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hopes of a blessing which God encouraged him that he would give him in a posterity. When he came there he found a famine in the land, and was forced to fly the country and go down into Egypt for sustenance; and God appeared to him time after time, promising great things concerning his posterity. Abraham waited a long time, and saw po appearance of the fulfilment of the promise, for his wife continued barren, and he made his complaint of it to God. God then renewed and very solemnly confirmed his promise ; but did not tell him that it should be a child by his wife, and therefore after he had waited some time longer, he went in to his maid ; but God rejected her son, and he waited thirteen years lovger, till he was an hundred years old, before he obtained the son promised; and then God gave him but one, without any hopes of his having any other. After this, at God's command, he cast out his son Ishmael, though it was exceedingly grievous to him, on encouragement of great blessings in Isaac and his posterity. And now, at last, God commands him to take him and offer him up for a burnt offering. He does not merely call to see him die, though that would have been a great trial under such circumstances ; but he is to cut his throat with his own hands, and when he has done so, to burn his flesh on the altar, an offering to God—to that God that carnal reason would have said had dealt so ill with hiin, after he had lived long enough to get fast hold of his affections; after he was weaned from Ishmael, and had set all his heart on Isaac; and after there began to be a most hopeful prospect of God's fulfilling his promises concerning him. And God gave bim no reason for it. When Ishmael was to be cast out, the reason assigned was, that in Isaac, his seed should be called. But now, in seeming inconsistency with that reason, Isaac must die, and Abraham must kill him ; and neither one nor the other must know why, nor wherefore ; and, as Mr. Henry observes, how would he ever look Sarah in the face again ? with what face could he return to her and his family, with the blood of Isaac sprinkled on his garments? “Surely a bloody husband hast thou been to me,” would Sarah say to him, as Zipporah said to Moses, Exod. iv. 25, 26.
 Gen. xxii. 8. “My son, God will provide a lamb for a burnt offering." This was fulfilled in Christ.
 Gen. xxiii. Concerning Abraham's buying, in Canaan, the possession of a burying place. Canaan is the land that God made over to Abraham by covenant; and yet he gave him none iheritance in it to live upon, as Stephen observes; no, not so much as to set his foot on, Acts vii. 5. But the first possession he had in it was the possession of a burying place, or a possession for him to be in after he and his were dead; which signifies this, that the heavenly Canaan, the land of promise, the rest that remains for the people of God, is a land for them to possess, and abide and rest in, after they are dead: they do not enter upon the possession of it, until after they are dead, and then they are gathered to their possession in Canaan. Therefore it was so ordered that Jacob and Joseph so much insisted on it to be buried in that land.
 Gen. xxiv. 15. Rebekah, and Rachel, and Zipporah, Moses's wife, those types of the church, all found their busbands, who were types of Christ, when coming out to fountains to draw water; which typifies this, that Christ is found by believers in a way of the use of the means of grace. The woman of Samaria found Christ when coming to draw water.
 Gen. xxv. 22. “And the children struggled together in the womb." I believe this had reference to the spiritual war that is in the soul of the believer, Christ's spouse, between the flesh and spirit: the flesh lusteth against the spirit, and the spirit against the flesh, and these two are contrary one to another,
 Gen. xxvii. 29. "Let the people serve thee, and nations bow down to thee; be lord over thy brethren, and let thy mother's sons bow down to thee. Cursed be every one that curseth thee, and blessed be he that blesseth thee.” Hence we learn that the prophets themselves may not understand their prophecies, for Jacob thought that this should be accomplished of Esau.
 Gen. xxvii. 18, 19. “And Jacob rose up early in the morning, and took the stone that he had put for his pillow, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it, and he called the name of that place Bethel," &c. So, chap xxxi. 13. 45, and xxxv. 14. From hence the heathen Bætylia, mentioned by Philo Biblius out of Sanchonjaihon. The god Uranus excogitated Bætylia, having fashioned them into living stones, Bochart conceives that Sanchonjathon, instead of living stones, wrote anointed stones, d'uj (from the radix 910, Shuph, which, among the Syrians, signifies to apoint) which Philo Biblius read D'V9); whence he changed anointed, into living stones. So Damascius tells us, I saw a Bretylus moved in the air. The Phænicians, imitating Jacob at Bethel, first worshipped the very stone which the patriarch anointed. So Scaliger, in Euseb. tells us that “ the Jews relate so much, that although that Cippus, or stone, was at first beloved of God, in the times of the Patriarchs, yet afterwards he hated it, because the Canaanites turned it into
an idol.” Neither did the Phænicians worship only this stone at Bethel; but also, in imitation of this rite, erected several other Bætylia, on the like occasion as Jacob erected bis pillar of stone as a memorial of God's apparition to him. So in like manner both the Phænicians and the Grecians, upon some imaginary apparition of some god, (or dust, rather,) would erect their Bætylia, or pillars, in commemoration of such an apparition. So Photius, out of Damascius, tells us that near Heliopolis, in Syria, Asclepiades ascended the mountain Libanus, and saw many Bætylia, or Bætyli; concerning which he relates many miracles. He relates also that these Bætylia were consecrated, some to Saturn, some to Jupiter, and some to others. So Phavorimus says, Bætylus is a stone which stands at Heliopolis, near Libanus. This stone şome also called Ernanu, which is the same word by which the Seventy render Jacob's pillar Gale's Court of the Gen. p. 1, b. 2, c. 7, p. 89, 90.
 Gen. xxviii. 15–22. “ And he took the stone that he had set for bis pillow, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it-And this stone which I have set up for a pillar shall be God's house." This anointed pillar is a type of the Messiah, or Anointed, who is often called a stone or a rock, and is the house of God, wherein the Godhead dwells and tabernacles. He was signified by the tabernacle and temple, as Christ tells us, when he says, “ Destroy this temple," &c. And he, we are told, is the temple of the new Jerusalem. This is the stone that was Jacob's pillow ; it signified the dependence the saints have upon Christ, and that it is in him they have rest and repose, as Christ invites those that are weary to come to him, and they shall find rest. The Psalmist says he will lay him down and sleep, and awake, the Lord sustaining him. And as the stones of the temple rested on the foundation, so the saints, the living stones, rest upon Christ, building and resting upon that rock. This stone signified the same with the other that he built there when he returned: chap. sxxv.7: “ And be built there an altar, and called the place El-beth-el, because there God appeared unto him, when he fled from the face of his brother.” Ver. 14, “And Jacob set up a pillar in the place where he talked with him, even a pillar of stone; and he poured a drink-offering thereon, and he poured oil thereun.”
 Gen. xxxiii. 147. As Jacob's family returned to the land of Canaan, after Jacob bad been long banished from thence, so it is probable will be the return of the spiritual Israel to God, its resting place, and as it were to the promised land, to the land dowing with milk and honey, to a state of glorious rest, plenty, prosperity, and spiritual joy, and delights, in the latter days, which is often represented by the prophets as bringing God's people into the land of Israel, and recovering them from foreign lands, where he had driven them. Jacob, at his first entrance, meets with great opposition from those professors who are often in scripture represented by the elder brother, as Cain, and Ishmael, and Zarah, the son of Judah, who first put forth his hand, and David's eldest brother, and the elder brother of the prodigal. But Jacob's meek and humble behaviour towards his opposing brother, to soften and turn his heart, teaches the duty of Christians. Jacob's family was divided into several compavies, one going before another with a space between; so the return of the church of God will be by several companies that will come in one after another in successive seasons of the pouring out of the Spirit of God, with a space between. In Jacob's family, the lowest and meanest went first, and afterwards the more honourable and most amiable, and best beloved ; so, in the spiritual return of the church of Christ, God will first bring in the inferior sort of people ; he will save the tents of Judah first, agreeable to the prophecy, Zech. xii. 7. “ The Lord also shall save the tents of Judah first, that the glory of the house of David, and the glory of the inbabitants of Jerusalem, do not magnify themselves against Judah." And the first outpouring of the Spirit will be the least glorious, and they that are first brought in are not only inferior among men, but the least pure, beautiful, and amiable as Christians in their experiences and practice. In Jacob's family went first the hand-maids and their ebildren, so this is the blemish of the first children of Christ that shall be brought in at the glorious day of the church, that though they will be true children of Jacob, yet shall they be as it were children of the hand-maids, with much of a legal spirit, i. e. spiritual pride and self-confidence. After these comes Leah and her children, who were more honourable and better beloved than the former; she was a true wife, but yet less beautiful, and less beloved than his other wile; so after the first outpouring of the Spirit there will be a "work of God that will break forth, that will be more glorious and more pure than the first. In Jacob's family came last of all the beautiful Rachel and Joseph, Jacob's best beloved and dearest child of all the family; so will it be in the church of God in days approaching. Jacob goes before them all, leads them all, and defends them all; so doth Christ go before his church as their leader and defence.
 Gen. xxxvii. 28. “ And they lift up Joseph out of the pit.” Joseph was here a type of Christ; he was designed death by his own brethren, as Christ was; he was cast into a pit, whereby his death and burial was signified. He was lifted out again, and his resurrection was an occasion of their salvation from famine and death.
 Gen. xxxviii. 28, &c.“ Zarah put his hand out first, but Pharez, from whom came Christ, broke forth before him.” This imports much the same thing as Isaac's casting out Ishmael, as Jacob's taking hold of Esau's heel when they were born, and afterwards getting bis birth-right of him, and as David's getting the kingdom from Saul.
 Gen. xli. The history of Joseph's advancement in Egypt, 8c. "The Apis and Serapis of the Egyptians seems to signify Joseph, because, 1. It was the mode of the Egyptians to preserve the memories of their noble benefactors by some significative hieroglyphics, or symbols; and the great benefits which the Egyptians received from Joseph in supplying them with breadcorn, is aptly represented under the form of an ox, the symbol of an husbandman. Thus Suidas (in Serapis) tells us, “ that Apis, being dead, had a temple built for him, wherein was nourished a bullock, the symbol of an husbandman.” According to which resemblance also, Minutius, a Roman tribune, was in very like manner honoured with the form of a golden ox, or bull. 2. Joseph is compared to a bullock in scripture, Deut. xxxiii. 17, “ His glory is like the firstling of his bullock, and his horns are like the horns of unicorns : with them he shall push the people together to the ends of the earth; and they are the ten thousands of Ephraim, and they are the thousands of Manasseh.” 3. The same may be evinced from the names Apis and Serapis, for Apis seems evidently a derivative from 3x, Father, as Joseph styles himself, Gen. xlv. 8, “ So now, it was not you that sent me hither, but God; and he bath made me a father to Pharaoh, and lord of all his house, and a ruler throughout all the land of Egypt.” As for Serapis, it was the same with Apis, and also a symbol of Joseph, which Vossius collects from this: 1. It had a bushel on its head, as a symbol of Joseph's providing corn for the Egyptians. 2. From the etimon of Serapis, which is derived either froin 718, an ox, or from 10, a prince, and Apis, both of which are applicable to Joseph.” Gale's Court of Gen. p. 1, b. 2, c. 7, p. 93, 94.
 Gen. xli. 14. “ And they brought Joseph out of the dungeon.” By Joseph's being cast into the dungeon, is signified the death of Christ; by his being delivered, his resurrection ; and the eosuing great advancement of Joseph, to be next to the king; signifies the exaltation of Christ at the right hand of the Father. Joseph rose from the dungeon, and was thus exalted to give salvaVOL. IX.