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ing up of the river Euphrates, in Rev. xvi. 12 ; as Cyrus and other princes of the east had their way prepared to destroy the literal Babylon on the drying up of the literal river Euphrates, and probably the emperor of Muscovy. This better agrees with the context, which evidently speaks of the glorious iimes of the church of God, and it better agrees with the words themselves, that speak of the person that shall be raised up as one that shall call on God's name, which was not fully accomplished in Cyrus, though he showed great respect to the true God; yet never properly became a worshipper of the true God, but lived and died an idolator; and it better agrees with the following words which speak of the glory of God in foretelling this thing so long aforehand.

The princes tbat the emperors of Muscovy shall probably come upon as mortar, are those two great princes that the devil has set up in opposition to Christ, viz. the emperor of the Turks and the Pope. The emperor of the Turks first, so drying up the river Euphrates, and then the Pope, when his way is thus prepared. The princes of these very countries, whose former princes overthrew the literal Babylon, will be joined with the princes of Muscovy, as they have of late been in war with the Turks.

[79] Isai. xlii. 3. “A bruised reed shall be not break, and the smoking flax shall he not quench; he shall bring forth judgment unto truth.” The thing most directly intended in this verse seems to be the perseverance of the Christian church, and of particular saints; the church shall not be extinct, though it shall be greatly oppressed and persecuted, and shall be as a bruised reed, but it shall not be wholly broken; when once the fire is kindled it shall never be quenched ; but though it do but just smoke at first, afterwards it shall flame out; it shall be as a grain of mustard-seed that by degrees shall become a great tree, or as the little leaven that was hidden in three measures of meal till the whole was leavened, or as the stone out of the mountain. Though the church sometimes be so oppressed that it is hardly visible, we can hardly see whether there be any fire or no, but only the smoke; yet it shall never be wholly destroyed. The same may be applied to particular saints, for he that has begun a good work in them shall carry it on to the day of Christ.

[479] Isai. xlii. 8. "I am the Lord Jehovah, that is my name, and my glory I will not give to another, neither my praise to graven images.” Concerning this text, these things may be remarked confirming the divinity of Christ.

1. The name Jehovah, is a peculiar name of the true God. See also Psalm lxxxiii. 18. “That men may know that thou, whose name alone is Jehovah, art the Most High over all the earth."

2. That the name Jehovah here spoken of, is often undeniably given to Christ, ás is not denied by Arians themselves. It is given in this very book; see chap. vi. 1. &c. compared with John xii. 41.

3. God says expressly concerning Christ, who is called the Angel of the Lord, “ My Name is in him," and therefore he requires the children of Israel to obey his voice.

4. He is often called “ the Name of God."

5. The glory of the Lord was given to him; so that glory with which the angel of the Lord was wont to appear, was in a peculiar manner called the glory of the Lord.

6. He is himself often called the glory of the Lord. The apostle expressly says, he is “the brightness of God's glory.”

[255] Isai. li. 9. “Art thou not it that hath cut Rahab, and wounded the dragon.” The word Rahab here is not the same with Rahab the harlot in Joshua: that is Rachab with n; this is with n. The word signifies pride, probably so called from the exceeding pride that the Egyptians manifested in the time here spoken, viz. when God cut, or broke that land, and wounded the dragon, the task-masters of the Israelites and Pharaoh the dragon here spoken, manifested an exceeding haughtiness of spirit, in so standing it out with God, who appeared in such awful judgments against them. On this account Egypt is the more fit type of the antichristian church, that is spiritually called Sodom and Egypt; and Pharaoh the dragon here spoken of, the fitter type of the great red Dragon with seven heads and ten horns, and the Pope his image.

[108] Isai. lii. 7. “How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of him that bringeth good tidings!” Jerusalem was compassed round with mountains, and therefore he that brought tidings to Zion must come over the mountains, and as he was coming over might therefore be seen in the city. The like expression is in Nahum i. 15.

[78] Isai. liii. 1, 2. "To whom hath the arm of the Lord been revealed ? for he shall grow up before him as a tender plant,” &c. That He, that the Prophet speaks of, as it is most uatural to understand, is the arm of the Lord, spoken of in the first verse, and in the two foregoing chapters, as in the 5th and 9th verses of the li. chap. and in the 10th verse of the lii. who is the same as his servant spoken of in the three last verses of that chapter. Hereby two things are evident:

1. That He, that is the subject of this chapter, is no mere man, as the Jews suppose: this is evident by the 9th and 10th verses of the li. chapter; and

2. By the same verse it is evident that it was Christ the second person of the Trinity that went before Israel when they came out of Egypt. God calls his son his arm, as Jacob calls his son his right hand. Genesis xxxv. 18.

[15] Isai. liii. 12. “Therefore will I divide him a portion with the great, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong." Intending at least partly that Christ's portion should be the most perfect and glorious kingdom of the earth, the most wise, opulent and learned nations of the world. Ps. xlv. 12. “And the daughter of Tyre shall be there with a gift, even the rich among the people shall entreat thy favour.” Isaiah Ix. 13. " The glory of Lebanon shall come unto thee, the fir tree, the pine tree, and the box together, to beautify the place of my sanctuary; and I will make the place of my feet glorious." Ps. Ixxii. 10, “The kings of Tarshish and of the Isles shall bring presents: the kings of Sheba and Seba shall offer gifts."

[13] Jer. i. 5. "Before I formed thee in the belly, I knew thee; and before thou camest forth out of the womb, I sanctified thee; and I ordained thee a Prophet unto the nations." In the same manner as God is said to sanctify Jeremiah as a Pro. phet before he was, whom he had elected to be such, for he said he foreknew the elect or saints, and children and heirs of life. Exod. xxiii. 12. 17.

5282] Jer. ii. 2, 3. “I remember thee, the kindness of thy youth, the love of thine espousals, when thou wentest after me in the wilderness, in a land that was not sown." Israel was holiness to the Lord, and the first fruits of his increase. See v. 21. “ Yet I had planted thee a noble vine, wholly a right seed," Ps. lxvii. 14. This has not respect to that generation that went out of Egypt, whose carcasses fell in the wilderness, that were a very corrupt generation, but the generation of their children spoken of Nunib. xiv. 31. “But your little ones which ye said should be a prey, them will I bring in, and they shall know the land which ye have despised.” So Deut. i. 39. It has respect to those spoken of Jer. xxxi. 2. The people which were left of the sword found grace in the wilderness. The same generation that entered into the land of Canaan with Joshua, and took possession of the good land, it was the generation that God planted in Canaan as is evident by verse 21. And the going after God in the wilderness that is here spoken of, is not the going of the children of Israel out of Egypt into the wilderness of Sinai, but their following God through that dreadful wilderness in which the congregation long wandered after they went back from Kadesh-barnea, which is spoken of, Deut. viii. 15. “Who led thee through that great and terrible wilderness,'w herein were fiery serpents, and scorpions, and drought; where there was no water; who brought thee forth water out of the rock of flint." Although this generation had a much greater trial than the generation of their fathers had before they came to Kadesh-barnea, yet they never murmured against God in anywise as their fathers had done. But their trials had a contrary effect upon them, viz. to humble them, and fit them for great mercy. Deut. viii. 2, 3. " And thou shalt remember the way which the Lord thy God led thee these forty years in the wilderness to humble thee, and to prove thee, and io know what was in thine heart, whether thou wouldest keep his commandments or no, and be humbled thee,'' &c. And ver. 16. “ Who led thee through that great and terrible wilderness, &c. that he might humble thee, and that he might prove thee to do thee good in thy latter end." And therefore it is said, Hosea xiii. 5, “ I did know thee in the wilderness, in the land of great drought.”

This generation were eminent for piety, as appears by many things said of them in the book of Numbers, as especially, Joshua. See Josh. xxiii. 8; xxii. 1, 2. Deut. iv. 3, 4. See also Note on Hos. xi. 1. Jer. xxxi. 2, 3. Hos. ix. 10. Jer. ii. 21. Ps. lxviii. 14. Josh.i. and three last verses. Judg. ii. 7. 17. 22. And though there were some wicked men amongst them, they were not like their fathers, an unbelieving generation; but believed God, and followed him, and by faith overcame Sihon and Og, and the giants and mighty nations of Canaan. They showed a laudable and fervent zeal for God on several occasions, on occasion of Achan's sin, but especially when they suspected the two tribes and half had set up an altar in opposition to the altar of burnt-offering before the tabernacle. Israel feared and served the Lord all the days that the men of that generation lived. See Notes on Judg. ii. 7.

[296] Jer. ii. 2, 3. “I remember thee, the kindness of thy youth," &c. It is probable that all those open rebellions, which were in the congregation of Israel during the whole forty years that the congregation was in the wilderness, were what the inen of that perverse generation, who were adults when they came out of Egypt, were principally active and leading in, as the rebellion of Korah and his company that we have an account of, Numb. xvi. evidently was, for it was managed by some of the principal men in the congregation, which were wont to be their elders, or elderly men, see ver. 2. Their contesting with Moses and Aaron, such aged persons as those that ought to be esteemed equal with them, and other circumstances of the story, show it. And so it is probable was the rebellion at the place where they set up the fiery serpent; Numb. xxi.; and the rebellion and wickedness in the matter of Peor; Numb. xxv. Those that remained of that wicked generation seem to have led in it; for the heads or chief of the people, which doubtless were some of their elders, had a chief hand in it, and consequently were hung up before the sun. Numb. XXV. 4. That wicked generation continued their rebellions asier that God for their rebelling had sworn in his wrath that they should not enter into his rest, as is implied in Ps. Ixxxi. 12. “ So I gave them up to their own heart's Just, and they walked in their own counsels." This seems to refer to something in their history as delivered by Moses, as all other passages in the Psalms, concerving the church of Israel in Egypt, and the wilderness, do; but there is nothing else in that history they can reser to but those rebellions that have been spoken of. We may argue in like manner from Acts vii. 41, 42, 43. “And they made a call in those days and offered sacrifice unto the idol, and rejoiced in the work of their own hands. Then God turned and gave them up to worship the host of heaven, as it is written in the book of the prophets, O ye house of Israel, have ye offered to me slain beasts and sacrifices by the space of forty years in the wilderness? Yea, ye took up the tabernacle of Moloch,” &c.

Wherein God was grieved by the congregation during the whole forty years in the wilderness, it seems to have been chiefly by that generation, by Ps. xcv. 10, 11. “ Forty years long was I grieved with this generation- unto whom I swear in my wrath,” &c. It was their carcasses chiefly, that fell in the matter of Corah, and by the fiery serpents, and the destruction that was of them in the matter of Peor, seems to have accomplished the threatening, and to have purged the congregation of the remains of that wicked generation. Jer. xxxi. 2.

[479] That there was a time of remarkable influence of God's Holy Spirit in the younger generation during the forty years travel, is confirmed by comparing Nebemiah ix. 20, 21, and Deut. xxxij. 10, and also Deut. viii. 2–5, and v. 15. See also Numb. xxxi. 46, to the end, and Deut. xxxiv. 9. A considerable instance of the faith and obedience of that generation was their readily complying with God's command by Joshua in submitting to that painful rite of circumcision, which had been disused for above thirty-eight years; and that, just as they were entering into VOL. IX.


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