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next plague, the plague of boils and blains, was not only beyond what the magicians could do, but the magicians themselves were the subjects of the plague, and were grievously tormented, 80 that they could not stand before Moses. And this plague was brought upon them by the ashes of the furnace, wherein they employed the children of Israel in their slavery in burning the brick they made, that Pharaoh might see wherefore God was angry, and did so chastise him. After this, Pharaoh was more particularly and fully warned of God by his word than ever before, and was forewarned what those plagues would at last come to if he continued still obstinate, Exod. ix. 13, &c. And then after this God brought the plague of hail and thunder, that was more terrifying and threatening than any heretofore ; and then to complete the destruction caused by the hail, the locusts were sent to eat up what the hail had left. Then came the plague of darkness, with frightful apparitions of evil angels, (see Note) which was more terrifying still than any that had gone before, and the distinction made in it between the children of Israel and the Egyptians was more remarkable, for they had light in their dwellings where they dwelt mingled with the Egyptians. And then before that great destruction by the last plague, Pharaoh was again particularly warned of what was coming, and when, and in what manner it would come, much more fully and particularly than ever, Exod. xi. 4, &c. And then came the last and greatest plague that preceded Pharaoh's own destruction, attended with the greatest tokens of God's wrath, and a remarkable distinction between the Israelites and the Egyptians; and last of all, Pharaoh himself, with all the prime of Egypt, was destroyed in the Red sea.
 Exod. vii. 9, 10, 11, 12. Moses's rod, when cast unto the earth, became a serpent. So Christ, when sent down to the earth, appeared in the form of sinful flesh; he was made sin for us. So Christ was represented by the brazen serpent that was made in the form of the fiery serpents that bit the people. Moses's rod, when on the ground in the form of a serpent, swallowed up the serpents of the magicians. So Christ, by being made sin, he swallowed up the devils, the parents of sin, when he appeared in the form of sinful flesh, and for sin he condemned sin in the flesh; by being made a curse he destroyed the curse; by suffering the punishment of sin he abolished the punishment of sin ; and at the same time that, being made sin, he destroyed sin and the devil, and so swallowed the serpents in that sense. So he received and embraced sinners, (that are in themselves serpents) by his love and grace, so that they became as it were his pleasant food, and so he swallowed VOL. IX.
down serpents. In this sense God's people are represented as his pleasant food; they are represented as the wheat in opposition to tares, and as his good grain in opposition to chaff. See Isai. vi. 13. “But yet in it shall be a tenth, and it shall return and shall be eaten; as a teil tree, and as an oak, whose substance is in them when they cast their leaves, so the holy seed shall be the substance thereof."
 Exod. vii. 9, 10. Moses's Rod, that had been a shepherd's staff, to lead, protect, and comfort a flock of sheep, and by which Moses led and comforted Israel as a flock when cast upon the land of Egypt, became a serpent, a terrible, hurtful and destructive creature. So Christ, that is a shepherd to his people, their protection and comfort, is destructive to unbelievers, a stone of stumbling, and a rock of offence: his salvation is poison to them through their rejection of it. They have a greater fall by the second Adam than by the first, and Christ will at last be a lion to destroy them, as that pillar of cloud of fire that gave light to the Israelites was a cloud and darkness to the Egyptians. So the word of God (which is another thing signified by the rod,) which is a means of the salvation of Israel, is a sword to destroy the Egyptians.
Christ was represented by a serpent in the wilderness, because he was made sin for believers, but he will be made sin to unbelievers; he was made a curse for Israel, a serpent for them, but he will be the greatest curse to sinners, a terrible serpent to the Egyptians. So the Saviour of Israel proved the most dreadful destroyer of the Egyptians; and the word of God by Moses, which proved the salvation of his people, was their destruction. This seems to be one thing intended by this miracle, for there seems to be something threatening to the Egyptians, for the serpent had a very terrible appearance and motion, as appears by Moses's fleeing before it, when he first tried the experiment at mount Sinai. It was something threatening of the plagues that were coming. God was pleased first to threaten the Egyptians, and give them warning of approaching judgments, before he began to execute them.
 Exod. xii. 2. “This month shall be unto you the beginning of months. It shall be the first month of the year unto you.” Because in this month God wrought out for them that great typical redemption out of Egypt, representing the redemption of Jesus Christ, and also because he intended at the same time of year actually to complete the work of spiritual and eternal redemption of his church by the death, resurrection, and ascension of the great Redeemer. It is probable that the Israelites, as well as other nations, had till now begun the year in autumn, about the autumnal equinox, about which time of year there is reason to think the world was created. But as now God at the time of the redemption changed the day of their sabbath, (as Mr. Bedford in his Scripture Chronology makes probable) so he changed the beginning of this year from the autumnal equinox, the time when the old creation was wrought to the spring about the vernal equinox, the time of the new creation. The old creation was wrought in the fall of the year, the time when things are just going to decay, and to a kind of ruin, and winter approaching, that shuts up the whole face of the earth as it were in a state of death; the Orderer of all things probably thus signifying that the old creation was not to continue, the heavens and the earth that then were should be shaken, and soon begin to decay, as it did by the Son of man; the curse which that brought, which was in effect its ruin, as it were, brought all to its chaotic state again, and laid a foundation for its actual total destruction. But the work of redemption was wrought in the spring, signifying that as in the spring the world as it were revives from a state of death, and all things are renewed, and all nature appears in blooming beauty, and as it were in a state of joy ; so, by the redemption of Christ, a new world should be created, and the spiritual world, the elect creation, should be restored from death, and brought to a new, glorious, and happy life.
 Exod. xii. 15. Concerning Leaven. It was a most fit type of the corruption of the heart by reason of its sourness, and because of its infecting spreading nature, so that a little leaven leavens the whole lump, (in which respect also it is a fit type of false doctrine, as Matth. xvi. 6. 11, 12,) and because of its swelling nature, for the nature of corruption is to swell self, it radically consists in inordinate self-love, and primarily is manifest in pride and self-exaltation. The swelling nature of leaven represents the nature of corruption with respect to its principle, viz. inordinate self-love; and the sourness of it represents its nature with respect to its tendency, which is enmity.
But especially is leaven a fit type of original sin, by reason of the manner of its propagation; for as original sin is 'propagated from father to son, and so from generation to generation, so it is with leaven, one lump leavens the next, and that the next, and so leaven is propagated from lump to lump, for ever. The old lump leavens the new, and therefore is called the old leaven.
 Exod. xii. 35, 36. “And they borrowed of the Egyptians jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment, and the Lord gave the people favour in the eyes of the Egyptians, so that they lent unto them such things as they required, and they spoiled the Egyptians.” The treasures that the children of Israel by this means carried forth out of Egypt were very great, even so as in a great measure to leave Egypt empty of its wealth, and so as to enrich the Israelites. Ps. cv. 35. “He brought them forth also with silver and with gold.” Gen. xv. 14. “ They shall come out with great substance." When a person is redeemed by Christ out of spiritual bondage, at the same time they are set at liberty, they are also enriched, they have great substance given, as it were gold tried in the fire, and those riches are the spoils of their enemies, all that spiritual wealth, glory, and blessedness, and even heaven itself, is in some sort the spoils of Satan ; that which God has deprived him of to give to the saints, as the earthly Canaan was iaken away from the Canaanites and giants of the land, the enemies of the Israelites, and given to them. So heaven was taken from the fallen angels; they were driven out thence by the spiritual Joshua, to make room for the saints. The devils left heaven, in all probability, by their opposition and envy towards the saints, and rising up in open hostility against Christ as their head, revealed to be such in God's decrees, and so their hostility against the spiritual Moses, and Joshua, and their seed, and seeking to keep them down; these spiritual Egyptians and Canaanites lest their spiritual and heavenly possessions, riches, and honours, and inheritance, and God took it from them and gave it to them that they opposed and sought to impoverish and destroy, and impoverished them to make those they hated rich with their riches. Yea, they themselves, though their enemies, are made in some sense to give them their own riches to enrich them and impoverish themselves, for they are made by divine providence the occasions of their being brought to their spiritual and eternal riches and glory. Satan has been the occasion of the saints' heavenly riches and glory in tempting man to fall, and so giving occasion for the work of redemption, and then in procuring the death of Christ, and oftentimes is made the occasion of particular advantages that the church obtains at one age and another, and his opposition to the nature of particular eleet souls, is always turned to be an occasion of their riches and fullness; so that all the wealth and glory that the church has, is in a sense, and indeed in many ways, from Satan, though he seeks nothing but her destruction.
Another thing signified, it is that the church of Christ, when redeemed from her enemies and oppressors, especially from Rome, heathen and antichristian, that is spiritually called Egypt, should have their wealth and glory given into their hands, as is foretold by the prophets, Ps. Ixviii. 30, “Rebuke the company of spearmen, the multitude of the bulls, with the calves of the people, till every one submits himself with pieces of silver.” Zech. xiv. 14. “ And Judah also shall fight at Jerusalem, and the wealth of the heathen round about shall be gathered together, gold, and silver, and apparel in great abundance.” Isai. lx. 5, 6. 9, 10. 13. 16, 17, and chap. Ixi. 6, which was fulfilled in the days of Constantine the Great, and will be more gloriously fulfilled at the fall of Antichrist. Thus the wealth of the sinner is laid up for the just, and Christ shall have a portion divided to him with the great, and shall divide the spoil with the strong.
It is to be noted that the tabernacle in the wilderness was made of these spoils the children of Israel took from the Egyptians. It was made of those jewels of silver, and gold, and raiment; so all the utensils and holy vessels of the tabernacle, the ark, and the mercy-seat, and the cherubim, and the candlestick, and table of shew-bread, and altar of incense and laver, and his seat, and also the priests' vestments, the twelve precious stones of the breastplate, as afterwards the temple, was built chiefly of these vast treasures that David took from his enemies, whereby is signified se veral things.
1. That God's church, that in scripture is represented as Christ's house or temple, and as his raiment and ornament, and as a golden candlestick, &c., is wholly constituted of those saints that are his jewels, that are the spoils of his enemies, that were once his enemies' possession, but that he has redeemed out of their hands. Those precious gems that are near his heart, and are as it were his breast-plate.
2. That Christ himself, that is the antitype of the tabernacle and temple, and especially of the ark and the altar, is one that has been rescued out of Satan's hands, and comes to be an ark and altar, no other ways than by his resurrection and ascension, whereby he was delivered from captivity to Satan.
3. Hereby is signified that the church of Christ, when it shall be fully redeemed from the tyranny of Rome, that is spiritually called Egypt, shall be adorned and beautified with the wealth of her enemies; that vast wealth that has hitherto been improved to gratify the avarice and pride of the church's enemies, shall then be improved to holy purposes, to build up the church of Christ, to beautify the place of God's sanctuary, and to make the place of his feet glorious, and the kings of the earth shall bring their glory and honour into the church. Thus Satan shall be spoiled of his wealth and glory, and that which used to be improved in his service, shall be taken from him, and shall be improved in the service of Christ, so that what he hath swallowed down he shall vomit up again.