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Reflection, Reason, still the ties improve,
At once extend the int'reft, and the love;
With choice we fix, with sympathy we burn: 135
Each Virtue in each Passion takes its turn;
And still new needs, new helps, new habits rise,
That graft benevolence on charities.
Still as one brood, and as another rose,
These nat'ral love maintain'd, habitual those : 140
The laft, scarce ripen!d into perfect Man,
Saw helpless him from whom their life began:
Mem'ry and fore-cast just returns engage,
That pointed back to youth, this on to age ;
While pleasure, gratitude, and hope, combin'd, 145
Still spread the int'rest, and preserv'd the kind.
IV. Nor think, in NATURE'S STATE they

blindly trod;
The state of Nature was the reign of God :
Self-love and Social at her birth began,
Union the bond of all things, and of Man. 150
Pride then was not; nor Arts, that Pride to aid;
Man walk'd with beast, joint tenant of the shade ;

NOTES.
Ver. 152. Man walk'd given above. Plato had said
with beast, joint tenant of from old tradition, that,
the shade ;] The poet fill during the Golden age, and
takes his imagery from Pla- under the reign of Saturn,
tonic ideas, for the reason the primitive language then

The same his table, and the same his bed ;
No murder cloath'd him, and no murder fed.
In the same temple, the resounding wood, 155
All vocal beings hymn'd their equal God:
The shrine with gore unstain'd, with gold undrest,
Unbrib’d, unbloody, stood the blameless priest :
Heav'n's attribute was Universal Care,
And Man's prerogative to rule, but spare. 160
"Ah! how unlike the man of times to come!
Of half that live the butcher and the tomb ;
Who, foe to Nature, hears the gen'ral groan,
Murders their species, and betrays his own.
But just disease to luxury succeeds,

165
And ev'ry death it's own avenger breeds ;
The Fury-passions from that blood began,
And turn'd on Man a fiercer savage, Man.
See him from Nature rising flow to Art!

Instinct then was Reason's part; 170

To copy

NOTES. in use was common to man ages, Men used inarticulate and beasts. Moral philoso. sounds like beasts to express phers took this in the po- their wants and sensations ; pular sense, and so invented and that it was by flow dethofe fables which give grees they came to the use speech to the whole brute- of speech. This opinion creation. The Naturalists was afterwards held by Lu. understood the tradition to cretius, Diodorus Sic. and fignify, that, in the first Gregory of Nyff.

Thus then to Man the voice of Nature spake

Go, from the Creatures thy instructions take : “ Learn from the birds what food the thickets yield; “ Learn from the beasts the physic of the field ;

Thy arts of building from the bee receive; 175 « Learn of the mole to plow, the worm to weave; " Learn of the little Nautilus to fail,

Spread the thin oar, and catch the driving gale. “ Here too all forms of social union find, “ And hence let Reason, late, instruct Mankind:

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NOTES

Ver. 173. Learn from of healing, by their own the birds, &c.] It is a com- practice. mon practice amongst Na VER. 177. Learn of the vigators, when thrown upon little Nautilus ) Oppian. a desert coast,--and in want Halieut. lib. i. describes this of refreshments, to observe fish in the following manner: what fruits have been touch- “ They swim on the sured by the Birds : and to “ face of the sea, on the venture on these without " back of their shells, further hesitation.

which exactly resemble VER. 174. Learn from “ the hulk of a ship; they the beasts, &c.] See Pliny's “ raise two feet like mafts, Nat. Hift. 1. viii. c. 27. " and extend a membrane where several instances are “ between, which serves as given of Animals discover: a fail; the other two ing the medicinal efficacy of “ feet they employ as oars herbs, by their own use of • at the side. They are them ; and pointing out to usually seen in the Medisome operations in the art terranean.” P.

“ Here subterranean works and cities fee; 181 “ There towns aerial on the waving tree. “ Learn each small People's genius, policies, “ The Ant's republic, and the realm of Bees; “ How those in common all their wealth bestow, “ And Anarchy without confusion know; 186 “ And these for ever, tho' a Monarch reign, " Their sep’rate cells and properties maintain. “ Mark what unvary'd laws preserve each state, “ Laws wise as Nature, and as fix'd as Fate. 190 “In vain thy Reason finer webs shall draw, “ Entangle Justice in her net of Law, “ And right, too rigid, harden into wrong; “ Still for the strong too weak, the weak too strong. “ Yet go! and thus o'er all the creatures sway, 195 “ Thus let the wiser make the rest obey ; " And for those Arts mere Instinct could afford, “ Be crown'd as Monarchs, or as Gods ador'd.”

V. Great Nature spoke ; observant Men obey'd ; Cities were built, Societies were made :

VARIATIONS.
Ver. 197. in the first Editions,

Who for those Arts they learn'd of Brutes before,
As Kings shall crown them, or as Gods adore.

NOTES. Ver. 199. observant Men | tiful, as signifying both obeobey'd;] The epithet is beau- dience to the voice of Na

200

Here rose one little state ; another near
Grew by like means, and join'd, thro’love or fear.
Did here the trees with ruddier burdens bend,
And there the streams in purer rills descend ?
What War could ravish, Commerce could bestow,
And he return'd a friend, who came a foe. 206
Converse and Love mankind might strongly draw,
When Love was Liberty, and Nature Law.

VARIATIONS.

VER. 201. Here rose one little flate, &c.] In the MS.

thus,
The Neighbours leagu'd to guard their cominon spot:
And Love was Nature's dictate, Murder, not.
For want alone each animal contends ;
Tygers with Tygers, that remov'd, are friends.
Plain Nature's wants the common mother crown'd,
She pour'd her acorns, herbs, and streams around.
No Treasure then for rapine to invade,
What need to fight for fun-fhine or for shade?
And half the cause of contest was remov'd,
When beauty could be kind to all who lov’d.

NOTES.

ture, and attention to the their native liberty from lessons of the animal crea- their governors by civil tion.

pactions ; the love which VER. 208. When Love each master of a family had was Liberty,] i. e. When for those under his care men had no need to guard | being their best security,

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