that of Photius, whose collections are no less miscelianeous than ours; and who declares, that he leaves it to his reader to reduce his extracts under their proper heads.
Most of the pieces which shall be offered in this collection to the public, will be introduced by short prefaces, in which will be given some account of the reasons for which they are in
serted; notes will be sometimes adjoined, for the | withstanding every subject may not be relished explanation of obscure passages, or obsolete ex-by every reader, yet the buyer may be assured pressions; and care will be taken to mingle use that each number will repay his generous suband pleasure through the whole collection. Not-scription.
A VIEW OF THE CONTROVERSY
MONS. CROUSAZ AND MR. WARBURTON,
ON THE SUBJECT OF
MR. POPE'S ESSAY ON MAN,
IN A LETTER TO THE EDITOR OF THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE, VOL. XIII.
MR. URBAN,-It would not be found useless in the learned world, if in written controversies, as in oral disputations, a moderator could be selected, who might in some degree superintend the debate, restrain all needless excursions, repress all personal reflections, and at last recapitulate the arguments on each side; and who, though he should not assume the province of deciding the question, might at least exhibit it in
its true state.
This reflection arose in my mind upon the consideration of Mr. Crousaz's Commentary on the Essay on Man, and Mr. Warburton's Answer to it. The importance of the subject, the reputation and abilities of the controvertists, and perhaps the ardour with which each has endeavoured to support his cause, have made an attempt of this kind necessary for the information of the greatest number of Mr. Pope's readers.
In page 35th of the English translation, he exhibits an observation which every writer ought to impress upon his mind, and which may afford a sufficient apology for his commentary.
On the notion of a ruling passion he offers this remark: "Nothing so much hinders men from obtaining a complete victory over their ruling passions, as that all the advantages gained in their days of retreat, by just and sober reflections, whether struck out by their own minds, or borrowed from good books, or from the conversation of men of merit, are destroyed in a few moments by a free intercourse and acquaintance with libertines; and thus the work is always to be begun anew. A gamester resolves to leave off play, by which he finds his health impaired, his family ruined, and his passions inflamed; in this resolution he persists a few days, but soon yields to an invitation, which will give his preAmong the duties of a moderator, I have men- vailing inclination an opportunity of reviving in tioned that of recalling the disputants to the sub- all its force. The case is the same with other ject, and cutting off the excrescences of a debate, men: but is reason to be charged with these cawhich Mr. Crousaz will not suffer to be long un-lamities and follies, or rather the man who reemployed, and the repression of personal invectives which have not been very carefully avoided on either part; and are less excusable, because it has not been proved, that either the poet, or his commentator, wrote with any other design than that of promoting happiness by cultivating reason and piety.
Mr. Warburton has indeed so much depressed the character of his adversary, that before I consider the controversy between them, I think it necessary to exhibit some specimens of Mr. Crousaz's sentiments, by which it will probably be shown, that he is far from deserving either indignation or contempt; that his notions are just, though they are sometimes introduced without necessity; and defended when they are not opposed; and that his abilities and parts are such as may entitle him to reverence from those who think his criticisms superfluous
fuses to listen to its voice in opposition to impertinent solicitations?"
On the means recommended for the attainment of happiness, he observes, that "the abilities which our Maker has given us, and the internal and external advantages with which he has invested us, are of two very different kinds; those of one kind are bestowed in common upon us and the brute creation, but the other exalts us far above other animals. To disregard any of these gifts, would be ingratitude; but to neglect those of greater excellence, to go no farther than the gross satisfactions of sense, and the functions of mere animal life, would be a far greater crime. We are formed by our Creator capable of acquiring knowledge, and regulating our conduct by reasonable rules; it is therefore our duty to cultivate our understandings, and exalt our virtues. We need but make the experiment