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RUSSELL, THE RIGHT HON. JOHN, EARL. because the country wished them to carry it. The man on whom the these posts he earned the character of a punctual and able admi. most important part of the work devolved was Lord John Russell. nistrator; while his contemporary activity in parliament in carrying He was one of four members of the ministry—the others being Lord the Municipal Reform Act and the other measures of the ministry Durham, Sir James Graham, and Lord Duncannon — who were corresponded with his place as its virtual head. About this time appointed to shape and prepare the bill and submit it to their however the character of being too much of a 'Finality' Reformer colleagues; and on the 1st of March 1831 he brought before the began to attach to him; and the more advanced liberals of the House of Commops the bill so prepared and agreed upon. Some country began to attack him in that character. An Exposition of measure of reform had been expected; but a bill of so comprehensive much of his political creed at this time will be found in his published a kind as this took the country by surprise. It annihilated or put ‘Letters to the Electors of Stroud on the Principles of the Reform into Schedule A sixty close boroughs ; it put into Schedule B, or, in Act' which went through various editions. other words, deprived of one member each, forty-seven decayed But Whiggism generally was not so popular throughout the country boroughs; it extended the franchise in counties to all copyholders to as it had been, the experience of some nine years having abated the the value of 101. per annum, and to leaseholders of 501. or upwards ; in enormous expectations awakened by the Reform Bill, while the forboroughs it conferred the right to vote on all householders rated at midable power of O'Connell was also telling against the Whigs. This 101. or upwards; it erected twenty-seven towns for the first time into was shown by the result of the general election of 1841. In the boroughs; it created four new metropolitan boroughs, and it separated August of that year, Lord Melbourne in the House of Lords and Lord twenty-seven of the larger counties into electoral divisions. · A bill so John Russell in the House of Commons, announced the resignation of sweeping (the merit of the more than Whig liberality of which is the Whig ministry. Sir Robert Peel came into power at the head of supposed to have been owing chiefly to Lord Durham, who is said to that Conservative administration which lasted till July 1846. During have even persuaded his colleagues in the committee of preparation to these five years (August 1841 to July 1846) Lord John's position in introduce the ballot into the draft, though it was afterwards struck parliament was that of leader of the Whig opposition. He no longer out by the ministry) was considered to amount to little less than a however sat for Stroud, but for the city of London, having been elected social revolution. When Lord John produced it in the House, it was in 1841 as one of the representatives of this great constituency. As received by the opposite party almost with derision, as utterly im. leader of the opposition he was true to his character as a moderate practicable. But the enthusiasm with which the bill — so far surpassing Whig of the historical school rather than a violent chief of faction all expectations—was taken up out of doors changed the derision into eager to oust his opponents and adapting his principles and his proalarm. The members of the Tory party mustered all their strength mises to that end. But the great movement of the day was not one against the bill; and in the Commons Sir Charles Wetherell, Mr. baving much connection with Wbiggism proper. While Messrs. Cobden Croker, Mr. Bankes, and Sir Robert Peel appeared as champions more and Bright were conducting the Anti-Corn Law agitation out of doors, especially of close borougbs' as a necessary part of the British Con- and the opinion of the country was flowing mainly in the channel of stitution. After debates of unparalleled violence, Lord John's bill this great question, Lord Johó Russell's relation to it was rather that passed the second reading by a majority of one. On the motion for of an observer from within parliament than of an active guide one going into committee, however, the bill was thrown out by a majority way or the other. At first, indeed, he, as well as the Conservatives, of eight; and it became necessary that the ministry should either was opposed to the League; and his favourite solution of the problem resign or dissolve parliament.

was by a small fixed duty on foreign corn. At length however in a They adopted the latter alternative. The nation responded with letter from Edinburgh addressed to his constituents, he spoke out in extraordinary decision. Regarding the promised Reformas little favour of total repeal. This was in the autumn of 1845. It was not short of a promised millennium, the constituencies withstood the destined however that a Whig ministry should settle this great quesinfiuence of great Tory landlords, &c., and to a greater extent than tion. Sir Robert Peel himself came to the desired conclusion, and by could bave been conceived possible, returned Reformers. In this his exertions and infuence among the Conservatives, the Corn Laws general election Lord John was returned for the county of Devou. were abolished (July 26, 1846). When the new parliament met, the progress of the bill through the The ministry of Sir Robert Peel having been shortly afterwards House of Commons was, of course, triumphant. Then came the oppo- broken up by the rejection of his Irish coercion bill, Lord John Russell sition of the peers. The bill reached the House of Lords on the 22nd was called to the premiership as the head of a Whig ministry. He of September 1831; and on the second reading it was thrown out by held the office of premier from July 1846 to March 1852. The general a majority of 41. A vote of confidence passed in the Commons by a complaint made against his administration both at the time and since, majority of 131 was the immediate answer to this ; and it saved the was that it was non-progressive and fruitless of important measures. ministry the necessity of resigning. Parliament was prorogued to “The Whigs in office,” it was said “ do less than the Conservatives." give opportunity for modifying the bill; and on its re-assembling the The reason of this complaint, so far as it was just, may have lain bill again went to the Lords altered in some points, but with the all- partly in Lord John's own character, as a Whig of the historical important Schedule A and the Ten Pound Household franchise still school, adverse not only to the ballot but to many of those other remaining. Still the Lords were hostile ; Lord Grey was placed in a measures on which the more advanced Liberals had set their hopes minority of 35; and, after a long interview with the king, he and his and which they had in view when they spoke of progress. In a great colleagues resigned, and the government was entrusted to the Duke of measure however it consisted in the broken-up state of parliamentary Wellington (May 9, 1832). It was now a face to face contest between parties. There were now the Peelites, and the Protectionists or the duke as the representative of Toryism, and the nation vehement Derbyites, as well as the Whigs and the advanced Liberals, and among for reform and ready to go to civil war for it. The issue is known. these parties Lord John could depend on but a small and varying The Duke saw that he and the peers must yield; Earl Grey resumed majority. Nor in those cases in which he did make attempts of an the ministry (May 18), and on the 7th of June 1832 the Reform Bill energetic character was he fortunate in conciliating support to his became the law of the land. The name of Lord John Russell will be policy. His • Letter to the Bishop of Durham in reference to the ever identified with this important crisis in the history of his country; usurpation of the Pope of Rome' published in 1850, just after the bull and his conduct during the fifteen months in which the bill was in appointing Cardinal Wiseman Roman Catholic Primate of England suspense added greatly to his popularity.

and other Roman Catholic Bishops in various English sees, occasioned In the new or first reformed parliament Lord John sat as member much adverse comment; and the Ecclesiastical Titles Bill, dealing with for the electoral district of South Devon (1832-35). He still coutinued the same question, proved a failure. Towards the close of 1851, too, to hold the comparatively subordinate office of Paymaster of the his governmeut was farther weakened by the secession of Lord Palmer. Forces in tbe Grey and Melbourne ministry, till that ministry was ston, who then quitted the foreign office in circumstances having the broken up by internal differences and secessions, and succeeded appearance of a rupture with the Whigs on account of offence taken (December 1834) by the Conservative ministry of Sir Robert Peel. In at his foreign policy. Accordingly, in March 1852, the country saw the various important measures that had been passed by the Grey with little concern Lord John's ministry defeated on a Militia Bill, ministry he bad had his full share; and when he went into opposition, which they had introduced with a view to provide for the defence of it was with the character of having been one of the most consistent the country in case of a foreign war. The blow to the ministry was of the ministry in genuine Whig principles. Earl Grey had by this given by Lord Palmerston, who proposed an important alteration in time withdrawn from public life; Lord Stanley and Sir James Graham the ministerial measure. The government thus passed into the hands had seceded from the Whigs on the question of the Irish Church; of Lord Derby and Mr. Disraeli, who had in the mean time reorganised Lord Brougbam was assuming that position of political isolation in a strong Protectionist or old Tory party. which he has since remained ; and Lord Durham was tending towards After holding office for some months, the Derby.Disraeli government radicalism. With the exception of Lord Melbourne, Lord John broke down on the budget, and the celebrated Coalition Cabinet was Russell was now preeminently the representative of historical Whiggism. formed with Lord Aberdeen at its head (December 1852). In this Accordingly, when Sir Robert Peel, finding his attempt at a Conser- cabinet Lord Palmerston took the office of Home Secretary; and Lord vative, government abortive, resigned office in April 1835, and a new John Russell held that of Foreign Secretary till February 1853, when Whig ministry was formed under Lord Melbourne, the Home Secre- he resigned it to Lord Clarendon. From February 1853 till June 1854 tarysbip, and with it, the dignity of ministerial leader in the House he preferred the somewhat anomalous position of a member of the of Commons, was assigned to Lord John. He had been ousted from Cabinet without office; but in June 1854 be accepted the office of his seat for South Devon and now sat for Stroud-a borough which Lord President of the Council. In this office, he brought forward in be continued to represent till 1841. In 1839, Lord John exchanged that year a new Reform Bill which he had prepared in the last year the post of Home Secretary in the Melbourne ministry for that of of his own premiership, and had hoped then to carry. Both the Colonial Secretary, which he held while the ministry lasted. In both country and Parliament however being then engrossed with the begin.








nings of the great Russian war, Lord John was obliged to abandon his whom Lord William Russell, the subject of this memoir, was the third. favourite measure, or at least to postpone it to a more convenient The eldest died an infant, and the second in 1678. time. Nor was it long before he found occasion to differ with Lord Lord William Russell was educated at Cambridge, afterwards resided Aberdeen and the Peelite portion of the government on the conduct at Augsburg, spent a considerable time in different parts of the Conof the war. Refusing to share the unpopularity attached to the tinent, returned to England at the Restoration, and was elected Aberdeen ministry on account of the disasters in the Crimea, Lord member for Tavistock. He married, in 1669, Rachel Wriothesly, John resigned his connection with it before its final disruption in second daughter of the Earl of Southampton, and widow of Lord January 1855. Accordingly, when Lord Palmerston formed his Vaughan, the eldest son of Lord Carberry, a woman distinguished for miuistry for the more vigorous prosecution of the war, Lord John ardent and tender affection, pious, reflecting, firm, and courageous ; consented to serve under him as Colonial Secretary. This connection alike exemplary in prosperity and adversity, when observed by multibetween two men whose antecedents had made them to some extent tudes or hidden in retirement. riyals did not last long. When the Vienna conferences were agreed In the company of his excellent wife Russell would have continued upon with a view to the conclusion of a peace between Russia and the to enjoy without interruption all the happiness of a private life, had Allies, Lord John accepted the offer made by Lord Palmerston that the government been conducted with security and honour. But his he should be British plenipotentiary at the Conferences. The issue of indignation and fears being awakened by the hypocrisy and shameless his lordship’s negotiations in this capacity did not give satisfaction; venality of Charles II., and the avowed desire of the Duke of York to and in June 1855 he resigned his place in the ministry, and left to restore the Roman Catholic religion, he entered the lists of political Lord Palmerston the honour and responsibility of concluding the war contention, ranging himself with the defenders of Protestantism and in a manner that the nation would approve,

the opponents of the king's devices. He gave great strength to the From that time till the moment at which we write (April 1857) popular cause; “I never knew," says Burnet, “any man have so Lord John's position in parliament has been that of an independent entire credit with the nation as he had. He quickly got out of some statesman — sometimes supporting and sometimes criticising Lord of the disorders into which the court had drawn him, and ever after Palmerston's policy, and in the mean time waiting; it is supposed, that his life was unblemished in all respects. He had from his first till events recall himself to power and enable him to initiate a education an inclination to favour the nonconformists, and wished the new era of Whiggism by another Reform Bill. He was one of that laws could have been made easier to them, or they more pliant to the miscellaneous majority who supported Mr. Cobden's motion, con law. He was a slow man and of little discourse ; but he had a true dewning Lord Palmerston's government, on account of the hostile judgment when he considered things at his own leisure. His underproceedings against Canton, and so occasioned the dissolution of standing was not defective, but his virtues were so eminent that they parliament in March 1857. Public feeling so thoroughly going along would have more than balanced real defects if any had been found in with Lord Palmerston on this “China question," it was supposed the other.” Lord Cavendish, Sir W. Coventry, Colonel Birch, Mr. Powle, that Lord John Russell would lose his seat for London, if he pre- and Mr. Littleton were the principal members of the party with which sented himself for re-election. Efforts were made to oust him; but he acted, and which, by proceeding at first with moderation, gained he was bold enough to go to the poll; and the recollection of his past so great an influence in the country, that the king suddenly prorogued services so far prevailed over temporary dissatisfaction with him that the parliament, and when it re assembled, found his opponents so he was returned third on the list. At the present moment (April strong that it was hopeless to attempt the continuance of the Dutch 1857) there is much speculation as to what may be his future Thus the alliance with France was dissolved, and the troops by career. That he may yet lead the country in great home questions is which Charles had wished to make himself absolute were dispersed; everywhere regarded as a likelihood; and it remains yet to be seen the Cabal ministry was broken up, and Buckingham and Shaftesbury whether Lord Palmerston's relations to him and his to Lord Palmer- were converted into popular leaders. The king's intrigues with France ston will be such in the new parliament that the country can have the were speedily renewed, and engagements entered into, for the perservices of both without the spectacle of their rivalry.

formance of which he was again to receive a stipulated sum of money. Lord John has been twice married -- first to Adelaide, eldest These intrigues were further opposed by Russell; the country party daughter of Thomas Lister, Esq. of Armytage Park, and widow of the recommended war with France, promoted the impeachment of the second Lord Ribblesdale ; and secondly, to Lady Frances, second king's minister and favourite Lord Danby, and voted the exclusion of daughter of the Earl of Minto. He has a family. Among his literary the Duke of York from the succession to the throne. These were appearances, besides those that have been mentioned, and besides violent measures, but they were justified by the condition of the numerous political letters, &c., are 'A Selection from the Corre-country, the king's baseness, and the fear of despotism and the re-estabspondence of John, fourth duke of Bedford, from the Originals at lishment of the Roman Catholic religion. The struggle augured a Woburn Abbey, with an Introduction,' 1842-3 ; 'Memorials and Cor: second civil war, and had Charles, like his successor, attacked the respondence of Charles James Fox,' edited, &c., 1853 et seq.; and church as directly as he did the constitution, an immediate civil war

Memoire, Journal and Correspondence of Thomas Moore,' edited &c. would have been the probable result; as it was, the foundation of a 1853 6. Lord John has also not unfrequently lectured at educational future revolution was laid. and other institutions : and some of these lectures have been pub. Some of the principal Whigs were accused of having conspired to lished--the latest being one on The Obstacles which have retarded take the king's life, to raise a rebellion in the country, and to establish Moral and Political Progress,' delivered in Exeter Hall before the the Duke of Monmouth, the king's illegitimate son, upon the throne. Young Men's Christian Association in 1856. He afterwards an- This was called the “Rye bouse Plot,' from the name of a farm near nounced his intention not to lecture in public any more. [See Hoddesdon, at which it was said that the conspirators agreed to SUPPLEMENT.]

meet, in order to attack and dispose of the king as he returned from RUSSELL, JOHN SCOTT. [See vol. vi., col. 1019.)

Newmarket races. There bad doubtless been many meetings of RUSSELL, LORD WILLIAM, was born in September 1639: his disaffected persons, in which Russell took part. The court ascribed ancestors were early possessed of landed property in Dorsetshire. We the king's safety to his return from Newmarket somewhat earlier than find John Russell in 1221 tbe constable of Corfe Castle, and his was expected, and prepared to take advantage of the opening which descendants subsequently filling honourable situations: one of them, now offered for the annihilation of their political adversaries. Russell, Sir John Russell, was Speaker of the House of Commons in the second Essex, Sidney, and a number of less important persons were immeand tenth year of Henry VI. A fortunate occurrence raised this diately committed to the Tower. Some were convicted and executed family to wealth and honour; in 1506 Philip, archduke of Austria, before Russell was brought to the bar. On the 13th of July 1683 he having been driven by a storm into the port of Weymouth, was took his trial at the Old Bailey for high treason. He was indicted hospitably entertained by Sir Thomas Trenchard, a neighbouring " for conspiring the death of the king, and consulting and agreeing to country gentleman; and Sir Thomas, knowing that the then head of stir up insurrection; and to that end to seize the guards for the the Russell family had travelled and was a good linguist, invited him preservation of the king's person.” A full account of the proceedings to meet his unexpected guest. During this visit Mr. Russell so pleased is given by Lord John Russell ('Life,' p. 184), and in Phillips's 'State the archduke that he recommended him to the king, by whom he was Trials. We believe that the extent of his error was having attended appointed one of the gentlemen of the Privy Chamber. “He after- a meeting where a general rising was spoken of, and where there was wards attended Henry VIII. in his expedition in France, and was some discourse of the feasibleness of seizing the king's guard. It was present at the taking of Therouende and Tournay. In 1522 he was not shown that he consented to either of these schemes, which were knighted by the Earl of Surrey for his services at the taking of Morlaix never matured or determined on. An illegal construction was put on in Bretagne, and was created Lord Russell in 1539.” The lands of the 25th of Edward III., the statute under which he was indicted. The the abbey at Tavistock and of the dissolved monastery at Woburn evidence against him was contradictory and insufficient; no one charge were afterwards conferred upon him, and he was made Earl of Bedford. in the indictment was proved: but in the nomination of the panel, the ("Life of Lord Russell,' by his descendant Lord John Russell, from sheriffs, who were creatures of the court, bad secured his conviction. whose work the principal part of this article is derived.) He died in He was found guilty and sentenced to death. 1555, and was succeeded by Francis, the second earl, who left po issue. From the time that the sentence was passed till the day of his exeThe title now passed to the only son of Sir William Russell, by name cution, he manifested great piety, and maintained a dignified calmness. Francis, who is known among other things for his drainage of the He was accompanied to the scaffold by Bishop Burnet and Dean Tillotfens of Lincolnshire by the Bedford level. He died in 1641, and was son. Burnet, who likewise attended him during his imprisonment, has succeeded by William Russell, who married Lady Anne Carr, daughter written an account of his latter days. He delivered to the sheriffa, at of the Countess of Somerset, known for her participation in Sir Thomas the time that he was beheaded in Lincoln's Ion Fields, on the 21st of Overbury's murder, and had issue, three daughters and seven gods, of July 1683, a paper containing an explanation and statement of his





conduct. Speaking of those who died for this plot, Fox says (Intro- Chronicle' as reporter, and in this capacity visited Ireland to investiductory Chapter to History of James II.'), “ that which is most cer- gate the consequences of the distress occasioned by the potato blight tain in this affair is, that they had committed no overt act indicating in 1846. In 1847 he returned to the “Times,' for which he reported the imagining the king's death, even according to the most strained the trials of Smith O'Brien and his associates at Clonmel, the construction of the statute of Edward III., much less was any such Kossuth demonstrations, the Queen's visits to Belgium and Ireland, act legally proved against them; and the conspiring to levy war was ships launches, and many other things for which his picturesque not treason, except by a recent statute of Charles II., the prosecutions and ready pen was adapted. On the sailing of the expedition upon which were expressly limited to a certain time, which in these to the Crimea, he was deputed by the Tines to accompany it in cases had elapsed ; so that it is impossible not to assent to the opinion order to report its proceedings, and he proceeded thither with the of those who have ever stigmatised the condemnation and execution first detachment. He soon distinguished himself by his intrepidity of Russell as a most flagrant violation of law and justice." The firm in taking up the most dangerous positions so as to enable him to see and noble conduct of Lady Russell, who attended her husband during and describe the military events; he was present at the battle of the his trial to take notes and give him assistance, deserves the greatest Alma; had more than one escape from shot, and more than a full share admiration. The bitterness of their parting is described in the most of the discomforts experienced by the troops, under which he more pathetic terms, and a lasting grief is shown in her subsequent corres- than once succumbed, and was dangerously ill. The most striking pondence. She died at Southampton House, in September 1723, at characteristics of his reports however were the quick-sightedness with the advanced age of eighty-six.

which he discerned all the defects of arrangement, and the dauntless We have not mentioned the charge made against Lord Russell, in honesty with which he exposed them. His letters excited so much common with Algernon Sidney, and any others of less repute, of attention that, contrary to the almost uniform custom of the Times,' having received bribes from the French government. That he did the name of the reporter became known, and was recognised in the receive money appears certain, unless the authority of Barillon can be paper. He returned to England, after visiting Moscow and describing overthrown, but that it was as a bribe to serve French interests we the coronation of the czar. His letters, with some modification, have believe to be quite untrue. The character of both Russell and Sidney been published under the titles of the War, from the Landing at is wholly at variance with such an act. As a politician, Russell Gallipoli to the Death of Lord Raglan,' 1855; and · The War, from appears uniformly disinterested; he was zealous and energetio, though the Death of Lord Raglan to the Peace at Paris, 1856,' in 2 post 8vo not conspicuous for ability, the high public estimation in wbich he was volumes; and he has since published The Expedition to the Crimea, held being founded upon his sense, his judgment, and bis integrity. with Maps and Plans,' issued in monthly parts. In 1856 he was The reader who wishes to inquire further into the subject must refer created LL.D. of Trinity College, Dublin. (See SUPPLEMENT.] to the more lengthened biographies and the authorities there referred RUTHERFORD, DANIEL, was born at Edinburgh in November to; he will do well also to look at Macaulay's 'History,' and especially 1749, and was educated at the university of his native city. In 1772 at the more calm and judicial investigation of Hallam in the second he took his degree of M.D., and it was in the thesis which he printed volume of his. Constitutional History.'

upon this occasion, entitled 'De Aere Mephitico,' that he announced Lord Russell's son was created Duke of Bedford ; one of his the discovery for which he is chiefly remembered, of the gas which has daughters was married to the Duke of Devonshire, and another to the since been called azote or nitrogen; for Rutherford merely indicated Duke of Rutland. An act for avnulling his attainder, which passed its existence as a peculiar air, and neither gave it any name nor in the first year of William and Mary, recites that "he was by undue explained its properties. The same discovery was also made about and illegal return of jurors, having been refused his lawful challenge the same time by Dr. Priestley, and was announced by him in his to the said jurors for want of freehold, and, by partial and unjust paper 'On the Different kinds of Air,' which obtained the Copley constructions of law, wrongfully convicted, attainted, and executed for medal, and was published in the Philosopbical Transactions' for 1772. high treason." After the executions which followed the Rye House Dr. Rutherford was admitted a Fellow of the Edinburgh College of Plot, the country party had little influence during the remainder of Physicians in 1777, and in 1786 he was appointed professor of botany Charles's reign.

in the university. He died on the 15th of November 1819. RUSSELL, WILLIAM, LL.D., the son of poor parents, was born RUTHERFORTH, THOMAS, D.D., was born in the parish of in the county of Selkirk in 1741, and educated, very imperfectly, in Papworth-Everard, Cambridgeshire, in the year 1712. Having taken the country and in Edinburgh. He served a regular apprenticeship his degree and obtained a fellowship in St. John's College, Cambridge, as a printer, and, while working as a journeyman in Edinburgh, edited he was appointed Regius Professor of Divinity in the university, and a collection of modern poetry, and executed a translation of a tragedy created D.D. He was afterwards elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, of Crébillon, which was submitted to Garrick, but rejected. In 1767 and obtained the preferments of the rectory of Barley in Hertfordhe went to London to seek his fortune, but for some time found shire, Shenfield in Essex, and the archdeaconry of Essex. He died in nothing better than a place as corrector of the press for Strachan the October 1771. printer. While so employed he contributed to periodicals, and pub- Besides single sermons and charges to the clergy, Dr. Rutherforth Iished unsuccessfully several poetical and other volumes, among which is the author of the following works:—Ordo Institutionum Physicarum, was a ‘History of America.' ' In 1779 appeared the first two volumes in privatis suis Lectionibus, sm. 4to, Camb., 1743; • Essay on the of the popular compilation by which he is now known, 'The History Nature and Obligations of Virtue,' 8vo, Lond., 1744; 'A System of of Modern Europe. The third, fourth, and fifth volumes

, bringing Natural Philosophy, being a Course of Lectures on Mechanics, Optics, down the narrative to 1763, were published in 1784. In 1787 he Hydrostatics, and Astronomy,' 2 vols. 4to, Camb., 1748; 'A Letter to married, and took up his residence on a farm in Dumfriesshire, where Dr. Middleton, in Defence of Bishop Sherlock on Prophecy,' 8vo, 1750; he spent the remainder of his life. In 1793 he published the first : A Discourse on Miracles,' 8vo, 1751; 'Institutes of Natural Law, two volumes of a History of Ancient Europe ;' and he had also being the substance of a Course of Lectures on Grotius De Jure Belli begun, in terms of an engagement with Mr. Cadell, to compose a His- et Pacis, read in St. John's College, Cambridge, 2 vols. 8vo, Lond., tory of England from the Accresion of George III. These unfinished 1754.56. A list of his sermuns, tracts, and charges is given in Watt's works however, as well as several tragedies and comedies, were stopped • Bibliotheca Britannica.' by his deatb, which took place on the 25th of December 1793.

RUTI'LIUS LUPUS, a Roman rhetorician, who was a contemporary *RUSSELL, WILLIAM HOWARD, who has earned celebrity of Quinctilian (Quinct., 'Inst. Orat.,' iii., 1, p. 150, Bipont), but of by his picturesque and vivid descriptions of the operations of the whose life we have no particulars. We possess a small treatise of his armies in the Crimea, was born in Dublin in 1821, and was educated on rhetoric, entitled 'De Figuris Sententiarum et Elocutionis,' which at Trinity College, Dublin. While here, in 1841, an uncle, who was we learn from Quinctilian (ix. 2, p. 152) was taken from a work of a engaged as a reporter on the Times' newspaper, proposed to him to contemporary of the name of Gorgias, in four books. The treatise of write an account of the Longford election : this he executed most Rutilius does not appear to have come down to us in the same state successfully. In the following year he came to London, in hopes of in wbich he wrote it. It is now divided into two books, whereas being engaged as a reporter; but failing at the time, he entered Quinctilian says that it was only in one. It is several times quoted by himself at Cambridge University, and supported himself by writing Quinctilian, and is still valuable for the quotations which it contains for various periodical works, among others for the ‘Sporting Magazine.' from writers now lost. After a short residence in Cambridge, he obtained the appointment The work of Rutilius was originally published by Roscius Ferraof mathematical master in Kensington grammar-school. In 1845 riensis, 8vo, Venet., 1519; and afterwards by Ruhnken, 8vo, Lug. Bat.g however, when the monster-meetings for the repeal of the Union were 1768, the latter of which was republished by Frotscher, 8vo, Lips., taking place in Ireland, he was applied to bý the managers of the 1831. There is also an edition by F. Jacob, 8vo, Lub., 1837, 'Times' to attend and to write the descriptive portions of them, the RUTI’LIUS, NUMATIA'NUS, CLAUDIUS, a Roman poet at the speeches being reported by others; and he did this with a vividness, beginning of the 5th century of the Christian era, was a native of an energy, an accuracy, and a fearless honesty, that won him great Gaul, and held at Rome the high offices of magister officiorum or applause. When the trial of O'Connell took place in Dublin, Mr. Russell palatii, and præfectus urbi. Having occasion to return to his native was sent as reporter; and brought over the verdict, given at twelve country, he gave an account of his voyage, in a poem entitled Itine o'clook on Saturday night, so as to publish it in the Times' on Monday rarium, written in elegiac verse, and consisting of two books, of which morning. When the Daily News' was started in 1845, he was led the greater part of the latter is lost. Rutilius made the voyage in a to expect an engagement upon it offering him superior pocupiary small vessel, which put into shore during the night and sailed again advantages, and he resigned his connection with the Times, but as in the morning. He describes with much beauty, and in the genuine this expectatiou was disappointed be entered himself at the Temple, spirit of poetry, the towns, ruins, and various objects of nature and and almost immediately made an arrangement with the Morning art which he saw, and deeply laments the ravages which had been





committed by the barbarians of the north. Rutilius was a pagan, and In 1652 he was employed in the war against England, and while in his voyage gives an account of the monks who lived at Capraria, accompanying a large convoy of merchantmen he met the English fleet and in other parts of his poem makes allusion to the state of Christianity off Plymouth. The combat was not decisive, but Ruyter succeeded in at that time.

saving his convoy. Iu 1653 he commanded a division under Van The poem of Rutilius was first printed in 1520, 4to, Bonon. The Tromp, and was beaten by Blake, but he had afterwards an advantage best edition is by Zumpt, Berlin, 1840. Other useful editions are by over the English near the Goodwin Sands. In 1655 he was sent to Damm, Brandenb., 8vo, 1760; by Kappius, 8vo, Erlang., 1786; and the Mediterranean to chastise the pirates of Algiers and Tunis. In by Gruber, 8vo, Norimb., 1804.

1659, being sent by the States-General to the assistance of Denmark RUYSCH, FREDERIC, a celebrated anatomist, was born at the against Sweden, he defeated the Swedish fleet, as a reward for which Hague, in 1638. His father was secretary of the States-General of the king of Denmark gave him a title of nobility with a pension. In Holland. He studied medicine at Leyden, took his doctor's degree in 1665 he fought against Prince Rupert of England with no decisive 1664, and then returned to practise at the Hague. In 1665 he pub- result, and in July of the following year he was beaten by the English, lished his first work on the valves of the lymphatic vessels, and in the In June 1667 be entered the Thames as far as the Medway, and following year he was appointed to the professorship of anatomy at destroyed the shipping at Sheerness. In 1671, war having broken out Amsterdam. From this time he devoted himself entirely to the between France and Holland, Ruyter had the command of the Dutch study of anatomy, or rather to the formation of an anatomical museum, fleet which was to oppose the French and the English: he fought for he seems to have regarded the science of anatomy as a pursuit far several battles in the Channel and the German Ocean without any inferior to the art of preparation-making. In this art he was unequalled important result. In 1675 he was sent to the Mediterranean, and by any of his contemporaries, and the accounts given by those who fought a desperate battle with the French admiral Duquesne, off the saw his museum, of the perfect state in which the bodies of children eastern oast of Sicily, in which his fleet was worste and Ruyter had and animals were preserved, with all the apparent freshness and bloom both bis legs shattered. He effected a retreat into the port of Syraof life, if they could be entirely credited, would be sufficient evidence cuse, where he died of bis wounds in April 1676. A splendid monuthat he has not yet had a rival in the preservation of bodies. In the ment was raised to him at Amsterdam, and G. Brandt wrote his Life, art of dissecting and of injecting the blood-vessels however, in which which was translated into French, folio, Amsterdam, 1690. Even Ruysch was supposed to be equally eminent, he has long been far sur- Louis XIV. expressed sorrow on hearing of his death, saying that “he passed; and it is probable that his best preparations of this kind were could not belp regretting the loss of a great man, although an enemy." not superior to those wbich are ordinarily made at the present day. RYCAUT, or RICAŬT, SIR PAUL, was the tenth son of Sir

Ey unceasing labour Ruysch collected å most extensive museum of Peter Rycaut, a merchant of London. The date of his birth is apatomical preparations of all kinds, for which, in 1698, Peter of unknown, but he took his bachelor's degree in 1650 at Cambridge. In Russia gave him 30,000 forins. It was then conveyed to Petersburg, 1661 he attended the Earl of Winchelsea as secretary, when that where, it is said, the greater part has since decayed, and become use- nobleman went out as ambassador extraordinary to Constantinople. less. After selling his first museum, Ruysch commenced with unabated During that embassy, which lasted eight years, he made himself ardour to collect a second, a part of which, at his death in 1731, was acquainted with the manners, customs, and religion of the Turks, and sold to the king of Poland for 20,000 floring.

published the Capitulations, Articles of Peace, &c., concluded between Ruysch's verits as an anatomist have been greatly overrated. In England and the Porte in 1663,' and also. The Present State of the all his works, which make up five large quarto volumes, there is no Ottoman Empire, in Three Books, containing the Maxims of the evidence that he was more than a plodding anatomical artist. Though Turkish Politie, their Religion, and Military Discipline, illustrated he claimed inany discoveries, those that really belong to him are few and with Figures,' folio, London, 1668, 1670. He was afterwards appointed not important; and in proportion to the labour expended in the pursuit consul at Smyrna, which situation he held during eleven years, and of anatomy, few have contributed less to its progress as a science, for exerted himself diligently in extending the commerce of England with he did not even publish the modes of making his preparations.

the Levant. RUYSDAEL, or RUYSDAAL, JACOB, a landscape-painter, was On his return to England, Rycaut employed himself chiefly in born, at Haarlem, about 1625. He was brought up to surgery, literary occupations. He published “The Present State of the Greek which he practised for a short time, but he appears to have painted and Armenian Churches, Anno Christi 1678,' folio, London, 1680, and at an early age, and eventually he adopted painting as his profession. a History of the Turkish Empire from 1623 to 1677,' folio, London, He most probably received the first instruction in his art from his 1680, which is a continuation of Knollys’s History of the Turks. elder brother Solomon, who was also a good landscape-painter, but and contains much information concerning the political resources of his reputation has been lost, or rather obscured, by the superior name the Turkish empire and the manners of the Turks. It has been transof bis brother. Solomon was born also in Haarlem, in 1616, and died lated into almost all the languages of modern Europe, and has been there in 1670; he was the scholar of Schoeft and Van Goyen. He several times reprinted. distinguished himself by the invention of an admirable composition in In 1685 the Earl of Clarendon, then Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, imitation of variegated marbles.

appointed Rycaut secretary of the provinces of Leioster and ConJacob Ruysdael became the friend of Nicolas Berghem, and, as bas naught, and James II. created him a privy councillor of Ireland, a been reported, his scholar; but this, if we may judge from the extreme judge of the Court of Admiralty, and a knight. The revolution of dissimilarity of their styles, is highly improbable. Ruysdael was a 1688 deprived him of all his employments, but in 1690 he was appointed simple but accurate imitator of nature, and his taste inclined him resident to the Hanse Towns. He then went to reside on the Contitowards the wild and the secluded. He displayed an exquisite judg. nent, and remained there till 1700, when he returned to England for ment in the selection of bis subjects, and for the power and at the the benefit of his health, and died on the 16th of December in the same time the truth of his imitations he has scarcely been equalled. same year. Woods and waterfalls are the prevailing subjects of his landscapes, Rycaut was a member of the Royal Society of London, and, in and he rarely painted a scene without introducing either a cascade or addition to his high character as a diplomatist, was celebrated for his a rivulet. He occasionally also painted marine pieces.

knowledge of the learned languages and of the modern Greek, the Rysdael's works, independent of their powerful effect and masterly Turkish, Italian, Spanish, and French. Besides the works already imitation, are distinguished from those of other masters by the pecu- mentioned, Rycaut published a ‘History of the Turks from the year liarity that the foregrounds generally constitute the pictures, the 1675 to 1679,' folio, London, 1700; an English translation of Garcilasso distances being introduced simply as accessories to complete the view, de la Vega's Royal Commentaries of Peru,' folio, London, 1688; an and he may be said perhaps never to bave produced a mere scenic English translation of Platina's ' History of the Popes,' folio, London, effect. His colouring, though warm, as his foliage, is that of a northern 1685; and an English translation of 'El Criticon' of Baltasar Gracian, climate, and it is improbable that he ever visited Italy; he was fond folio, London, 1681. of rather cold and cloudy skies with sudden and powerful masses of RYLAND, WILLIAM WYNNE, one of the best English engravers light and shade. Ruysdael never painted figures ; those which are of the 18th century, was born in London in 1732. He was appren. introduced into his compositions were painted by Ostade, Wouverticed to S. F. Ravenet, a French engraver, who was settled in England. mands, a Vandevelde, or Berghem.

After the completion of his term of apprenticeship he went to Paris, His works are held in the highest estimation by collectors of old and studied there chiefly under Le Bas for five years. He did not paintings. There are fine specimens of them in most of the principal confine himself however to engraving, but applied himself also much collections of Europe, and three in our National Gallery. The to drawing, under Boucher, a painter of eminence, and after whom he • Stag-Hunt,' in the Royal Gallery of Dresden, the figures of which are engraved, besides some others, an excellent plate of Jupiter and by Vandevelde, is generally reputed to be his masterpiece; but there Leda; he also etched some plates after Oudry while at Paris, illusis a large woody landscape in the Doria Gallery at Rome, of sur trating the fables of Fontaine, prising power and beauty, which is certainly unsurpassed by any Soon after his return to England Ryland was appointed engraver to production of its class. Ruysdael also etched a few plates in a very | George III., with a pension of 2001. per annum. He engraved two bold and effective style, but impressions from them are very scarce. portraits of George Ill. after Ramsay, and one of Queen Charlotte He died at Haarlem in 1681, in the fifty-sixth year of his age.

holding the Princess Royal on her lap after Cotes. “It is greatly to RUYTER, MICHAEL, was born at Flessingen in 1607, went to sea be lamented,” says Strutt, in his Dictionary of Engravers, "that at eleven years of age as a cabin-boy, and rose successively until he Ryland's engagements in the mercantile line as a printseller, deprived became a warrant-officer, and in 1635 was made captain. He served him of so considerable and so precious a part of his time, and prefor several years in the East Indies, and in 1645 was appointed rear vented his pursuing the arts with that alacrity the strength of his admiral. In 1647 he attacked and sunk off Sallee an Algerine squadron. genius required, which seemed formed for great and extensive exer. RYLAND, WILLIAM WYNNE.



tions. The works which he has left behind him abundantly prove life ever possessed more amiable qualities than he did.

He was & that he had sufficient knowledge and judgment to have carried them tender husband, a kind father, and a sincere friend. He frequently to great perfection." These last words refer to the sad event which straitened his own circumstances to alleviate the sorrows of others; abruptly put an end to Ryland's labours and life at once, but which for his heart was always open to receive the solicitations of distress.”' Strutt, who must have known Ryland well, does not more particularly Ryland introduced chalk-engraving (lines composed of dots) into allude to. He was executed for forgery in the prime of life, August England, and in the latter years of his life devoted himself exclusively 29, 1783.

to engraving in this style, in which he had no equal, but chiefly, except Strutt, whose work was published only two years after Ryland's a few drawings by the old masters, after the works of Angelica Kauff

. execution, seems to have abstained, from delicacy probably towards mann, a circumstance which is to be regretted, as the works of that his widow, from a more particular notice of the disgraceful termipa- lady have little to recommend them to the lovers of art. Ryland tion to his brother engraver's otherwise successful career. As this engraved twenty-four prints after Angelica, and one of these, Edgar case is not known and as Ryland persisted in his innocence to the last, and Elfrida,' a large plate, which was finished by Sharp for the benefit it may be here briefly related as the facts appeared on the trial :- of Mrs. Ryland, is one of his principal works. King John ratifying Ryland appears to have been a discounter of bills, and that he was the Magna Charta,' a large plate after Mortimer, and in a similar style, otherwise commercially engaged as a printseller, has been already was generally bought as a companion to it. Ryland left this plate noticed. He had once failed in this business, but he afterwards also unfinished, and it was completed by Bartolozzi, likewise for the honourably repaid all bis creditors in full, though not bound to do so benefit of his widow. It is his best plate in this style; but the best by law. În the spring of 1783 the agents and servants of the East of these chalk engravings have a very inferior effect to etchings, or line India Company in London appear to have detected several forgeries and mezzotinto engravings; the style was, however, like the insipid of their bills, and suspicion attached to nd, apparently in more drawings of Cipriani, much in vogue in the time of Ryland and than one case. He received however intimation of his approaching Bartolozzi. arrest, and by the advice of his wife concealed himself, whereupon the As an etcher, or where the needle and graver are combined, Ryland East India Company immediately offered a reward for his detection. was also excellent. The prints which he engraved in France were He had concealed himself in the house of a shoemaker at Stepney, executed in this style, and Watelet terins his execution in this style under the name of Jackson : having however given the man some most picturesque, and adds that one would suppose his etchings to be shoes to mend, the shoemaker discovered the real name of his lodger, the work of a painter. The chalk manner is exactly in its place in and gave notice to the police. When Ryland found that he was imitations of chalk drawings, of which there are no better examples discovered, in a fit of despair he attempted to cut his throat : the than Ryland's own in the fine Collection of Drawings published by attempt failed, but he seriously injured himself. A true bill was Charles Rogers, as the two of St. Francis, after Carlo Maratti and found against him by the grand jury, June 5, and he was tried at the Guercino, and many others. This work is entitled ' A Collection of Old Bailey July 26, before Judge Buller. The specific charge against Prints in imitation of Drawings; to which are annexed Lives of their him was for forging and uttering koowing to be forged a bill of 2101. Authors, with explanatory and critical Notes, by Charles Rogers,' &c., on the East India Company. The case for the prosecution was this : 1 2 vols. folio, London, 1778 ; containing in all 116 prints, some of conRyland had uttered or negociated two bills on the East India Company siderable size, of which 57 are by Ryland, besides the admirable mezzofor 2101. and of the same date, the original bill in May 1782, and the tinto portrait of Mr. Rogers at the commencement of the work. forged bill in November of the same year. The two bills were so much RYMER, THOMAS, the learned editor of the great collection of alike that none could swear which was the true bill, except by two small documents relating to the transactions of England with foreign powers, holes through which a needle and thread bad passed ; and, what was of popularly known as 'Rymer's Fædera,' was one of the many sons of chief importance, the paper-maker gave evidence to the paper of the Ralph Rymer, of the neighbourhood of Northallerton, who had renother bill being made after the date of the bill. The first bill bad been dered himself obnoxious to the Royalists in the Commonwealth times fairly negociated, but the party from whom Ryland asserted that he in his office of Sequestrator, and becoming implicated in the northern bad received the second, a Mr. Hagglestone, was nowhere to be found. insurrection of 1663, was thereupon executed. Thomas was born in These facts and the circumstances of his flight and attempted suicide 1638 or 1639, and educated under an excellent schoolmaster at the were urged against him by the counsel for the prosecution. Ryland grammar-school of Northallerton, where be was a class-fellow with made his own defence, but owing to the soreness of his throat from the learned Dr. George Hickes. He was removed to Sidney College, his recent attempt, it was written, and read by the clerk of the court : Cambridge, and was entered of Gray’s-inn in 1666. the following were its concluding words, as reported in the Morning He does not appear to have attained any eminence in the law. He Herald ' of July 28:—"The prosecution has endeavoured to substan- rather devoted himself to polite literature, till he was named the tiate my guilt by my flight; but let them figure to themselves the historiographer royal, and appointed editor of the 'Fædera.' His first fears, the dread, the horrors, of an honest mind, pursued by officers of publication is a play, published in 1677, entitled 'Edgar, or the English justice, to take my life, if I could not prove my innocence; let them Monarch.' This was followed in the next year by his letter to reflect on the tears, the entreaties and prayers of a fond, loving, and Fleetwood Shepherd, 'The Tragedies of the Last Age considered and beloved wife, and then conclude my guilt from my flight. They have examined by the Practice of the Ancients and by the Common Sense also presumed to drag into evidence my attempt on my own life. I of all Ages. In 1683 appeared bis translation of the Life of Nicias, confess the attempt with shame, horror, and remorse; driven into a by Plutarch, which is found in the collection of the 'Lives translated state of insanity, how then will they, how can they, torture insanity into English by several Hands.' In 1684 he published a tract on the into a proof of my guilt! Two bills, one a good one, one a bad one, antiquity, power, and decay of Parliament, which was reprinted in have been attempted to be proved in my possession; supposing that 1714, on occasion of the expulsion of Richard Steele, Esq., the member to be true, can any man say either is the forged one? Mr. Holt, for Stockbridge. In 1693 he published 'A short View of Tragedy; from his infirmity, may easily make a mistake; and where then is any its Original Excellency and Corruption : with some Reflections on forgery? I cannot think that the court and jury will sacrifice my Shakspere and other practitioners for the Stage.' This is the work in life to presumption, and, where there is a possibility of innocence, which he attacks some of Shakspere's tragedies in a manner ludicrously take it away on groundless suspicions." He was found guilty of absurd. · In 1694 appeared his translation of M. Rapin's Reflections uttering the bill knowing it to be forged.

on Aristotle's Treatise of Poesie.' There are other minor tracts by him, After the verdict was pronounced, which he bore with the greatest among which is probably to be reckoned the 'Life of Thomas Hobbes, calmness, he merely observed—“I dare not challenge the justness of printed 'apud Eleutherium Anglicum sub signo Veritatis, 1681.' my verdict: I am however conscious of my innocence; and I hope On December 23, 1692, he was made historiographer royal, a post that my life will be preserved by the royal clemency of my sovereign, which had been held by Shadwell and Dryden. The salary was 2001. on whose bounty it has long subsisted.” He heard his sentence pro- | per annum.

There was at that time a scheme for publishing a corpus nounced without being moved, and retired from the court as if uncon- of the documents which remain connected with the transactions cerned in the proceedings. He was executed at Tyburn on the 29th between England and other states. It was intended that it should be of August, about twelve o'clock, in company with five other convicts, a large and comprehensive work, honourable to the English nation, four of whom were executed for highway robbery and burglary, the and useful to the historical inquirers, not only of England but of ali fifth for forgery. The execution was delayed some time by a violent other countries. The patrons of this magnificent design were Montagu, thunder-storm. A white handkerchief was bandaged round the cap of who was afterwards Earl of Halifax, and Lord Somers. The execution Ryland. The curiosity of the public was so great to witness the execu- of it was committed to Rymer. His duties were twofold : first, to tion of this unfortunate man, that as much as ten guineas were paid collect the instruments themselves, which were to be found chiefly in for a single room which commanded a view of the barbarous and dis- the chronicles and in the depositaries of public records, particularly gusting exhibition : so great a concourse of people had not met for a the Tower of London and the Chapter-House at Westminster; secondly, similar purpose since the execution of Dr. Dodd six years previously. to print accurate copies of them. The first volume appeared in 1703,

Character and probability were much in favour of Ryland's inno- and it was followed by others in quick succession, the later volumes cence, though circumstantial evidence was against him. He was being carried through the press by Sanderson, who had assisted Rymer wealthy, according to his own account. Besides the salary of 2001. per almost from the beginning. annum as opgraver to the king, he exercised a very lucrative pro- The work did not disappoint the expectations of the public. It fession, possessed a great stock in trade, and had a large property in entirely changed the face of the bistories of our own country, as may the Liverpool water-works; and many witnesses bore testimony to his be seen by Rapin's History, and it was hailed with great satisfaction high character. Strutt says of him-" He was a man respected and by all the historical writers of Europe. Large as the work was, there beloved by all that were acquainted with him ; for few men in private have been three editions of it. A fourth was undertaken by the

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