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Arnaldus Pistor, habet Cornesheved in excamb. de Frillesden, et red. xxiiii. sol. “Arnold the BAKER, has Cornsheved in exchange for Frillesden, and renders twenty-four shillings."
Walterus MOLENDINARIUS, tenet ii. bov. et red. x. sol. de firm. et ii. sol. pro operat. suis. “Walter the MILLER, holds two bovates of land, for which he pays ten shillings, and gives two shillings as a compensation for services."
Hugo PUNDER, reddit pro unam acram xii. d. et unam toft. de vasto. “Hugh the PINDER, (the man who keeps the pound or pinfold,) holds one acre, for which he gives one shilling: he has also one tost of common."
Ferrarius the Smith; Carpentarius the CARPENTER; Piscarius the FisheR; Firmarius the FARMER: Gardinarius the GARDENER, &c. &c.; which were all names of office, became at last the surnames of whole families, throughout all their generations. See Domesday and Boldon Books, passim. The name of the father's office might easily be transferred to all his children, though not employed in the same business; as Johannes filius Adami Clerici, “ John the son of Adam the Clerk,” would in a very few generations be, “ John Clarke the son of Adam Clarke,” &c. Thus it may be conceived all surnames originally rose which express office, trade, &c. as Butler, Baker, Chamberlain, Carpenter, Carter, Cook, Smith, Merchant, Draper, Roper, Soaper, Fisher, Fowler, Foster, Slater, Farmer, Miller, Fuller, Taylor, Poynder, &c.; while others derived theirs from the places where they were born, or the estate which they held; as, Appleton, Abingdon, Aubigny, Castleton, Cheshire, Cornish, &c.
Family distinctions were probably, at first, fortuitously acquired: so, the first Clarke might have been a self-taught genius; his love of literature and the profit he had acquired by it, would naturally excite him to bring up a child in the same way; and emulation would induce others of the same name to continue a distinction, by which the family had acquired both honour and profit. Hence we find that this ancient family has been distinguished for many learned men; and by several who have acquired no ordinary fame in all the walks of the republic of literature. While on this subject the reader's indulgence is requested a little longer.
The ancient history of the Romans, will cast some light on this subject of surnames. The Roman names are divided into four kinds. 1. Those of the Ingenui, or free-born. 2. Those of the Liberti, or freed-men; and those of the Servi, or slaves. 3. The names of women. And, 4. the names of adopted persons.
The Ingenui had three names. 1. The PRÆNOMEN, which they assumed when they put on the toga virilis, or manly gown: this answers to our Christian name. These preno
mina were usually signified by initial letters, as is frequently the case among us: thus A. signified Aulus: C. Caius ; D. Decius: K. Cæso: L. Lucius: M. Marcius, and Marcus: N. Numerius: P. Publius: Q. Quintus: T. Titus: &c. Sometimes this was signified by double and treble letters, thus: AP. Appius: CN. Cneius : SP. Spurius: Ti. Tiberius: MAM. Mamercus: SER. Servius : SEX. Sextus: &c.
2. The NOMEN, which immediately followed the prænomen, answering to the Grecian patronymic, or family name, ending mostly in ius: as Julius, Tullius, i. e. of Julius, of Tullius. Such a person of the Julian family, of the Tullian family, &c.
3. The COGNOMEN, which was added for the distinction of families; and was usually derived from some country, accident, or particular occurrence, and this divided the family into branches: as Agrippa, Cæsar, Cicero, &c. A fourth name was sometimes added, called agnomen, which was given as a title of honor : as Cato was termed Sapiens, the wise; Crassus, Dives, the rich; and hence came the Africani, Asiatici, Macedonici, &c. But these by some of the best writers are termed cognomina, and therefore the distinction is not necessary; agnomen and cognomen may be considered as implying the same, for they are indifferently used.
The ingenui were the same among the Romans as gentlemen among us; and they define them thus:-Qui inter se eodem sunt nomine, ab ingenuis oriundi, quorum majorum nemo scrvitutem servivit, et qui Capite diminuti non sunt.
Those who have a certain family name, were born of freemen, whose ancestors were never in servitude, and who have never been degraded from their kindred or ancient stock.”
Though it has not been found that any branch of the family of the Clarkes claimed nobility, yet it has always appeared that the character of gentility,-generosi, or ingenui,-has been conceded to them, and to them the Roman definition of ingenui, is in every respect applicable. They came from a pure and ancient stock, they had never been in bondage to any man, had never been legally disgraced, and never forfeited their character. In this family I have often heard the innocent boast, None of our family has ever served the stranger.
The family was originally English, but from what branch of the family, or from what county in England the subject of this Memoir descended, has not been satisfactorily deduced. The family tradition is, that they went over to Ireland in the 17th century, and had part of what were called the Debenture Lands, and settled in the county of Antrim, about Larne, Glenarm, and Grange, where they had considerable estates. They became matrimonially connected with the Higgisons, Strawbridges, Courtenays, and Boyds; the latter of whom deduce their origin in uninterrupted descent from the cele
brated Boyds of Kilmarnock in Scotland : some of the Boyds, in virtue of the above alliance, still possess a considerable landed property in the above country. Some of the Mac Auleys married into this family, but changed their names to Boyd, in order to inherit the paternal estates. One of these, the late Hugh Mac Auley Boyd, Esq., sent in 1784, ambassador to the Court of Candy, by Lord Macartney, Governor General of India, (reputed by some as the author of that still celebrated political work, called the Letters of Junius,) has left a son, Hugh Stuart Boyd, who is equal in elegant accomplishments to his father, and his superior in classic attainments; and especially in his profound knowledge of the Greek language, and the most illustrious writers of antiquity. He possesses a part of these estates, extending to, and comiprehending Red Bay near Glenarm.*
* The following two letters from Dr. Clarke, dated Dublin, June 15, and 26, 1823, will throw some more light upon the subject of the Clarke family.
I came in here last night, after a hard journey of several days: from Glasgow to Belfast we were twenty-three hours and a half, in which we encountered a violent storm, and had the wind right a-head the whole passage. I went to see my aunt M'Ready, which took me one hundred miles out of my way, and at very considerable expense. However, I knew it must be the last opportunity I could ever have of seeing her, and making the inquiries you wished. I found her in comparatively good health, and all her faculties as sound as a bell. I set about the inquiries; and the following is the result.
My father JOHN CLARKE, was son to William Clarke, who was son to John Clarke, who was son to William Clarke. She can go no higher; and this is to my great-great-grandfather. Now for particulars.
1. My great-great-grandfather William Clarke, was an estated gentleman of Grange, in the county of Antrim, and was appointed in 1690 to receive the Prince of Orange, when he came to Carrickfergus. He had received the principles of George Fox, and, as he could not uncover his head to any man, before he came near to the prince, he took off his hat and laid it on a stone by the wayside, and walked forward. When he met the prince, he accosted him thus: “ William, thou art welcome to this kingdom.”_" I thank you, sir," replied the prince; and the interview was so satisfactory to the prince, that he said, “You are, sir, the best bred gentleman I have ever met.”
2. John, my great-grandfather, the son of William the Quaker, married Miss Anne Horseman, daughter to Horseman, mayor of Carrickfergus, whose son succeeded to the mayoralty thirty years afterwards. Of the year in which Mr. Horseman, the father, who married Miss Anne Clarke, was mayor, she cannot tell; but this may be easily ascertained by searching the records of that city and fortress. To John, my great-grandfather, and Miss Horseman, were born EIGHTEEN sons and one daughter. The daughter, Sarah, was married to a Mr. Williamson, of the county Antrim ;-I suppose an estated gentleman, but she does not recollect to have heard any particulars of him or his family.
William, the grandfather of Adam Clarke, married into the Boyd family; he was an intelligent religious man, a builder by trade, and the eldest of six brothers, who chiefly settled in the vicinity of Maghera, Magherafelt, and near the borders of the beautiful lake of Lough Neagh. The youngest of these
Of the eighteen sons of John, and Anne Horseman, she remembers only nine. They are the following:
1. SAMUEL Clarke, of Gulladuff, (his own estate,) who married Miss M'Peake, who had issue John and Thomas, of the same place, and several daughters.
2. Anthony Clarke, of Ballyruff, (his own estate,) who had issue Anthony, who had issue.
3. Joseph Clarke, who chose a military life, and was killed with General Wolfe, at the battle of Quebec; he had issue John ; farther unknown.
4. ROBERT Clarke, of Ballyruff, (his own estate,) who had married Miss Burnet, and had issue Alexander, &c. &c.
5. WALTER Clarke, of Ballyruff, who had several daughters, of whom I have no particulars.
6. John Clarke, a farmer, of whom I find nothing.
7. Richard Clarke, captain of a ship, and died in the Bloody Islands. Query—which were they?
8. HORSEMAN Clarke. He and several others having pursued a mad dog, and killed him, one of the company, in sport, took the dog by the legs and hit some of the others with him, among the rest Horseman, against whose neck some of the foam was spattered, and he died of hydrophobia in three days; as he was a young lad, he was not usually counted in the number of the sons, who were called the “ seventeen sons,” because so many grew up to man's estate.
9. WILLIAM Clarke, my grandfather, who married Miss Boyd, and who had issue John, my father, Archibald, William, and ADAM, after whom I was named, and who, as I found now on his stone in Kilchronaghan church, " died in August, 1756." There were two daughters, Anne, who married Mr. Wollock M'Kracken; and Mary, who married Mr. Alexander M-Ready.
Archibald Boyd, my great great maternal grandfather,was a Presbyterian clergyman, and the first who preached as Protestant, in Maghera, after the Revolution in 1688. He married Miss Catharine Strawbridge, a Scotch lady. Mr. Boyd's sister, married the Rev. Mr. Higgison, rector of Larne, in whose family that rectory still continues. Of the rest of this family I think you have Adam Boyd's own account.
The above are all the particulars I could gain from this interview, and I think all the leading ones that can be obtained; and we were all surprised at the amazing accuracy and precision of my aunt's memory, she did not falter in the least; and still gave the same account in the same words.
Dublin, June 26, 1823. Since I wrote the enclosed letter, which was early this morning, I have received yours of the 19th. From the state of the country you will see that I can make no more excursions ; and therefore, I suppose all farther communications from my aunt must be given up. It is well that we have saved so much; I can tell you that « Gabriel, or, as
brothers chose a military life, and was slain with his general, the celebrated Wolfe, at the battle of Quebec, Oct. 18, A. D. 1759.
John, the eldest son of William, and father of Adam, was intended by his father for the Church, and in consequence got a good classical education, which having finished, he studied successively at Edinburgh and Glasgow, where he proceeded M. A., and afterwards entered as a Sizer in Trinity College, Dublin ; at a time when classical merit alone could gain such an admission. His stay here was but short; a severe fever,
he is called in the family, Geby Clarke, was one of our ancestors, and lost the Grange Estates, by the absence of one witness, who was the only one who could attest a certain marriage.” This information I had accidentally from a woman in Belfast, who saw me standing at the coach-office door, waiting for the clerk, in order to take my place for Dublin. She came up to me and told me she was one of my relatives. mentioned Samson Clarke of Belfast. who I believe was her father or uncle; and mentioned Geby, as being famous in the family. I might have had much from this woman, but not knowing her, and it being in the street, I did not encourage her to talk ; I know not who she is : but I knew Samson Clarke of Belfast, he has been dead only about 10 years. I send you the minutes which Mary took while Aunt and I were conversing: there I find Samuel marked as the eldest of my granduncles, but whether older than William his brother, and my grandfather, I do not know-I always thought my grandfather Clarke the oldest. 'I believe all the others come in, in the order mentioned by Mary and myself; but I know my aunt expressed herself uncertain concerning the priority of some of them.
So far as I can find, the estates at Grange, were lost to our family, in consequence of the failure of a proof of marriage, in GEBY's case; from which I am led to think, that those estates came by marriage, and that they were not inheritances of the Clarke family: but there were several other estates, besides those, and there are some now, in the hands of some of my granduncles' sons.
If one had about a fortnight or a month to ride about the countries I have been in, he might make more out; but every branch of the family, knowing that they are wrongfully kept out of their estates, are full of jealousy, when you make any of those inquiries, thinking that you are about to possess yourself of their property! On this very ground, I have been very cautious in all my inquiries. I think I have heard of a Christopher, I am sure of a Bartlemy in the family, and Gabriel. I do not recollect to have heard of a Francis or Silvester, but doubtless my aunt could tell. I will send the questions to cousin Allic, and let him get me what information he can, but little can be had but on the spot, and I scarcely know how to get a letter direct to him, it is such an out of the way place. I asked my aunt particularly, if she knew any one before William the Quaker; she said she did not, so he is the utmost a priori, and she herself is the hindmost a posteriori, except our own family. About coming originally from England, and receiving some of the Debenture Lands, I have heard my father often speak, but I know no circumstances. Tomorrow I begin the Conference, and shall have no moment till it be concluded; and then I must march back.