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SCOTT, WALTER

SCOTT, WALTER.

870

talents of the story-teller; and, as in the cases of Göthe and Richardson, and had already met the young lion of the day, Lewis, and been the precocious command of language, giving voice and form to the stimulated, by his conviction of his own superiority in general infor: stories which his imagination constructed, showed itself in the pleasure mation, to attempt an appeal to the public, when an edition of Bürger, he found in inventing and telling tales for the amusement of his which a friend had procured for him from Hamburg, came into his companions.

hands. Having made a free version of the poems which had most The society around him was favourable to the nourishment of such ten caught his fancy, they met with so much applause in the friendly dencies. His father was a strict disciplinarian, a precisionist in religion, circles where he recited them, that he was, as he himself playfully says, and a legal formalist. He exacted from his children a strict observance "prevailed on by the request of friends to indulge his own vanity by of the outward forms of religion, and spared no trouble to imbue their publishing the translation of Bürger's ‘Leonora,' and the Wild Hunts. minds with a knowledge of the doctrines of the national church. He man,' in a thin quarto " (1796). This event is mainly of importance strove to make the actions of his domestic circle as strictly conformable as it marks the termination of his probationary career, his course of to rules as his causes in the Court of Session. The strong hand of hard study, with vague aspirations after some mode of turning it to discipline like this usually serves to make children more intent upon account. The die was in fact cast : from that moment he was an the stolen enjoyment of their favourite amusements. Walter read author for life. with more avidity what his father scorned as trifling reading, and hung It is necessary that we advert to Scott's more active pursuits before on the lips of every one who could gratify him with legendary tales. closing this retrospect of his probationary years. He was apprenticed He was surrounded too by characters calculated to leave a deep im to his father in May 1786. He never however acted regularly as pression on the mind of a bookish boy. The Lowlands of Scotland clerk. His absences on jaunts to the Highlands and the border counhad by that time settled down into the same regulated habits of steady ties were long and frequent; and a gentleman who was in Mr. Scott's industry that still characterise them; but many old-world characters office during the period of Walter's nominal apprenticeship, assured belonging to a legs tranquil period were still surviving.. George us that his time while there was mostly spent in playing chess. In Constable, of Wallace Craigie, near Dundee, who sat for his picture in 1791, having finally resolved to adopt the profession of advocate, the Antiquary; Mrs. Anne Murray Keith, the Mrs. Bethune Babel of he recommenced his attendance upon the college classes, interrupted the Chronicles of the Canongate;' Mrs. Margaret Swinton, who figures by his illness, and joined the Speculative Society. In 1791 he petiin the introduction to‘My Aunt Margaret's Mirror;" Alexander Stewart, tioned and was admitted by the Faculty of Advocates to his first of Invernabyle, a Highland gentleman, who had been "out in the trials; in 1792 he passed the rest, and was called to the bar. As a forty-five," by their appearance and conversation carried the boy's member of the Speculative Society and the faculty, he took an active imagination back to a state of society wbich bad ceased to exist, and part in the private business of both bodies. In the civil court, he has formed a connecting link between the real world in which he lived told us, his employment did not exceed one opportunity of appearing and the imaginary world which he found in his romances. He had as the prototype of Peter Publio. But in the Court of Justiciary he opportunities too of observing closely the manners and feelings of the made several appearances, in all of wbich he distinguished himself by lower classes of society in the agricultural districts in the south of diligent preparation. His conduct at this period was marked by an Scotland. His grandfather, being a farmer, lived on a footing of moro anxious desire to force himself into professional employment, and by familiar intercourse with bis domestics than was even then customary that energy which promised success, could be but succeed in making in towns, and in his house Scott learned the pass-word to the con- a beginning. fidence of that class. As he grew in years and in strength, he was We have now brought the subject of our narrative to the commenceencouraged by bis family, probably with a view to confirm bis health, ment of that literary career which he prosecuted with unabated perto take long rambles on foot and on horseback through the border and severance till his death. The story of his literary life naturally divides bigbland counties where his father had relations or clients.

itself into three epochs: that during which he was acbieving his The impressions thus derived might have faded even from a retentive poetical fame, extending from the publication of his translation of memory in the busy period of confirmed manhood; but a direction Bürger in 1796 to the publication of Waverley'in 1814; the period had been given to his awakening intellect, which led him to brood of the celebrity of his novels, during which they followed each other over and cherish them. On one of his visits to a paternal uncle, who in brilliant and rapid succession from the publication of Waverley' resided in the environs of Kelso, he became acquainted with the col till the bankruptcy of Constable in 1826; the period of his Herculean lections of the Bishop of Dromore. "In early youth," he says, in the struggle to re-adjust his affairs, sbattered by the convulsion of 1826,

Essay on Imitations of the Ancient Ballad, prefixed to the third till he sunk over-tasked into a premature grave in 1832. It is in volume of the 'Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border,' “I had been an every case difficult, perhaps inexpedient, to separate the part from the eager student of ballad poetry, and the tree is still in my recollection, man: in the case of Scott it is impossible. We proceed therefore beneath which I lay and first entered upon the enchanting perusal of briefy, as our limits command, to trace, for each of the three periods Percy's Reliques of Ancient Poetry,' although it has long perished we have enumerated, an outline of his actual life and circumstances, in the general blight which affected the whole race of oriental platanus and of the literary works produced under their influence. to wbich it belonged." The perusal of this work led him on to the Unaware of the extent to which he had become involved in the kindred publications of Herd and Evans. Herd's book was an attempt literary career, he continued for some time his professional efforts. to do for Scottish what the bishop had accomplisbed for English He was engaged as counsel for the defendants in several of the prosetraditional song. In Evans's work some poems of modern data were cutions for riots, seditious practices, and other offences arising out of intermingled with the old ballads, and among others ‘Cumpor Hall' the political ferment of the day. It has been imagined that the active by Mickle, adverted to in the notes which Scott appended to 'Kenil- part which his political zeal induced him to take in organising and worth,' in Cadell's collective edition of his novels. The hot controversy disciplining the volunteer corps of horse formed in Edinburgh, conwhich arose between Percy and Ritson led the amateurs of old ballad tributed to mar his professional prospects. It certainly distracted his poetry to plunge more deeply than they contemplated into philological attention from legal studies, but it accelerated rather than retarded and antiquarian discussions. The effects of this upon Scott may be his promotion. In December 1799 he was appointed sheriff of Selconjectured from the subjects of one essay composed as a class exercise kirkebire; in 1806 he was appointed one of the principal clerks of the during his attendance on the moral pbilosophy lectures of Dugald Court of Session. The duties of these offices, even when discharged Stewart in 1790, and three which he read in the years 1792-93 in the by the same individual, left a large proportion of his time at his own Speculative Society. They are, . On the Manners and Customs of the disposal

. The first mentioned insured to him a small competency; Northern Nations of Europe,' On the Origin of the Feudal System,' the other was ultimately a lucrative appointment, although the “On the Origin of the Scandinavian Mythology,' and 'On the Authen- arrangement he made with his predecessor in office prevented his ticity of Ossian's Poems. The topics which at that time engrossed deriving the full emolument from it till 1812. In addition to these the attention of his young contemporaries (among whom were the sources of income he succeeded to a small landed property on the future founders of the Edinburgh Review') were practical, economical, death of an uncle in 1797, and received a moderate fortune with Miss and political discussions. Scott however held on his own way: his Carpenter, whom he married towards the close of the same year. He favourite themes were the old world, the bent of his mind was was thus placed above absolute dependence upon the literary exertions historical

to which his inclination and leisure invited him. At the same time Like most young men addicted to literary pursuits, he had at an his relish for the elegant luxuries of life and the ambition to mingle early age tried his hand at rhyme. His ballad studies kept alive the on a feeling of equality with the families of the aristocracy, upon inclination. Burns, whom he saw at the house of Professor Ferguson some of whom, as well as upon the honest farmers above alluded to, in 1786-87, seems to have made a lasting impression upon him, both by he had a claim of relationship-an ambition strengthened by his his writings and his personal appearance. For ten years however his fondness for the legends of chivalry operating on an imaginative disrhyming propensities remained in abeyance, till they were re-awakened position, rendered further additions to his fortune not indifferent to by the popularity earned by the ballads of Monk Lewis. Scott's atten. him. It is questionable whether even this stimulus could have nerved tion had been directed to German literature by a very superficial bim to perseverance in the dry drudgery of the law, but his active essay on "The German Theatre, read by Henry Mackenzie at a meet and energetic disposition courted labour so long as it did not impose ing of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1788. Scott and several of any restraint upon the rambling desultory habits of thought acquired his companions formed a class, soon after the publication of that during the days of incessant ng of his sickly boyhood. poper, for the purpose of studying the German language; but these Even before he formed his final resolution to use literature" studies were followed up in a rather desultory manner till the year staff--not as a crutch,” he followed up the appeal made to the public 1793 or 1794, when Miss Aiken (Mrs. Barbauld) directed his attention by the printing of William and Helen. In 1799 he published a to the works of Bürger. He had some difficulty in procuring them; translation of Göthe's 'Götz of Berlichingen.' He composed and BIOG. DIV. VOL. V.

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circulated among his friends the ballads of Glenfinlas' and 'The Eve the attempt, and Waverley' was published anonymously. This book, of St. John.' În 1799 he received a visit from Mr. (now Sir John) published without any parade of announcement, and without the Stoddart, who repeated to him many then unpublished poems of his attraction of an author's name, made its way noiselessly and rapidly friends Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Southey, and inspired him with a to a high place in public estimation. In the course of four years it relish for their peculiar beauties. An intimacy which Scott formed was followed in rapid succession by Guy Mannering,' The Antiquary, with Mr. Heber, on the occasion of that gentleman's residence in The Black Dwarf,' 'Old Mortality,' • Rob Roy,' and 'l'he Heart of Edinburgh during the winter of 1799-1800, confirmed his antiquarian Mid-Lothian,' all bearing the indisputable impress of the same parent tastes and extended his acquaintance with old English literature : he mind. The circumstance of Scott's having published a poem in the advanced from the school of the old ballad into that of the Elizabethan same year in which Waverley' appeared, and his engagement in otber drama. The bustling patronage of Lewis had made Scott's name literary undertakings being known, combined, with the common prefamiliar to many persons of literary tastes in England, and his judice that a poet cannot excel as a prose writer, to avert from bim acquaintance with the literati of Edinburgh became more extensive for a time the suspicion of the authorship of the Waverley' novels. and intimate. About the beginning of the present century he paid The taciturnity of the few intrusted with the secret defeated all several visits to Teviotdale, a district even less visited at that period attempts to obtain direct evidence as to who was the author. From than the Highlands, and in the course of these excursions not only the first, however, suspicion pointed strongly towards Scott, and so added considerably to his stores of traditionary song, but, what was of many circumstances tended to strengthen it, that the disclosures from more consequence, learned to know that stalwart race whom he Constable’s and Ballantyne's books, and his own confession, scarcely afterwards portrayed with such graphic power in 'Guy Mannering.' increased the moral conviction which had long prevailed, that he was

We have now reached the period of his life at which he toox his the “great Unknown.” final plunge into literary occupation and avowedly commenced author The light half-playfully worn veil of mystery served however, no by profession. His first publication in this capacity was his ‘Border doubt, to excite the public curiosity and to add a factitious interest to Minstrelsy,' a work which afforded him an opportunity of exercising the Waverley' novels at the time of their publication. But their his talents in various departments and showing the magnitude of his own merits were doubtless the main cause of their success. As narrastore of heterogeneous and not very well assorted knowledge. In his tives they have little merit: the plot is uniformly inartificial and unintroductions he showed his talents as an essayist; in his notes, his skilfully wrought up; the ostensible heroes and heroines, insipid or research and critical acumen as an antiquarian ; in the imitations of unnatural. It is in the admirable Scotch characters, in the ease aod the old ballad, his taste and talent for poetical composition. "The truth of their actions and conversation, that the charm of these novels Border Minstrelsy' is indeed little more than the accumulated materials consists. There is a power and depth in the characters themselves; out of which he hewed the best of his later works- a chaos through they had been originally conceived with the intense love of a strong which the fragmentary lights of creative imagination were everywhere mind; they had remained stored up in its memory for years, mellowsparkling. The book is scarcely less interesting when viewed as the ing in tone and growing more distinct in form, and were at last, commencement of his connection with those commercial speculations accidentally we may almost say, poured out with a felicity and in literature which ultimately broke down and crushed him, than as strength of expression of which the author was himself scarcely aware his first serious effort in the character of an author. Mr. James that he was capable. This new vein of popular applause was worked Ballantyne was, at the time of the publication of the 'Border Min. as sedulously as the former, and, like it, worked out. The novels strelsy, the editor of a provincial newspaper in Kelso. To him Scott which from 1818 to 1826 followed those we have enumerated io rapid offered the printing of bis book. The offer, after some hesitation, was succession, are not, like them, the outpourings of long-treasured accepted, a new fount of types, superior to anything previously seen thoughts; they bear marks of reading for the purpose of finding in Scotland, was procured, and under the direction of the principal materials to fill up a previously sketched outline. They are of difworkman on Mr. Ballantyne's establishment, who had been some time ferent degrees of merit, but all are inferior in depth of tone and weight in the employment of Bensley, a specimen of typography was pro. of metal, to the works of the first four years. Individual characters duced, which at once established the reputation of what was for a and incidents in some of them may be equal, but not one of them can time rather affectedly called the “border press.” Not long after bear comparison when considered as a whole. Mr. Ballantyne removed to Edinburgh, and commenced printer on a Scott's novels and poems however occupied by no means the whole large scale, in partnership, as was proved by subsequent disclosures, of his time, during the thirty years of his busy life, of which they with Scott. To this part of Scott's history we shall have occasion tó were the luxuriant produce. He contributed to the Edinburgh return hereafter.

Review' at its commencement, and when differences of political Scott commenced his career as the most popular poet of his day, in opinion induced him to break off from that publication, he took a 1805, with the publication of 'The Lay of the Last Minstrel.' This warm interest in the establisbment of the Quarterly. His trade poem was followed in 1808 by Marmion;' in 1809, by 'The Lady of connections with the Ballantynes, and through them with Constable the Lake;' in 1811, by ‘Don Roderick;' in 1813, by . Rokeby;' in and other publishers, led bim to project many publications, and to 1814, by The Lord of the Isles. To these may be added "The take an active part in them as editor or contributor. To these we owe Bridal of Triermain' and `Harold the Dauntless,' published anony. the 'Life of Dryden” (1808), of Swift (1814), the biographical and mously, the former in 1814, the latter in 1816. These poems took critical prefaces to Ballantyne's collection of the English novelista, the literary world by surprise ; they were unlike anything that had and his annotations to such books as Sadler's Correspondence. His preceded them. There was an easy flow in their frequently slovenly biographical and critical writings are characterised by masculine good versification, a condensed energy of thought, which even the total sense, vigour, and a happy play of humour, rather than by subtle neglect of the ‘limæ labor' could not entirely conceal or obliterate; a analysis or a just and delicate taste. pithy shrewdness in the occasional remarks upon life and manners; From 1796 till 1826 Scott's life was busy and happy, and seemingly enough of the wild recondite spirit which the author had caught from prosperous. By the patronage of friends he was rendered independent; Coleridge to lend a zest to bis composition ; enough of the leaven of by his own exertions he was raised to affluence. His potoriety as an common.place to render it intelligible to the mass of readers; and an author gave him an extensive circle of acquaintance. His manly and entirely new class of heroes and adventures. Much of the popularity sensible character commanded respect, his bonhommie and talent for which attached to Scott's poems was owing to the novelty of their increasing the hilarity of the social hour conciliated the love of all subjects, and much to his compliance with the taste of the times; but who knew him. The continuance of apparent success increased his bis strong native sense, the stores of out-of-the-way knowledge upon confidence in his own resources to a degree bordering on presumption. which he could draw, and the easy flow of bis versification and The ambition of his life was to enact the part of one of those feudal imagery, rendered them also works of real intrinsic merit. As the lords who were the favourite objects upon which his imagination first gloss of novelty wore off, the voice of criticism was more dis- dwelt. To this was owing the purchase and building of Abbotsford, tinctly heard. Lord Byron's more exaggerated tone of sentiment and the strewing of it with "auld nick-nackets," and the extensive scale on greater power of condensed rythmical declamation made a deeper im- which he exercised his hospitality. He endeavoured to revive old pression upon the public mind, and caused Scott's works to appear times in his mansion on the Tweed. The last few years of bis comparatively feeble by the force of contrast. The imitators, too, prosperity were spent in a gorgeous dream. The open-air daylight who had caught the outward form of Scott's versification, and found masquerade of the reception of George IV. in Edinburgh, in which plenty of heroes in old • fabliaux’ and romances, bad for a time sur Sir Walter Scott was a prominent actor, was the most gorgeoua scene feited the public with his peculiar style of poetical composition. of what we can scarcely look upon in any other light than that of an With a prudent caution, said to be characteristic of his nation, he opium dream. But the worm was gnawing at the root of his magni. prepared to exchange a field of literary exertion in which he found ficence. Constable, Ballantyne, and Scott were all men of sense and himself in danger of losing his popularity, and after the failure of two talent, but the spirit of enterprise was stronger in them than that of anonymous trials (“The Bridal of Triermain,' and `Harold the Daunt accurate mercantile calculation. From the beginning their under less ') never attempted to re-enter it.

takings had been on a larger scale than their capital warranted ; and Some time previous to his abdication of the laurel, the success of as difficulties thickened around them their confident spirits looked for Miss Edgeworth’s ‘Pictures of Irish Life,' and his consciousness of an relief to bolder and more extensive speculations. This could not go extensive acquaintance with the manners and customs of Scotland, on for ever: the commercial crisis of 1825-26 precipitated, but did not more especially of the olden time, had stimulated him to attempt a cause the catastrophe. portraiture of them in a prose imaginative narrative. The task was When what is called in Scotland" a state of the affairs" of Constable prosecuted for some time, but in consequence of the unfavourable and Co. and Ballantyne and Co. was made up subsequently to the opinion of a friend, laid aside. In 1814 however he resolved to make bankruptcy of the two companies, it appeared that Sir Walter Scott

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was indebted to Constable's creditors, as a partner of Ballantyne and edition of his collected Works ; Publications by the Trustees of the Co., for nearly 72,000l. ; and that the total amount of the debts of Messrs. Ballantyne; MS. Communications.) Ballantyne and Co. was about 110,0002, for the whole of which Sir SCOTUS, DUNS. (Duns Scotus.] Walter was liable as a partner. About balf of the 72,0001. due to SCOTUS, JOHANNES. (ERIGENA.) Constable and Co. being included in the debts of Ballantyne and Co., SCRIBE, AUGUSTIN-EUGENE, one of the most fertile and Scott's actual liabilities were somewhere about 147,0001. The pre successful of the modern French dramatic writers, was born in Paris, sumptuous rashness with which, in order to indulge himself in the on December 24, 1791, the son of a merchant, who on his death left theatrical pleasure of enacting the part of one of the favourite beroes bim a considerable fortune. His first studies were directed to the law, of his imagination, he incurred this immense load of debt, cannot be but his dramatic talent was indicated so early that his guardian, the palliated. From 1823, if not from an earlier period, novels were advocate Bonnet, recommended him to abandon the bar for the stage. contracted for and paid in bills, before even the subjects or names of His first drama was produced in conjunction with his schoolfellow the future publications were fixed. This was not a mere speculation Germain Delavigne. It was entitled 'The Dervise,' and was performed upon popularity: it was a wanton setting of health, mental and cor. in 1811 with great applause. His course has been uninterrupted ever poreal, and of life itself, upon the hazard. But to the honour of since, and the number of his productions almost innumerable. He Scott, he did not flinch from the terrible responsibility he bad so pre- has not only supplied the French stage, but through translations, sumptuously incurred. “Gentlemen," he said to the creditors, adaptations, and suggestions, the stages of the greater part of Europe, “ Time and I against any two. Let me take this good ally into my and especially that of England. company, and I believe I sball be able to pay you every farthing." Scribe's productions are of a peculiar character. He is by no means He surrendered the whole of his property; executed a trust-deed a dramatic poet; though he possesses facility of invention it is shown in favour of certain gentlemen, who were to receive the funds realised more in the clever development of his plots than in the imagining of by bis labours, and pay off his debts with interest by instalments; the higher and nobler description of character. Where he has sold his house and furniture, and retired to lodgings, and resumed his attempted this he has failed. His distinguishing merits are a remarkliterary labours with dogged resolution. “It is very hard,” he said, able ingenuity and inexhaustible variety in the construction of his in his deep thoughtful voice, to a friend who expressed his sympathy, plots, a lightness and ease in their development, the conversational "thus to lose all the labours of a lifetime, and be made a poor man at Auency and point of his dialogue, and a correct conception and last, when I ought to have been otherwise. But if God grant me life vigorous delineation of character in what may be called the outside and strength for a few years longer, I bave no doubt that I shall circles of civilised-or rather, Parisian-life. In his operas, for redeem it all."

many of which he has produced librettos, he has well adapted bis Scott's works, published during the six years which elapsed between language to the music, but, as we have said of his other writings, he his bankruptcy and his death, wbich occurred on the 21st of September does not reach—probably he does not aim at—the poetical. His 1832, possess a painful interest. They want the energy and buoyancy success has been not less than his industry, and he is said to have of bis earlier writings; they bear the impress of the lassitude of a received immense sums for many of his pieces, and to have realised spirit engaged in a hopeless task. Some of them, like the History of considerable wealth. It would not be easy to enumerate all his Napoleon,' are works which lay out of his line; some of them, like the pieces, as many of them, vaudevilles especially, were originally issued *Letters on Demonology and Witchcraft, are of a class to which under assumed names ; but among those by which he will be known humbler pens alone .ought to be tasked; some of them, like the to English readers we may mention "Le Comte Ory,' 'Le plus beau gossipping notes to his collected works, are concessions to the imperti- Jour de la Vie,' 'La Muette de Portici,' 'Fra Diavolo, Robert le nent curiosity of the public, to which it is painful to see a great man Diable,' 'Les Diamants de la Couronne, Bertrand et Raton,' 'La stooping. Neither Walter Scott, nor any other really great author, Verre d'Eau,' all of which, as well as numerous others, have been ought to be his own Boswell. Making allowance for every drawback reproduced at English theatres. A selection from his works was however, the old fre glows in his ashes. Nor was bis self-immolation published in 1845 in seven volumes; and a romance of his bas been altogether in vain. There can be little doubt that the disease which translated and published in England, called “The Victim of the proved fatal to him was superinduced by excess of mental toil, but the Jesuits.' (See SUPPLEMENT.) purpose for which he sacrificed himself was attained. His debts, SCRIBO'NIUS LARGUS DESIGNATIA'NUS, an ancient Latin materially diminished before his death, have since been entirely physician, who lived at Rome in the reigns of Tiberius and Claudius, liquidated by the profits of the collected editions of his works. The the latter of whom he accompanied in his campaign in Britain. He certainty of this event, the consciousness that he had not shrunk from is the author of a work in Latin, 'De Compositionibus Medicamentothe responsibilities he bad incurred, the feeling that he had deserved rum;' but little is known of the events of his life, and even the and retained the love and respect which waited upon him in more language in which he wrote has been disputed. As the Latin of this prosperous days, was his consolation in the dark hours of his closing work is somewhat barbarous, and as Galen, who never mentions any life. The political party to which he was devoted was overthrown, Latin writer, quotes the author, it was thought that it had been and the institutions he venerated were in his opinion about to be written originally in Greek, and translated afterwards into Latin. swept away; his wealth had melted from his grasp, toil was the lot Physicians Powever have in general cared little for purity of language, and prospect of his old age, the friends of his youth were dying out and it may easily have happened that in the Silver age of Latin one by one; but the consciousness of honourable and manly endurance, literature a practitioner may have written in a barbarous style. and the devoted love of his children, smoothed his passage to the Besides, the diction itself seems to prove that the work was originally grave. He sought, but too late, health in a foreign climate. The composed in Latin (Bernhold, ‘Præfat. ad ed. Scriboa. Larg.,' p. 17); worn-out frame craved to be at home and at rest. He murmured, and again, there is no author whom Galen has copied worse than he “Now he knew he was at Abbotsford," when his friend Mr. Laidlaw bas Scribonius, probably because he did not understand Latin welcomed him on bis return, and for a few days enjoyed the mansion sufficiently well. (Caguati, Observ. Var.,' 8vo, Romæ, 1587, lib. iii., be had reared with so much love and pride. His strong frame struggled c. 14, p. 222.) Although, says Sprengel (Hist. de la Méd.'), in one hard with the disease, but exhausted nature gave way at last, and he place, Scribonius will not admit of any

separation between the different expired after fourteen days of total insensibility, on the 21st of branches of his art, at least he does not prove that he himself was September 1832.

ever able to unite the theory of medicine to the practice. He spared it is even yet perhaps too early to attempt a dispassionate estimate no pains in collecting together all the preparations mentioned in of Scott and his writings. Making allowance for increased facilities of different authors (cap. 1, p. 35, ed. Bervhold), without paying the communication, and more generally diffused education, the fervour of least attention to the difference of the diseases for which they were popular enthusiasm with which bis works were received was not greater prescribed. He copied Nicander almost literally, and adopted from than was experienced by the publications of Richardson. Time alone other authors a number of superstitious remedies. He believed, for can decide how much of bis writings will survive, and what place they example, that he had found a certain preservative against the bite of will permanently occupy in the estimation of the literary world. Of serpents' in the plant which be called ógurpiqundov (Allebira), and this however there can be no doubt, that in Scott a strong and healthy which ought to be gathered with the left hand before sunrise (cap. intellect was engrafted on a powerful will; that he had a natural and 42, p. 91). He also recommended many preparations against sigbing; easy play of humour, with no inconsiderable portion of poetical which shows how much he was attached to empiricism (cap. 19, p. 51). imagination, and a large share of that power of apprehending and Amongst other antidotes he much esteemed the . Hiera' of Antonius portraying character which is the great charm of Fielding. Great part Pacchius (cap. 23), and a composition of Zopyrus of Gordium, which, of his life he indulged in a dream-world of his own; but when rudely according to the custom of the times, that physician prepared every awakened by adversity, he submitted to the consequences with heroic year with much ceremony. The work of Scribonius is chiefly valuable submission. He was a great and a good man.

for the information it contains relating to the Materia Medica of the Walter Scott was the fourth of ten children, of whom only Thomas, ancients. was first published by J. Ruellius, at the end of bis a younger brother, left any descendants. His own four children all edition of Celsus, fol., Paris, 1529. This edition was printed in survived him, but all have since passed away; and with the death of October 1528, which therefore gives it a few montbs' priority over bis grandson, Walter Scott Lockbart, ended his vain hope of building that published at Basel, 8vo, 1529, ap. And. Cratandrum, which is up a family name. The house and estate of Abbotsford have become sometimes said to be the editio princeps The best edition, according the property of J. R. Hope, Esq., who married Scott's granddaughter, to Choulant (* Handb. der Bücherkunde für die Aeltere Med.,' 8vo, Charlotte Harriet Jane Lockhart, the daughter of Mr. J. G. Lockhart Leipzig, 1828), is that by Rhodius, 4to, Patav., 1655; the last (which (LOCKHART, J. G.) and Scott's eldest daughter Sophia.

is less complete than the preceding) is Bernhold's 8vo, Argent., 1786. (Lockhart, Life of Scolt ; Notes and Prefaces by Sir Walter to the A future editor may profit by three dissertations by C. G. Kühn, 4to,

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SEBASTIAN, DOM.

370 Lips., 1825-26, entitled 'In Scribonium Largum Animadversionum transformed into French petit-maîtres, and the heathen mythology Ottopis Sperlingii Specimen.'

supplied its store of imagery and allusion to decorate the fashionable SCUDERI, GEORGE DE, was born about 1601, at Hâyre in manners and personages of the age of Louis XIV. It must be added, Normandie, of which place his father was governor (lieutenant de roi). however, that Mademoislle de Scudéri appears to bave been a woman Young Scudéri was brought up by bis father to the profession of arms, of amiable disposition, was greatly esteemed by her female associates, but he quitted it about 1630 for that of a dramatist, in which he had and had several professed admirers among the gentlemen, though she at first little success, and was very poor. But both his reputation and was very ugly. circumstances gradually improved, and he was regarded by many as SCYLAX of Caryanda, a town of Caria near Halicarnassus, a matheequal to P. Corneille, with whom he was on terms of intimacy, till the matician and musician, was the author of a 'Periplus of the parts unusual success of The Cid' threw Scudéri in tothe shade, and caused beyond the Columns of Hercules,' of the History of Heraclides, king a feeling of envy, to which he gave vent in Observations sur le Cid,' of the Mylasseis,' of a 'Periodos of the Earth, and an 'Answer Paris, 1637: these Observations were published anonymously, but the (årtıypaon) to the history of Polybius.' (Suid., Ekúrat.) If all these author soon became known, and Corneille replied in a bitter epigram, works are rightly assigned to the same person, Scylax was at least not in wbich he described his late friend as a solemn fool. Scudéri earlier than the age of Polybius. But it seems probable that there however was favoured by Cardinal Richelieu, who was also offended to were two writers of the name. find that Corneille had obtained a degree of patronage from the public Herodotus (iv. 44) says that Darius, the son of Hystaspes, wishing which rendered the great poet independent of the great mioister. In to know where the Indus entered the sea, sent various persons in 1641 or 1642 Scudéri was appointed governor of Notre Dame de la whom he had confidence, and among them Scylax of Carganda, to Garde, a small fort situated on a rock near Marseille, where he went to make the discovery. They set out from the city Caspatyrus and the reside, but soon returned to Paris, and it was humorously said of territory Pactuica, and sailed down the river to the east and the rising him in 1656, that he had “shut up the fort, returned to Paris by the of the sun. On reaching the sea they sailed westwards, and in the coach, and for fifteen years had carried the key in his pocket.” In thirtieth month arrived at the place whence the Phænicians had set 1650 he was elected a member of the Académie Française. He died out who were sent by the king of Egypt to circumnavigate Libya. at Paris, May 14, 1667.

To this Scylax some writers attribute the extant work entitled In the period from 1631 to 1644, Scudéri produced sixteen plays Teplious tñs Oikovuévns, or the Periplus of the Inhabited World, under the following titles :

-L'Amour Tyrannique,' 'Armenius,' which contains valuable information on the settlements of the CarthaOrante,' 'Lygdamon,' 'Le Vassal Généreux,' 'Le Trompeur Puni,' ginians, on the towns and colonies of the Greeks, and other matters. La Mort de César,'' L'Amant Libéral,' 'Didon, 'Eudoxe,' 'Andro- Consequently Scylax must, it is supposed, have lived about B.C. 500. mire,'. Axiane,' 'Le Fils Supposé,' 'Le Prince Deguisé,' L'Illustre Niebuhr and other critics however assign the authorship of the Bassa,' and 'La Comédie des Comédiens.' He also wrote ‘Poesies extant 'Periplus’to the middle of the 4th century, B.C. Dodwell conDiverses,' 4to, Paris, 1649, and 'Alaric, ou Rome Vaincue,' folio, siders the author of this ‘Periplus’to be a contemporary of Polybius, Paris, 1654, an heroic poem, which he undertook at the request of and consequently he would belong to the 2ud century, B.C.

The Christina, queen of Sweden. He also wrote a few other works, but • Periplus' was first published by Hoeschel, with other minor Greek they are not worth mentioning.

geographers, Augsburg, 8vo, 1600. It is also comprised in the first Scudéri is one of those who have left “a lasting tomb." His name is volume of the 'Geographi Græci Minores' of Hudson, which contains the familiar to us from the reputation which he once had, but both his Dissertation of Dodwell. This dissertation, and that of Sainte-Croix, plays and poems are deservedly neglected, or are only looked into in the 42nd volume of the 'Recueil de l'Académie des Inscriptions,' from a motive of curiosity. He was a man of excessive vanity, and in appear to exhaust the subject of Scylax the geographer. The the prefaces to some of his plays boasts of his own merits in terms Periplus' is also included in the first volume of the Goog. Græciæ wbich indicate the most perfect self-satisfaction, wbich, taken in con- Minoris,' edited by Gail, 8vo, Paris, 1826; and by Klausen, with the nection with the patronage of Richelieu, may partly account for the Fragment of Hecatæus, Berlin, 1831. fame which he had in his day, the mass of mankind, little capable of SCYLITZES. (BYZANTINE HISTORIANS. I judging for themselves, for the most part allowing a man to take that SCYMNUS of Chios, who was alive about B.C. 80, wrote a descripstation which he assumes, rather than placing him in that to which his tion of the earth (nepinmois) in Greek iambic verse, which he dedimerits entitle bim.

cated to Nicomedes, king of Bithynia, probably the third of the name. SCUDERI, MADELÈNE DE, the sister of George de Scudéri, was The first 741 verses are extant, and fragments of 236 other verses. born in 1607. She is the authoress of several voluminous romances His description begins at Gades, and follows the left coast of the which had an extraordinary reputation :- Ibraham, ou l'Illustre Mediterranean as far as the entrance of the Pontus Euxinus, where Bassa,' 4 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1641 ; 'Artamène ou le Grand Cyrus,' 10 the last verse ends. Among the remaining verses there are about 90 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1650; Clélie, Histoire Romaine,' 10 vols. 8vo, Paris, on the coast of Asia. The work has no value as a poem, and very 1656; Almabide, ou l'Esclave Reine,' 8 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1660. little as a geographical description. Still it contains some curious “L'Illustre Bassa, Cyrus,' and some of the first volumes of 'Clélie,' facts. It was first printed by Hoeschel with Scylax in 1600, but under were published under the name of George de Scudéri, but after the the name of Marcianus of Heraclea. It is also comprised in the authoress became known her other works were published anony- second volume of Hudson's "Geographi Græci Minores,' and in the mously. Besides these grand romances, Mademoiselle de Scudéri wrote editions of that work by J. F. Gail, vol. ii., 8vo, 1828; and by Fabri-Celinte,' 8vo, 1661 ; ' Femmes Illustres, ou Harangues Heroïques,' cius, Berlin, 1846. Meineke however, in his edition of the poem 12mo, 1665; Mathide d'Aguilar,' 8vo, 1669; "La Promenade de (Scymni Chii Periegesis et Dionysii descriptio Græciæ,' 8vo, Berlin, Versailles,' 8vo, 1669 ; Discours de la Gloire,' 12mo, 1671, which 1846), has endeavoured to prove that the poem is not the work quoted obtained the prize of eloquence given by the Académie Française ; by ancient writers under the title of the ‘Periegesis of Scymnus,' "Conversations sur divers Sujets,' 2 vols. 12mo, 1684 ; Conversations which was written in prose, but an entirely different work by some Nouvelles,' 2 vols. 12mo, 1684; Conversations Morales,' 2 vols. 12mo, other and unknown author. 1686; Nouvelles Conversations de la Morale,' 2 vols. 12mo, 1688; SEBA, ALBERT, a native of East Friesland, was born on the 2nd • Entretiens de Morale, 2 vols. 12mo, 1692; «Nouvelles Fables en of May 1665. He at first followed the occupation of a druggist at Vers,' 12mo, 1685; besides a great number of Vers de Sociéte, Amsterdam; but afterwards, entering the service of the Dutch East addressed to her contemporaries.

India Company, acquired great wealth. His early studies had given Mademoiselle de Scudéri was a sort of queen of the Parisian Blue- him a taste for natural history, and he spent his large fortune in Stockings, the Précieuses Ridicules' of the 17h century, and forming a collection of the most interesting objects in the animal, she enjoyed this bigh and palmy state' of honour till her death, vegetable, and mineral kingdoms. In 1716 Peter the Great purchased wbich did not occur till June 2, 1701, when she was in her ninety- bis museum, and removed it to St. Petersburg; but Seba immediately fourth year. The praises bestowed upon her were not confined to the set about forming another collection, which soon surpassed every other fashionable society of the Hôtel de Rambouillet, of which

she was the in Europe. This was unfortunately dispersed after his death, which acknowleged dictator, but eulogiums in no measured terms were took place on the 3rd of May 1736. bestowed upon her by Huet, the learned bishop of Avranches, by Seba wrote several papers on scientific subjects; but his great work Mascaron, bishop of Tulle, by the Cardinal de Bouillon, and many was a description of his museum, published in Latin and French, in others. Christina of Sweden honoured her with her correspondence, 4 vols. fol., between the years 1734 and 1765. The first volume only and gave her a pension. She had a pension also from Cardinal was published during Seba's lifetime; the last three were edited by Mazarin, which, at the request of Madame de Maintenon, was continued different persons after his death. The work is noted for the beauty and augmented by Louis XIV.

and accuracy of its engravings, which caused it for many years to be Mademoiselle de Scudéri seems to have been indebted for her pre- regarded as the standard authority on subjects connected with natural eminence of honour partly to the tact with which all her works were history. The bad arrangement of the subjects however, and the adapted to the usages of the society in which she moved, many of the inaccuracy of the descriptions, which resulted from Seba's want of frequenters of the Hôtel de Rambouillet being recognised in the heroes scientific knowledge, greatly diminish its value. and heroines of her romances, and partly to a factitious brilliancy of SEBASTIAN, DOM, the posthumous son of the Infante Dom Joam, conversation which consisted of ridiculous puerilities and a play of by Joanna, daughter of the emperor Charles V., was born at Lisbon, imagination in the worst taste, all founded upon those conven- ! July 20th, 1554. After the death of his grandfather, Joam III., in tionalisms of politeness and gallantry which were current among tho | 1557, Sebastian, who was then only three years old, ascended the fashionable society of that age. Love was the inexbaustible theme of throne of Portugal, the regency being vested in the widowed queen, all these romances and conversations; the heroes of antiquity are Catherine of Austria, in conformity with the will of the late king.

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From infancy Sebastian showed that the love of arms would be his By the death of Sebastian without issue, the kingdom of Portugal ruling pas-ion. Possessed of a romantic disposition and an extraordi- became annexed to Spain. dinary admiration of chivalrous exploits, all his thoughts tended to (Cabrera, Historia de Felipe II., Mad., 1619, lib. xii.; Faria y Sousa, the entire subjection of Africa, where his ancestors had made consider. Epitome das Historias Portuguezas, part iii. ; Vasconcellos, Anacephaable conquests. At the age of twenty (in 1574) he undertook a cam- læosis.) paign against the Moors of Africa, in which however he gained no SEBASTIAN DEL PIOMBO. (PIOMBO, SEBASTIANO DEL.] advantage. Soon afterwards, the troubles which arose in Africa gave SÉBASTIANI, HORACE FRANÇOIS COUNT, was a native of bio the opportunity of carrying bis gigantic projects into execution. Corsica, having been born at the hamlet of Porta, near Bastia, on Muley Abdullah, sultan of Fez and Marocco, had been succeeded by Nov. 11, 1776. His uncle, who was a priest, took charge of his his son Muley Mohammed, in opposition to the order of succession education, and was preparing him for his own profession, when the established by the sherifs, that the sons should succeed in the order of call to arms, in 1792, induced the lad to exchange his cassock for a their birth, to the exclusion of the grandsons, and which would have uniform. He then became secretary to General Casabianca, after required the succession of his uncle Knowing that his life was in which he joined the army of Italy, in 1796, was noticed by Bonaparte, danger, Abdu-l-múmen, the next brother of Abdullah, on whom the and was made a chef-de-bataillon after the battle of Arcola. In 1799, crown should have devolved, accompanied by his younger brothers he distinguished himself greatly at Verona, for which conduct General Abdu-l-málik and Abmed, fled to Tremecen, where he was put to Moreau appointed him to a regiment on the field of battle. On the death by assassins who were paid by his nephew. Abdu-l-málik 18th Brumaire, being in garrison at Paris, with his regiment of retired to Algiers, whence, having obtained the succour of the Turks, Dragoons, he assisted in the coup d'état by which Bonaparte becamo he marched to Marocco, defeated the usurper, who went out to master of France. The First Consul promised to reward this proof of meet him, and made himself master of that capital. Mohammed devotedness on the part of his compatriot, and henceforth took then solicited the aid of Philip II. of Spain; but as that monarch charge of his fortune. refused to give him any, he applied to Sebastian, who readily After the battle of Marengo (June 14th, 1800) Colonel Sébastiani promised to replace him on his throne, against the advice of his was appointed commissioner along with Marmont, to conduct negocia. best and wisest friends. However, before starting on his wild expe- tions preparatory to the armistice of Treviso. In 1802, he was sent dition, Sebastian communicated his design to Philip, who earnestly to Turkey, Egypt, and Syria, on an important diplomatic mission, dissuaded bim from it; though he has been unjustly accused by which he conducted 80 skilfully as to obtain the rank of General of the French historian Laclède Histoire Générale d'Espagne,' vol. v., Brigade for his address. p. 170) of having encouraged him in his attempt, in the hope In 1804, he was despatched to watch the movements of the that he might perish, and the crown of Portugal devolve on Austrian army in Germany, when the reports he addressed to the himself.

War Office are said to have partly determined the campaign of 1805. The preparations being completed, and the cardinal Enrique vested General Sébastiani commanded the vanguard of Murat's cavalry when with the regency, in June, 1578, the armament put to sea.

It con

that brilliant corps entered the Austrian capital. At the battle of sisted of 9000 Portuguese, 2000 Spaniards, 3000 Germans, and 600 Austerlitz he displayed his habitual energy, was badly wounded in a Italians; in all about 15,000 men. These forces landed on the 10th desperate charge, and was raised to a division for his conduct. During of July, at Arsila, where they were joined by Muley Mohammed at the next few years he was employed with much distinction in diplothe head of his army. A council of war was immediately summoned; matic missions; in one of which he lost his first wife, who died in and after losing eighteen days, during wbich time the provisions of giviog birth to a girl, afterwards known as the unfortunate Duchesse the army were greatly diminished, and the enemy were enabled to de Praslin, murdered by her husband in 1847. collect their forces, it was resolved to begin the campaign by the siege General Sébastiani was one of the many French officers sent to of Larache. Though on the arrival of his enemies Muley Abdu-l- Spain to retrieve the fortunes of the Emperor, in 1809. He crossed málik, improperly called Moluc by the chroniclers of the day, was the Gaudiana and defeated the Spaniards at Ciudad-Real, at Santa suffering under a disease which soon after caused his death, he had Cruz, and several other places. In the early part of 1810 he took prepared with activity for their reception, and he hastened to the shore possession of the provinces of Jaen, Granada, and Malaga, and is borne in a litter. His army, which was far superior in numbers to the accused of having greatly mutilated the Albambra and other monu. Portuguese, being increased by the arrival of his brother Ahmed, ments of antiquity, and of ransacking the convents for his own private governor of Fez, who joined him near Alcasr-kebir (Alcazar-quebir), gain. In the following year, not deeming his services sufficiently Abdu-l-málik determined to oppose the passage of the Christians over appreciated, he returned to France. Napoleon I., who considered the the river Luk in the way to Larache; and with tbis view he posted chief talents of this General to be diplomatic, rather than military, bis troops at the only ford in the neighbourhood. Perceiving, bow. bad determined not to give him a command during the Russian camever, that Sebastian, by the advice of his ally, Mobammed, had paign. But the remonstrances of Sébastiani overcame this decision; desisted from his former intention, and was attempting to reach he was therefore placed in the vanguard of the Grand Army. During Larache by a more circuitous route, he crossed the river and offered the march to Moscow be strongly urged upon the Emperor the pruhim battle. The cavalry of the Christians, unable to withstand the dence of wintering in the provioce of Lithuania; but this advice impetuous onset of the Moors, at first gave way; but Sebastian was unheeded. General Sébastiani was present at the battles of placed himself at the head of his infantry, and charging the enemy, Smolensko and Moskwa; he was also one of the first to enter the compelled him to fall back on his artillery. At this moment, Muley Russian capital, at the head of the 2nd corps. He suffered greatly Abdu-l-málik, fearful of the result, mounted a horse, drew his sabre, during the retreat, lost all his artillery, and all his horses perished in and placing himself at the head of a body of cavalry, chiefly com- the snow. posed of Spanish Moriscoes whom Philip had banished from his In 1813, after the battle of Leipzic, at which he was wounded, he kingdom after the revolt in the Alpujarras, made a desperate charge, contributed to the victory at Hanau, where Prince Wrede was by which the Portuguese infantry, consisting of raw soldiers, was defeated. Napoleon afterwards gave him the command of the 5th broken. Though a vigorous resistance was made on the right and corps, and ordered him to defend the left bank of the Rhine, at left wings, which were composed of the Germans and Spaniards, the Cologne; but he was obliged to fall back into Champagne ; where, at rout soon became general. Sebastian made every effort to rally the the head of three regiments of cavalry of the Imperial Guard, he fugitives; but in vain. Most of the officers and courtiers by whom he repeatedly won new honours, particularly at the battles of Arciswas surrounded fell by his side. Two horses had already been killed sur-Aube and Saint Dizier. under him, and the third was exhausted. His retainers, anxious to On the abdication of Napoleon he retired to private life, but during save his life, earnestly entreated him to fly; but he haughtily refused, the Hundred Days he became a member of the Chamber of Repreand plunged into the thickest of the fight, where he met with an sentatives, and was sent as one of the deputies to wait on the allied honourable death, according to some authorities; others assert that sovereigns after the battle of Waterloo. After the return of the Bourhe was taken prisoner by some Moors, but that as they were about to bons be spent a few months in England in voluntary exile, though they dispute about the possession of so rich a prize, one of their officers had not included his name in their list of proscription. In 1819 he was came up and killed him with his own hand. On the morning after chosen deputy for Corsica, and soon became distinguished as a member the day of the battle a search was made, and a body was found, which, of what was termed the liberal opposition in the Chambre des Députés. though much disfigured, was instantly recognised by Resende, a valet In 1826 he succeeded General Foy as representative of the department of Sebastian, to be that of his master. Mohammed succeeded in de l'Aisne. After the revolution of 1830, Louis Philippe, in August, escaping from the field of battle; but he was drowned whilst attempt appointed him

minister of marine, and in the following November, on the ing to cross the river. Abdu-l-málik, exhausted by the fatigue of the retirement of Molé, made him minister for foreign affairs; in which day, had also breathed his last during the action, though his death office be continued until 1832. It was during his administration of was kept secret by his orders; so that the three kings who entered this office, in September, 1831, that he incurred so much obloquy by 'the field perished on the same day (August 4, 1578).

bis famous announcement from the tribune of the chamber that Sebastian was succeeded by his brother Ahmed. The news of “order reigns in Warsaw.” In 1833 he again filled for a short time the Sebastian's death caused the greatest consternation. The Portuguese office of minister for foreign affairs, but resigned on the chamber could scarcely believe in his death, and for many years after it was refusing to confirm the treaty he had made with the United States of generally supposed that he was still living in captivity. This belief America, and was appointed ambassador to Naples. In 1835 he was produced several impostors, such as Alvarez, the stone-cutter, Gabriel sent ambassador to London, where he was replaced by Guizot in de Espinosa, called by the Spaniards el Peastelero de Madrigal, and 1840, and on the death of Marshal Maison, he received bis bâton de two others, who ended their days on the scaffold or in the galleys. Maréchal after 48 years service. In 1841 he spoke strongly in the

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