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themselves in several parts of Europe. Herodotus tells us that a people called Cimmeriï formerly dwelt in that tract of Lesser Asia, which we assign to Gomer. So he tells us withal that these people put out a colony to Palus Mæotis, on the north of the Euxine sea, and so gave the name of Bosphorus Cimmerius to the strait betwixt the Euxine sea and the Mæotick lake, now commonly called the strait of Caffa.
This colony of the Cimmerii increasing in process of time, and so spreading themselves still by new colonies further westward, came along the Danube, and settled themselves in the country which from them has been called Germany. For as to the testimony of the ancients, Diodorus Siculus, (as Mr. Mede observes) affirm that the Germans had their original from the Cimmerians, and the Jews to this day (as the same learned person remarks) call them Ashkenazim of Ashkenaz. Indeed they themselves retain plain marks enough of their descent both in the name Cimbri and also in their common name Germans, or as they call themselves, Germen, which is but a small variation from Gemren, or Gomren, and this last is easily contracted from Gomerin, that is, Gomereans; for the termination en is a plural termination of the German language, and from the singular number, Gomer, is formed Gemren by the same analogy that from brother is formed brethren. The other name Cimbri, is easily framed from Cimmerii, and by that name the inhabitants of the northwest peninsula of old Germany, now called Jutland, were known not only to the ancient, but latter writers, and from this name of the inhabitants, the said peninsula is called Cimbrica Chersonesus, and that frequently by modern authors.!
Out of Germany, the descendants of Gomer spread themselves into Gaul, or France. To prove this, Mr. Camden quotes the testimony of Josephus, when he says that those called by the Greeks Golatæ were originally called Gomerites, which words may be understood either of the Asiatick Golatæ, commonly called by us Galatians, or the European Galatæ, commonly called by us Gauls. If it be taken in the former sense, then it is a testimony for the first seating of Gomer in the tract of the Lesser Asia we have assigned him, and on this account it is before taken notice of by us. Mr. Camden also produces the testimony of other writers to prove the Gauls to be from Goner, as of Appian, who in his Illyricks, says expressly that the Celtæ, or Gauls, were otherwise called Cimbri. Those barbarians whom Marius defeated, Cicero plainly terms Gauls, and all historians agree that these were the Cimbri. And the coat-armour of Beleus, their king, digged up at Aix, in Provence, where Marius routed them, does evince the same, for the words Beleos Cimbros were engraven upon it in a strange character. Again :
Lucan calls that ruffian that was hired to kill Marius, a Cimbrian, whereas Livy and others affirm him to have been a Gaul ; and by Plutarch the Cimbri are called Gallo-Scythians.
Hence we conclude that the ancient inhabitants of Britain were descended from Gomar, for it is not to be questioned but that the isle was first peopled from those countries of the European continent, which lie next to it, and consequently from Germany or Gaul. The name by which the offspring of those ancient Britons, the Welch, call themselves to this very day, is Kumro, or Cimro, and Kumri, and in like manner they call a Welsh woman Kumraes, and their language, Humeraeg; and since the Saxons and Angles were Germans, who as was before observed, were descendants of Gomer, and were near neighbours to the people that were more especially called Cimbri, hence it follows that our ancestors, who succeeded the old Britons, were also descended from Gomer
But now to proceed to the other sons of Japhet, as the nation of Gomer first seated itself in the northern tract of the Lesser Asia, so the nation of Javan seated itself in the southern tract of the
And this appears not only from the name of a country in this tract called Ionia, but also from the situation of the four families of Javan's sons within this tract, which are mentioned in this order by Moses, Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim, Gen. X. 4.
Tarshish seated himself on the eastern part of this tract, as is probable, on several considerations. For Tarsus is a chief town of Cilicia, and Josephus expressly affirms that Cilicia, and the country round it, was originally known by the name of Tarshish. It is scarcely to be doubted, but this was the Tarshish, to which the prophet Jonas thought to flee from the presence of the Lord, as also that this principally was the Tarshish mentioned so often by the prophets, on account of its trading with Tyre.
To the west of Tarshish, adjoining the portion appertaining to Kittim, or Citlim, which word having a plural termination, does, in all probability, imply the descendants of Keth, or the Ketians. Ptolomy tells us of a country here called Cetis, and Homer in Odys. 4, mentions a people called Cetii, who were thought to take their name from a river, Cetius, in the same quarter. But it is remarkable that this is agreeable to the name mentioned by Homer. Josephus will have the isle of Cyprus to have been the seat of the Cittim, because therein was a town called Citium, of good note, but it is not to be questioned, but the continent was peopled before the island, and consequently that the Cittim first seated themselves on the continent, from which they might, probably enough, send in process of time, some colony over into the neighbouring island of Cyprus.
The two remaining families of Javan, viz. Elishah, and Dodanim, seated themselves on the western coast of the southern tract of the Lesser Asia. Here upwards, or northwards, were anciently situated the Æoles, who as they carry some marks of their pedigree in their name, so are expressly affirmed by Josephus to have been descended from Elishah, and from him to have taken their name. And since the country, peculiarly called in after ages, lonia, joined to the south, of what was in said ages peculiarly called Æolia, it is probable that the said Ionia, (so peculiarly called perhaps, from Javan's living there with his son Elishah,) was possessed originally by the sons of Elishah, or else partly by them and partly by the Dodanim-of whom next.
On the same western coast, south of the family of Elishah, may the family of Dodanim be supposed to have first planted itself, for there we find in ancient writers a country called Doris, which may not improbably be derived from Dodanim, especially if this be plural, as the termination seems to import, and so the singular was Dodan; which being softened into Doran, the Greeks might easily frame from thence Dorus, whom they assert to be the father of the Dorians. Certain it is from the Greek writers themselves, that the Dorés or Dorians were a considerable body of the Greeks, insomuch that Dorico Castra is taken by Virgil to denote the whole Grecian camp, wherefore it is very probable that they had their extraction from one of the sons of Javan, the father of the Greek nation, and distinguished themselves from the other families of Javan, by assuming to themselves the name of the father of their
family, as the others did, and consequently called themselves Dodanim, which the Greeks in time moulded into Dorés. The Greeks say of Dorus, the father of the Dorians, that he was the son of Neptune, who evidently was the same with Japhet; (see No. 405;) and though Dodanim was the grandson of Japhet, yet according to the usual way of speaking among the Hebrews, he was called the son of Japhet. The change of Dodan into Dorus is the more likely, by reason of the great likeness there is between the Hebrew D and R. Hence, (viz. from Deris,) some might pass over to the isle of Rhodes, which might take its name from those Dodanim, which by reason of the likeness of letters is sometimes writ Rodanim, which seems to have been the opinion of the seventy interpreters, by their rendering the Hebrew word Dodanim by Pódios, Rhodii.
I proceed now to speak of the colonies of the posterity of Javan, that in process of time were made from their first settlements, and I shall begin with the two last mentioned, Elishah and Dodanim ; for those lying on the western coast of the Lesser Asia, as they increased, peopled by degrees the many isles that lie on the adjoining sea, and so at length spread themselves into the European continent. The family of Elishah seems to have possessed themselves of most, or at least the most considerable isles lying in the sea between Europe and Asia, forasmuch as they are called by the prophet Ezekiel, xxvii. 7, the Isles of Elshah. What the prophet there says of the blue and the purple from the isles of Elishah, is very applicable to the isles of this sea, forasmuch as they did abound in this commodity, and are on that account celebrated by common authors, and some of them took their names from it. And the sea itself on which these isles were, seems originally to have been called the Sea of Elishah; which name, though it wore away in process of time in other parts, yet seems to have been all along preserved in that part, which to this day is frequently called the Hellespont, as if one should say Elisa Pontos, the Sea of Elishah. And this derivation of the word Hellespont will appear get more likely, when we consider that the descendants of Elisha, passing over into Europe, came afterwards to be termed Hellenes, and their country Hellas, a name which in process of time became common to all Greece ; in which there were other footsteps of Elishah's name to be found formerly, as in the city and province of Elis, in the Peloponesus, in the city of Eleusis, in Attica; and in the river Elissus, and llissus, in the same province. Some think the Campi Elisii, so much celebrated among the Greeks, to have been so called from Elisha.
As to Dodenim, or the Dorians, the Spartans or the Lacedemonians, looked on themselves to be of Dorick extraction, and there were formerly remainders of the name to be fouud in those parts of Greece. In the province of Messena, in the Peloponesus, there was a town called Dorion, and of the other tract of Greece, lying above the isthmus of the Peloponesus, there was a considerable part called Doria, Dorica, or Doris ; to say nothing of Dodona : and all the Greek nation is sometimes called Dores, as was before observed, out of Virgil.
As to Kittim, or the Cittim, they probably sent their first colony to the neighbouring isle of Cyprus, which seems to be called the land of Chittim. Isai. xxiji. 1-12. But in process of time wanting more room, and therefore seeking out further, and finding the lower parts of Greece already inhabited by the descendants of Elishah and Dodanim, they still proceeded on, coasting along the western shores of Greece, until they came to the upper, and northern parts of it, which not being yet inhabited, some of them planted themselves there, whilst some others of them descrying the coast of Italy, went and settled themselves in that country. Hence it comes to pass, in probability, that both Macedonia in Greece, and also Italy, are denoted in scripture by the names of Cittim, or Kittim. The author of the book of Maccabees plainly denotes Macedonia, by the land of Chetiim, when he says that Alexander, the son of Philip the Macedonian, came out of the land of Chetiim, 1 Mac. i. 1; so also chap. viii. 5, the said author calls Perseus king of Macedonia, king of the Cilims. The more ancient name of this country was Macetiu, and the Macedonians themselves are otherwise termed Macete.
The place of scripture where Chillim, by the consent of almost all expositors, denotes the Romans, is Dan. xi. 29, 30; for by the ships of Chittim, there mentioned, is understood the Roman feet; by the coming whereof, Antiochus was obliged to desist from his designs against Egypt. There are also several footsteps of the name Chittim, or Cheth, to be found in Italy, among eminent writers ; as a city of Latium, called Cetia, mentioned by Dionysius Helicarnasseus : another city among the Volsci, called Echetia, mentioned by Stephanus; also a river near Eumæ, called Cetus. Nay, there are not wanting authors who expressly assert the Romans and Latins, to have had their extraction from the Citii, or Celii, as Eusebius, Cadrenus, Suidas ; whose testimonies are produced by Bochart; and this learned person observes further, that the word Chetim, does, in the Arabick tongue, denote a thing hid, so that the name Latins, might be originally only a translation of the old eastern name Clietim.
There remains now only the colonies oí Tarshish to be spoken of, and wberesoever else they seated themselves it is highly probable that Tartessus, a city and adjoining country in Spain, and much celebrated by the ancients for its wealth, was a colony of Tarshish. Bochart has observed that Polybius, reciting the words of a league between the Romans and Carthaginians, mentions a place under the name of Tarscium ; avd Stephanus expressly says, that Tarscium was a city near Hercules's Pillars : the situation whereof agrees well enough with that of Tartessus. Again, what is said by Ezekiel, chap. xxvii. ver. 12, agrees very well with this Tarshish; for the words of the prophet run thus, " Tarshish was thy merchant by reason of the multitude of all kinds of riches; with silver, iron, tin, and lead, they traded in thy fairs;" i. e. in the fairs of Tyre. Now, as has been before observed, Tartessus was celebrated among the ancients for its multitude of riches, and the metals mentioned by the prophet were such as Spain did formerly abound with. Some also are of opinion that the Etrusci of Italy, otherwise called Tyrrheni and Tusci, were a colony of Tarshish. The word Etrusci, without the initial E, (which was frequently added to derivatives) contains the radicals of Tarshish.
The descendants of Tarshish were the most expert seamen, and consequently the chief merchants of the early ages of the world. Hence ibe whole Mediterranean sea seems to bave been at length comprehended under the name of the sea of Tarshish. VOL. IX.