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whelmed in sin and misery and danger, and is redeemed or delivered, as Moses was taken out of the water.

[408] Exod. ii. Moses is the same with the Egyptian Osiris; for, 1. Moses is the same with Bacchus, as has been shown before, No. 401; and Diodorus tells us that Osiris was called by the Greeks Dionysus, the name of Bacchus.

2. Diodorus tells us that Hercules was the chief captain of Osiris' army, who was Joshua, as has been shown, No. 402. 3. Diodorus tells us that Osiris had in his army Anubis covered over with a dog's skin, which thence was pictured with a dog's head, and called the dog keeper, &c.; all which seems to refer to Caleb's name, which signifies a dog. 4. Pan is said to war under Osiris, which is the same with Christ, whom God promises should go with Moses when he says, '35

my presence shall go with him.” See No.404.

5. Osiris is said to have horns from the mistake of Moses's character, who is thence pictured with horns, because of his beams of light--the word in Hebrew for horns and beams being the same.

6. Moses with the princes of the tribes carried up the bones of Joseph into Canaan : hence the poets fable of Osiris' bones, &c. See Gale's Court of Gen. p. 1, b. 2, c. 7, p. 94, 95.

[159] Exod. ii. 5. Pharaoh's daughter became the mother of Moses, which typified the calling of the Gentile church, that is naturally the daughter of Satan, the spiritual Pharaoh, which becomes the church of Christ, and so his mother; and also is to represent that all the saints of which the whole church consists, are naturally the children of the devil, that by conversion become the spiritual mother of Christ, as Christ says that whosoever shall do the will of his father which is in heaven, the same is his mother, &c. The whole church, which is often represented as the mother of Christ, is in her constituent parts naturally an Egyptian, and the daughter of Pharaoh. She found Moses when she came down to wash herself in the river. The river bere represents the Holy Ghost, and the washing is the washing of regeneration, by which souls are brought to Christ, which is signified by baptism, by which their admission into the Christian church is declared and sealed. Pharaoh's daughter is more than once made use of in scripture to signify the church, especially the Gentile. So was Pharaoh's daughter that became Solomon's wife, for the church is figuratively both the wife and mother of Christ.

[384] Exod. ii. 5. Pharaoh's daughter came to Moses herself, into the same river into which Moses was cast. So, if we would find Christ, and be the spiritual mother of Christ, we must die with Christ, be made conformable to his death, be buried with him by baptsm; must die to sin; must be crucified to the world, and die to the law, and be willing to suffer affliction and persecution with him. By such mortification and humiliation is the soul washed in the river into which Christ was cast.

[439] Exod. ii. 6. And behold, the babe wept." As Moses, in the water, was a type of the church in affliction, so his weeping a little before he is taken out of the water, seems to be typical of the spirit of repentance, mourning and supplications often spoken of in the prophets, given to the church a little before her deliverance from adversity.

" &c.

[412] Exod. iii. 14. "I am that I am, Some of the heathen philosophers seem to have derived notions that they had of the Deity from hence. Plato and Pythagoras make the great object of philosophy to be Tò'Ov, that ishich is; Tò övrws "Ov, that which truly is; and also Tò aúto "Ov, being itself.

The Seventy render this place in Exodus thus : Eyw Ejus ö cv, that the philosophers by their Tò "Ov, Tờ övtws "Ov. and Tò avro "Ov, meant God, appears by what Jamblicus saith of Pythagoras, “ by Twv"Ov7wv, Beings, he understood sole and self agents, immaterials, and eternals. Other beings indeed are not beings, but yet are equivocally called such by a participation with these eternals." So Plato, in bis Parmenides, (who was a Pythagorean) treating of To "Ov xau "Ev, which he makes the first principle of all things, thereby understands God. So, in his Timæus Locrus, he says

, To "Ov, Being is always ; neither hath it beginning. So again in his Timæus, folios 37, 38, he proves nothing properly is, but God, the eternal essence, “to which," says he, we do very improperly attribute those distinctions of tiine, was, and shall be.Plutarch says To 8vFws "Ov, The true Being, is eternal, ingenerable, and incorruptible, unto which no time ever brings mutation.” Hence in the Delphic temple there was engraved ”Eu, Thou art. Gale's Court of Gen. p. 2, b. 2, ch. 8, p. 173, 174, 175.

That Plato by 'To ovsus "Ov, ineant God, appears by his own words in his Epist. 6 fol. 323. " Let there,” says he, “ be a law constituted and confirmed by oath, calling to witness the God of all things, the Governor of Beings present, and things to come, the Father of that governing cause whom, according to our philosophy, we make to be the true Being, 'Ov övtws, &c.” This is the same with him that revealed hiinself to Moses by the name I am that I am, out of the bush, that was the Son of God. G. C. of Gen. p. 1, b. 3, c. 5, p. 64. Plato seems evidently to have heard of this revelation that God made of himself to Moses by the name of I am, &c. out of the burning bush in mount Sinai, and to have a plain reference to it in his Philebus, fol. 17; he confesseth, “The knowledge of the Tò "Ov," &c. was from the gods, who communicated this knowledge to us, by a certain Promitheus, together with a bright fire. G. C. of G. p. 2, b. 3, c. 2,

p. 228.

[457] Exod. iii.

14. “ And God said unto Moses, I am that I am; and he said, Thus shalt thou say to the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you." " We are informed that there was an ancient inscription in the temple at Delphos, over the place where the image of Apollo was erected, consisting of these letters, "El; and Platurch introduces his disputants querying what might be the true signification of it. At length Ammonius, to whom he assigns the whole strength of the argumentation, concludes that “ the word "EI, was the most perfect title they could give the Deity, that it signifies THOU ART, and expresses the divine essential being, importing that, though our being is precarious, fluctuating, dependent, subject to mutation, and temporary; so that it would be improper to say to any of us, in the strict and absolute sense, thou art; yet we may with great propriety give the Deity this appellation, because God is independent, uncreated, immutable, eternal, always, and every where the same, and therefore he only can be said absolutely To Be. Plutarch would have called this Being Tò övfws "Ov. Plato would have named him to ov, which he would have explained to signify Ougia, implying TO BE essentially, or self-existent." Shuckford's Connections, vol. 2, p. 395, 396.

(505) Exod. ii. 18. “ And you shall say unto him, The Lord God of the Hebrews hath met with us, and now let us go, we beseech thee, three days' journey into the wilderness, that we may sacrifice to the Lord our God.” That is, inform Pharaoh that your God that hath met with you, has instructed you to ask this of him. In this Pharaoh was not treated with any falsehood or unjust deceit. The utmost that can be supposed by any objector is, that here is an implicit promise, that if he would let them go three days' journey into the wilderness, they would return again after they had there served their God, and received the revelation of his will, which he should there make to them. But if there had been, not only an implicit, but an express, promise of this, it might have been consistent with God's real design, and the revelations of it that he had made to Moses, and by hiin to the people, without any false or unjust dealing. God knew that PhaVOL. IX.


raoh would not comply with the proposal, and that his refusal would be the very occasion of their final deliverance. He knew he would order it so, and therefore might reveal this as the event that should finally be brought to pass, and promise it to his people, though he revealed not to them the exact time and particular means and way of its accomplishment. Conditional promises or threatenings of that which God knows will never come to pass, and which he has revealed will not come to pass, are not inconsistent with God's perfect justice and truth, as when God promised the prince and people of the Jews in Jeremiah's time, that the city should surely be preserved, and never should be destroyed by its enemies, if they would repent and turn to God, and cleave to him, though it had been often most expressly and absolutely foretold that Jerusalem should be destroyed by the Chaldeans, and as the apostle Paul denounced unto the mariners that were about to flee out of the ship, that if they did, the ship's crew must perish; though he had before in the name of God foretold and promised that there should be the loss of no man's life, but only of the ship.

[443] Exod. iv. 6, 7. " And the Lord said surthermore unto him, Put now thine hand into thy bosom; and he put his hand into his bosom, and when he took it out, behold, his hand was leprous as snow; and he said, Put thine hand into thy bosom again; and he put his hand into his bosom again, and plucked it out of his bosom, and behold, it was turned again as the other flesh.” This sign is much like the foregoing, of casting the rod on the ground, and its becoming a serpent; and much the same thing is signified, but only more is signified in this latter sign than in the former. By Moses's hand is represented the hand or arm of the Lord, which often in the Old Testament signifies the Messiah. By God's plucking bis hand out of his bosom, is meant his appearing for the salvation of his people. While God long forbears to appear for his church's salvation, while they are longing and waiting for him, he as it were hides his hand in his bosom; Ps. lxxiv.

Why withdrawest thou thy hand, even thy right hand? Pluck it out of thy bosom.” Tbere are remarkable appearances of God in the world for the salvation of his people, which are both by the coming of the Messiah, both of which are long wished and waited for before they are accomplished. The first is God's appearing in the world for the redemption of the church, by laying the foundation of her salvation in the first coming of the Messiah, after the church had long waited for him, while God had bid his hand in his bosoin. At length the arm of the Lord is made bare, the Messiah appears, but in such a manner that it was to the surprise and astonishment of those that saw him-many were astonished at him, his visage was so marred more than

11. "

any man, and his form more than the sons of men. They were offended in him. He had no form nor comeliness, and when they saw him, there was no beauty that they should desire him. He appears in the form of sinful flesh. He was as it were diseased with the leprosy, because himself took our infirmities, and bore our sicknesses. He was made sin for us, as though he had been all over leprous or sinful. God's second remarkable

God's second remarkable appearance will be in the Messiah's second coming for the actual salvation of bis people, when he will appear without sin unto salvation, without the leprosy of our sin, and will appear in that glory that he had with the Father before his humiliation, which he emptied himself of at his first coming. God having answered his prayer in glorifying him with his own self, with the glory he had with him before the world was: as Moses's hand, the second time he plucked it out of his bosom, was restored as it was at first. This type of the redemption of the Messiah was fitly given on this occasion, and as a sign of the redemption of the children of Israel out of Egypt, and the carrying them through the Red sea, the wilderness, and Jordan, into Canaan, because the redemption of the Messiah, both fundamental and actual, was variously represented and presignified in that great work of God.

[195] Exod. iv. 20. Moses's Rod. " And Moses took the rod of God in his hand.” This rod typified the Word, both the personal Word and the word of Revelation. The word of God is called the rod of God's strength, Ps. cx. 2. It is called the rod of Christ's mouth, Isai. xi. 4. It is expressly represented by the rod of an almond-tree, Jer. i. 11. Moses's rod was the rod of an almond-tree. Jesus Christ is also called a rod. “There shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a branch shall grow out of his roots.” He is frequently called a branch, or sprout, a tender plant, &c.

If we consider this rod as representing the revealed word of God, then Moses or Aaron, who kept and used the ro represent Christ. A rod is the instrument of a shepberd, by which he goverus, directs, desends, and orders his flock, and this rod was that that Moses kept sheep with, which he was found with when he was feeding his father-in-law's sheep, when God appeared to him in the bush. The same that a rod or staff is to a shepherd and his flock, the same is the word of God to Christ and his spiritual flock. As Moses used it in leading Jethro's flock of sheep, so he used it in leading God's people Israel. As the word of God is the instrument Christ uses to save his people, and to destroy their enemies, and work those wonders that are wrought in bringing them to salvation, and which belong to the application of redemption, so Moses used this rod in the temporal deliverance of his people. It is the word of God that is used to remove all obstacles, and over

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