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of Sodom and Gomorrah, Deut. xxix. 23, cannot be understood without the history of that affair.
These things that have been mentioned, lead us up in the history of the Pentateuch, within less than eleven chapters of its beginning; so that according to what has been said, all except this very small part of the Pentateuch must have been delivered by Moses to the children of Israel; and it is unreasonable to suppose that this small part was not delivered by the same hand as part of the same record. The history of Abraham begins with the 26th verse of the xi. chap. of Genesis ; and the beginning of that history is there so connected with, and as it were grows upon, the preceding history of Noah and his posterity, that to suppose any other than that they were originally the same record, having the same author, is most unreasonable. That Moses's history began any where between that and the beginning of Genesis, or that that part of Genesis from the beginning to the 26th verse of the xi. chapter, is to be divided, as having several writers, are suppositions which, from a bare view of the history itsell, any one will be convinced are erroneous. But it will appear still more unreasonable not to ascribe it to Moses, if we consider not only the connection of the beginning of the history of Abraham with it, but the dependence of many things in the following history upon it; and also in that part of the Pentateuch that is more plainly called the Law. There is frequent mention made both in che law and history of the posterity of the sons of Ham, Mizraim and Canaan, called by the names of these their ancestors, mentioned chap. x. 6, and of those of the posterity of Mizraim, called Caphterim, mentioned ver. 14, and in Deut. ii. 23, and of the posterity of the sons of Canaan, mentioned ver. 15, &c., called by their names. And in the following history there is mention made of Ham, the son of Noah, Gen. xiv. 5. Mention is made of Elam and Shinar, Gen. xiv. 1, &c., of whom we have an account, chap. s. Frequent mention is made of the land of Cush, (in our translation, Ethiopia,) so named from Cush, the son of Ham, of whom we have an account, Gen. x. 6, 7, 8. So there is in the following history frequent mention of the land of Aram, the son of Shem. In Balaam's prophecy, referred to in the law in Deuteronomy, mention is made of Ashur, Chittini, and Eber, Namb. xxiv. 22. 24. The great event of which Moses most evi. dently wrote the history, and which takes up all the historical part of the Pentateuch, from Gen. x. 26 to the end of Deuteronomy, is God's separating the seed of Abraham and Israel from all nations, and bringing them near to himself to be his peculiar people. But to the well understanding of this, it was requisite to be informed of the origin of nations, the peopling of the world, and the Most High dividing to the nations their inheritance : and therefore the VOL. IX.
ix., X., and xi. chapters of Genesis are but a proper introduction to the history of this great event. In the song of Moses, of which mention is made in the law, and which Moses in the law was required to write, and the people in the law were required to keep, and learn, and often rehearse, there is an express reference to the separating the sons of Adam, and God's dividing the earth among its inhabitants; which is unintelligible without the x. and xi. chapters of Genesis. In that song, also, is plainly supposed a connection between this affair, and that great affair of separating the children of Israel from all nations to be his peculiar people, about which most of the history of the Pentateuch is taken up. The words are as follows, and in thein the people are expressly called upon to keep in remembrance both these events that are so connected, which obviously supposes an history of both, Deut. xxxii. 7, 8, 9. “Remember the days of old, consider the years of many generations. Ask thy father, and he will show thee; thy elders, and they will tell thee; when the Most High divided to the nations their inheritance: when he separated ihe sons of Adam, he set the bounds of the people according to the number of the children of Israel. For the Lord's portion is his people, Jacob is the lot of his inheritance.” And by the way I would observe, that in the following words are also references to other historical facts of the Pentateuch that cannot be understood without the history,
In the fourth commandment, there is such a mention made of the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the sea, and all that in them is, and of God's resting the seventh day, as is a kind of epitome of the first chapter of Genesis, and the beginning of the second, and is unintelligible without that history; and there is a reference, in Deut. iv. 32, to God's creation of man, and there is mention in the prophetical song of Moses of the name of Adam, as the grand progenitor of mankind, Deut. xxxii. 8. And there is mention made of the garden of God, or Paradise, Gen. xiii. 10. And before I leave this argument from references to historical facts, I would observe, that a very great part of the thirty-one first chapters of Deuteronomy, (which are most evidently, as I observed before, a part of the law of Moses, laid up in the holy of holies,) are made up of nothing but recapitulations, brief rehearsals, references, and hints of preceding historical facts, and counsels, and enforcements from history, which cannot be understood without the knowledge of that history.
And not only does the law of Moses depend upon the history, and bear such a relation to it, and contain such references to it that it cannot be understood without it, but the manner of writing the law shows plainly that the law and history were written together, they are so connected, interwoven, blended, inwrought, and incorporated in the writing. The history is a part of the law, as its preamble from time to time being often made an introduction to laws; and there are continually such transitions from history to law, and from law to history, and such a connection, and reference, and dependence, that all appears as it were so grow together as the several parts of a tree. These, as they stand, are parts of the continued history, and the history of the facts is only as an introduction and preamble, or reason and enforcement of the laws, all flowing in a continued series, as the several parts of one uninterrupted stream, all as one body. So that the bare inspection of the writing, as it stands, may be enough to convince any one that all has the same author, and that both were written together. Such is the manner of writing the laws concerning the passover, the chief of all the ceremonial observances, in the xii. chap. of Exodus, and the law concerning the first born, in the xiii. chap., and the statute and ordinance mentioned in the xv. chap. of Exod. 25, 26 verses. Such also is the manner of writing that law by which is made known to the children of Israel, which particular day is the Sabbath, Exod. xvi. 23. Such is the manner of writing the decalogue itself, which in the highest sense is called the law of Moses, in Exod. xx., that it is unreasonable to think that it was recorded by Moses without any of the concomitant history, and those words in the law, Exod. xx. 22, 23. Such are the laws ordering the particular frame of the tabernacle, ark, anointing oil, incense, priests' garments, with the history of the consequent building, &c. The revelation made to Moses when God proclaimed bis name, Exod. xxxiv. 6, 7, which is an important part of the law, together with ver. 10, 11, &c., and ver. 30, 31. The several laws given on occasion of Nadab and Abihu's being burnt, Levit. x., and chap. xvi., particularly ver. 1, 2, taken with what follows, together with the last words in the chapter. See also Levit. xxi. 1, and ver. 24, and chap. xxji. 1, 2, 3. 17, 18. The law concerning blasphemy, with the story of the blasphemy of Shelomith's son, Levit. xxiv. The law of the Levites service, with the history of their being numbered and accepted instead of the first-born and consecrated, Num. iii., and iv., and visi. The law of putting the leper out of the camp, Num. v., at the beginning. The law of polluted persons keeping the passover, with the history, that gave occasion for it, Num. ix. 6.
The history of making the trumpets, with the law concerning their use, Num. x. The law constituting the seventy elders, which is only giving an bistory of their first appointment, Num. xi. The law of th presumptuous sinner, with the history of the sabbath-breaker Num. xv. 30, &c. The law for the priests, Num. xviii., which supposes a foregoing history of the rebellion of Korah, see ver. 5 and ver. 27, compared with the 13th verse of the preceding chap
ter. The law of the inheritance of daughters, with the history of Zelophehad's daughters. The law of the cities of refuge on the east side of Jordan, with the history of the taking of the country.
History and law are every where so grafted one into another, so mutually inwrought, and do, as it were, so grow one out of and into another, and flow one from another in a continued current, that there is all appearance of their originally growing together, and not in the least of their being artificially patched and compacted together afterwards. It seems impossible impartially and carefully to view the manner of their connection, and to judge otherwise.
Another argument that the same care was taken to preserve the memory of the facts, as to preserve the precepts of the law, viz., by making a public record of them, to be preserved with the same care, and so in like manner laid up in the sanctuary, is, that it is declared in the law, that the whole law was written, and the record of all the precepts of it transmitted to posterity as a monument of the historical facts, or to that end that the memory of those facts might be kept up in future generations. Deut. vi. 20 to the end. “And when thy son asketh thee in time to come, saying, What mean the testimonies, and the statutes, and the judgments which the Lord our God hath commanded you? Then thou shalt say unto thy son, We were Pharaoh's bondmen in Egypt, and the Lord brought us out of Egypt with a mighty hand, and the Lord showed signs and wonders great and sore upon Pharaoh and upon all his household before our eyes, and he brought us out from thence, that he might bring us in to give us the land which he sware unto our fathers. And the Lord commanded us to do all these statutes, to fear the Lord our God, for our good always, that he might preserve us alive, as it is at this day : and it shall be our righteousness if we observe to do all these commandments before the Lord our God, as he hath commanded us."
It is a plain and demonstrative evidence, that the Jews bad all along some standing public records of the facts that we have an account of in the history of the Pentateuch, that these facts are so abundantly, and in such a manner mentioned or referred to all along in other books of the Old Testament. There is scarcely any part of the history from the beginning of Genesis to the end of Deuteronomy, but what is mentioned or referred to in other books of the Old Testament, that were the writings of after ages, and some of them are mentioned very often, and commonly with the names of persons and places, and many particular and minute circumstances, not only that part of the history which belongs more immediately to the redemption of Israel out of Egypt, and their journey through the wilderness, but the preceding introduc
tory bistory, and not only that which concerns the Jewish patriarchs, but the first part of the history of Genesis, even from the very beginning. In these writings we have very often mention of God's creating the heavens and the earth ; Isai. Ixv. 17, and Ixvi. 22, and xl. 21, 22. 28, and li. 13, and xlii. 5, and xliv. 24, and xlv. 12, and xxxvii. 16, and Ixvi. 1, 2. Jer. x. 11, 12, and xxxi. 17, and li. 15, and xiv. 22. 2 Kings xix. 15. Psalm Isxxix. 11, 12, and cii. 25. Zech. xii. 1. Psalm cxv. 15, and cxxi. 2, and cxxiv. 8, and cxxxiv. 3. The manner of God's creating by speaking the word, Ps. xxxiii. 6. 9, and cxlviii. 5.
The world being at first without form and void, and covered with darkness, agreeably to Genesis i. 2, is referred to Jer. iv. 23.
God's creating the light, is referred to, Ps. lxxiv. 16.
God's creating the light and darkness, Isai. xliv. 7, agreeable to Genesis i. 3, 4.
God's creating the firmament, Ps. xix. 1.
God's creating the waters that are above the heavens, Psalm cxlviii. 4. 6, agreeable to Genesis i. 7.
God's gathering together the waters, Ps. xxxiii. 7. His making the sea and the dry land, Ps. xcv. 5; stretching out the earth above the waters, Ps. cxxxvi. 6; appointing the sea its decreed place, Jer. v. 22. Prov. viii. 29. Ps. civ. 9.
God's creating the sun, Ps. xix. 1. 4, and lxxiv. 16.
God's creating the sun for a light by day, and the moon and the stars for a light by night, Jer. xxxi. 35. Ps. cxlviii. 3. 6.
God's creating great lights. The sun to rule by day, and the moon and stars to rule by night, Ps. cxxxvi. 7,8,9. See also Ps. civ. 19, with ver. 24.
God's creating the sea, and the many creatures that move herein, and the whale in particular, Ps. civ. 25, 26.
God's creating the heavens, the earth, and the sea, and all that is therein, Ps. cxlvi. 6; many parts of the creation is mentioned, Prov. viii. 22-29.
God's creating man and beast, Jer. xxvii. 5.
Man's having dominion given him in his creation over the fish of the sea, and the fowls of the air, and beasts of the earth, Ps. viii. 6, 7, 8.
Man's having the herbs and plants of the earth given him for meat, Ps. civ. 14, 15, agreeable to Gen. i. 29, and iii. 18.
The first marriage, or God's making Adam and Eve one, is referred to, Mal. ii. 15.
Adam's name is metioned, Hos. vi. 7.